Skip to content
Related Articles
Open in App
Not now

Related Articles

CBSE Class 12 Syllabus

Improve Article
Save Article
Like Article
  • Last Updated : 29 Mar, 2023
Improve Article
Save Article
Like Article

CBSE Class 12 Syllabus for the 2023-24 academic year has been released by the Central Board of Secondary Education. CBSE Class 12 syllabus includes a few modifications in certain subjects, keeping in mind the changes in the modern educational context and the latest developments in various fields. Students are advised to review the syllabus carefully to have a clear understanding of every subject and prepare accordingly for their board exams. This Class 12 syllabus comprises major core subjects such as Mathematics, Science, Social Science, Languages, and Skill-Based Subjects along with other topics which makes students well-equipped to pursue higher studies and excel further in their future careers.

CBSE Class 12 Syllabus

Class 12 English (Core) Course Structure 2022-23

Students are expected to have a sufficient level of language ability in English by the time they enter class XII, and the course primarily focuses on developing higher-order language abilities.
For many students, the higher secondary stage will serve as a preparation for university, where a high level of English proficiency may be necessary. For another majority of cases, however, the higher secondary level may serve as a preparation for professional admission. The Core Course should cater to both groups by promoting academic language skills as well as workplace language skills. 

CBSE Class 11 English Core Detailed Syllabus

Section A

Reading Comprehension through Unseen Passage (18 Marks)

  1. One unseen passage to assess comprehension, interpretation inference, and vocabulary. The passage may be factual, descriptive, or literary.
  2. One unseen case-based passage with verbal/visual inputs like statistical data, charts, etc.

Note: The combined word limit for both passages will be 600-750.

Multiple Choice Questions / Objective Type Questions will be asked. (10+8 = 18 Marks)

  1. Note Making and Summarization based on a passage of approximately 200-250 words.
    1. Note Making:
      • Title: 1
      • Numbering and indenting: 1
      • Key/glossary: 1
      • Notes: 2
    2. Summary (up to 50 words): 3 Marks
      • Content
      • Expression

Section B

  • Grammar 
    1. Questions on Gap filling (Tenses, Clauses)
    2. Questions on re-ordering/transformation of sentences
      (Total seven questions to be done out of the eight given).
  • Creative Writing Skills 
    1. Short writing task – Classified Advertisements up to 50 words. One out of the two given questions to be answered (3 Marks: Format: 1 / Content: 1 / Expression: 1)
    2. Short writing task –Poster up to 50 words. One out of the two given questions to be answered.(3marks: Format: 1 / Content: 1 / Expression: 1)
    3. Writing a Speech in 120-150 words based on verbal/visual cues related to some contemporary / age-appropriate topic.
    4. Writing a Debate based on visual/verbal inputs in 120-150 words. The theme should be contemporary topical issues. One out of the two given questions to be answered. (5 Marks: Format: 1 / Content: 2 / Expression: 2)

Section C

This section will have variety of assessment items including Multiple Choice Questions, Objective Type Questions, Short Answer Type Questions and Long Answer Type Questions to assess comprehension, analysis, interpretation and extrapolation beyond the text.

  1. Reference to the Context
    1. One Poetry extract out of two from the book Hornbill to assess comprehension, interpretation, analysis and appreciation. (3××1=3 Marks)
    2. One Prose extract out of two from the book Hornbill to assess comprehension, interpretation, analysis and appreciation. (3××1=3 Marks)
    3. One prose extract out of two from the book Snapshots to assess comprehension, interpretation and analysis. (4××1=4 Marks)
  2. Two Short answer type question (one from Prose and one from Poetry from the book Hornbill), out of four, to be answered in 40-50 words. Questions should elicit inferential responses through critical thinking. (3××2=6 Marks)
  3. One Short answer type question, from the book Snapshots, to be answered In 40- 50 words. Questions should elicit inferential responses through critical thinking. Any 1 out of 2 questions to be done. (3××1=3 Marks)
  4. One Long answer type question, from Prose/Poetry Hornbill, to be answered in 120-150 words. Questions can be based on incident / theme / passage / extract / event as reference points to assess extrapolation beyond and across the text. The question will elicit analytical and evaluative response from student. Any 1 out of 2 questions to be done. (1××6=6 Marks)
  5. One Long answer type question, based on the chapters from the book Snapshots to be answered in 120-150 words to assess global comprehension and extrapolation beyond the text. Questions to provide evaluative and analytical responses using incidents, events, themes as reference points. Any 1 out of 2 questions to be done. (1××6=6 Marks)

Class 12 Maths Course Structure 2021-2022

Class 12 Maths curriculum is the foundation course for various competitive exams like JEE, NEET, Olympiads, etc. Therefore, GeeksforGeeks presented all the concepts covered in various numbers of the article that covers the whole syllabus of CBSE class 12 Maths in detail, along with every chapter categorized into relevant topics prescribed by the CBSE board and as per the syllabus given in NCERT Class 12 Maths textbooks.

CBSE Class 12 Maths Detailed Syllabus

Chapter 1: Relations and Functions 

Chapter 2: Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Chapter 3: Matrices 

Chapter 4: Determinants 

Chapter 5: Continuity and Differentiability 

Chapter 7: Application of Derivatives 

Chapter 7: Integrals

Chapter 8: Application of Integrals

Chapter 9: Differential Equations

Chapter 10: Vector Algebra

Chapter 11: Three Dimensional Geometry

Chapter 12: Linear Programming

Chapter 13: Probability

Class 12 Physics Course Structure 2021-2022

The Physics Syllabus has changed over time to reflect the evolution of the subject and the changing needs of society. Senior Secondary is a stepping stone for students who want to pursue higher education in Physics or pursue professional courses such as Engineering, Physical and Biological Science, Commerce, or Computer Applications. 

The current revised syllabus was created in accordance with the National Curriculum Framework 2005 and the guidelines provided by the Focus Group on Teaching of Physics in 2005, with the goal of meeting the evolving needs of all student groups. Greater emphasis has been placed on the application of various concepts, which has been motivated by real-life situations and other subject areas.

CBSE Class 12 Physics Detailed Syllabus

Chapter 1: Electric Charges and Fields

Chapter 2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Chapter 3: Current Electricity

 Chapter 4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

Chapter 5: Magnetism and Matter

Chapter 6: Electromagnetic Induction

Chapter 7: Alternating Current

Chapter 8: Electromagnetic Waves

Chapter 9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Chapter 10 Wave Optics

Chapter 11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Chapter 12: Atoms

Chapter 13: Nuclei

Chapter 14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

Class 12 Chemistry Course Structure 2021-2022

The Chemistry Syllabus has changed over time to reflect the evolution of the subject and the changing needs of society. Senior Secondary is a stepping stone for students who want to pursue higher education in Chemistry or pursue professional courses such as Engineering, Physical and Biological Science, Commerce, or Computer Applications. The current revised syllabus was created in accordance with the National Curriculum Framework 2005 and the guidelines provided by the Focus Group on Teaching of Chemistry in 2005, with the goal of meeting the evolving needs of all student groups. Greater emphasis has been placed on the application of various concepts, which has been motivated by real-life situations and other subject areas.

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Detailed Syllabus

Unit 1: The Solid State 

Unit 2: Solutions 

Unit 3: Electrochemistry

Unit 4: Chemical Kinetics

Unit 5: Surface Chemistry 

Unit 6: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements 

Unit 7: The p-Block Elements 

Unit 8: d- and f-Block Elements

Unit 9: Coordination Compounds 

Unit 10: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Unit 11: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Unit 12: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 

Unit 13: Amines

Unit 14: Biomolecules

Unit 15: Polymers

Unit 16: Chemistry in Everyday Life

Class 12 Biology Course Structure 2021-2022

The Biology Syllabus has changed over time to reflect the evolution of the subject and the changing needs of society. Senior Secondary is a stepping stone for students who want to pursue higher education in Biology or pursue professional courses such as Engineering, Physical and Biological Science, Commerce, or Computer Applications. The current revised syllabus was created in accordance with the National Curriculum Framework 2005 and the guidelines provided by the Focus Group on Teaching of Biology in 2005, with the goal of meeting the evolving needs of all student groups. Greater emphasis has been placed on the application of various concepts, which has been motivated by real-life situations and other subject areas.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Detailed Syllabus

Unit I Reproduction

  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Human Reproduction
  • Reproductive Health

Unit II Genetics and Evolution

  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Evolution

Unit III Biology in human welfare

  • Human Health and Disease
  • Strategies for Enhancement in 165 Food Production
  • Microbes in Human Welfare

Unit IV Biotechnology

  • Biotechnology: Principles and Processes
  • Biotechnology and its Applications

Unit V Ecology

  • Organisms and Populations
  • Ecosystem
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Environmental Issues

Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms

  • Asexual Reproduction
  • Sexual Reproduction
  • Pre-fertilisation Events
  • Post-fertilisation Events
  • Embryogenesis

Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Animals

Chapter 3: Human Reproduction

Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Chapter 7: Evolution

Chapter 8: Human Health and Disease

Chapter 9: Strategies For Enhancement in Food Production

Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare

  • Microbes In Household Products
  • Microbes In Industrial Products
  • Microbes In Sewage Treatment
  • Microbes In the Production Of Biogas
  • Microbes As Biocontrol Agents
  • Microbes As Biofertilisers

Chapter 11: Biotechnology: Principles and Process

  • Restriction Enzymes
  • Cloning Vectors
  • Competent Host (for Transformation With Recombinant DNA)
  • Processes Of Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Insertion Of Recombinant DNA

Chapter 12: Biotechnology and Its Application

  • Biotechnological Applications In Agriculture
  • Genetically Engineered Insulin
  • Gene Therapy
  • Molecular Diagnosis
  • Transgenic Animals
  • Ethical Issues

Chapter 12: Organisms and Populations

  • Organism And Its Environment
  • Major Abiotic Factors
  • Responses To Abiotic Factors
  • Adaptations
  • Population Attributes
  • Population Growth
  • Life History Variation
  • Population Interactions
  • Predation
  • Competition
  • Parasitism
  • Commensalism
  • Mutualism

Chapter 13: Ecosystem

Chapter 14: Biodiversity and Its Conservation

Chapter 15: Environmental Issues

Evaluation SchemeMarks
One Major Experiment 55
One Minor Experiment 2 & 34
Slide Preparation 1, & 45
Practical Record + Viva Voce(Credit to the student’s work over the academic session may be given)4
Investigatory Project and its
Project Record + Viva Voce

A. List of Experiments 60 Periods

  1. Prepare a temporary mount to observe pollen germination.
  2. Study the plant population density by quadrat method.
  3. Study the plant population frequency by quadrat method.
  4. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
  5. Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc.

B. Careful observation of the following (Spotting)

  1. Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds).
  2. Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide or scanning electron micrograph.
  3. Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper/mice).
  4. Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.
  5. T.S. of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian).
  6. Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/sizes of any plant.
  7. Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow’s peak and colourblindness.
  8. Controlled pollination – emasculation, tagging and bagging.
  9. Common disease-causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, any fungus causing ringworm through permanent slides, models or virtual images. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.
  10. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in xeric conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
  11. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.

Class 12 Accountancy Course Structure 2022-23

Accountancy is a practice through which business transactions are recorded, classified, and reported for the proper and successful running of an organization. The detailed syllabus of Accountancy class 12 covers every important topic like Accounting for Non-for-Profit Organisations, Partnership, Admission of a Partner, Retirement of a Partner, Issue of Shares, Issue of Debentures, Financial Statements of a Company, Cash Flow Statement, Computerised Accounting of a Company and so on.

CBSE Class 12 Accountancy Detailed Syllabus


Chapter 1: Accounting for Non-for-Profit Organization

Chapter 2: Accounting for Partnership: Basic Concepts

Chapter 3: Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm: Change in Profit Sharing Ratio

Chapter 4: Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm: Admission of a Partner

  • Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm: Admission of a Partner 
  • Computation of New Profit Sharing Ratio: Admission of a Partner
  • Computation of Sacrificing Ratio: Admission of a Partner
  • Accounting Treatment of Goodwill: Admission of a Partner
  • Hidden Goodwill: Admission of a Partner
  • Accounting Treatment of Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities: Admission of a Partner  
  • Accounting Treatment of Accumulated Profits and Reserves: Admission of a Partner  
  • Accounting Treatment of Workmen Compensation Reserve: Admission of a Partner
  • Accounting Treatment of Investment Fluctuation Fund: Admission of a Partner
  • Accounting Treatment of Partner’s Capital Account: Admission of a Partner (Fixed Capital)
  • Accounting Treatment of Partner’s Capital Account: Admission of a Partner (Fluctuating Capital)
  • Preparation of Revaluation Account, Capital Account and Balance Sheet 
  • Adjustment of Partner’s Capital Account: Admission of a Partner

Chapter 5: Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm: Retirement or Death of a Partner

  • Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm: Retirement of a Partner 
  • Computation of New Profit Sharing Ratio: Retirement of a Partner
  • Computation of Gaining Ratio: Retirement of a Partner
  • Difference between Sacrificing Ratio and Gaining Ratio 
  • Accounting Treatment of Goodwill: Retirement of a Partner
  • Hidden Goodwill: Retirement of a Partner
  • Accounting Treatment of Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities: Retirement of a Partner 
  • Accounting Treatment of Accumulated Profits and Reserves: Retirement of a Partner 
  • Accounting Treatment of Workmen Compensation Reserve: Retirement of a Partner 
  • Accounting Treatment of Investment Fluctuation Fund: Retirement of a Partner 
  • Accounting Treatment of Partner’s Capital Account: Retirement of a Partner (Fixed Capital)
  • Accounting Treatment of Partner’s Capital Account: Retirement of a Partner (Fluctuating Capital)
  • Settlement of Amount due to a Retiring Partner: Full Amount Paid
  • Settlement of Amount due to a Retiring Partner: Amount Paid in Installment
  • Settlement of Amount due to a Retiring Partner: Transferred to Loan Account
  • Adjustment of Capital Account: Retirement of a Partner
  • Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm: Death of a Partner
  • Calculation of Share of Profit up to the Date of Death 
  • Adjustment of Interest on Deceased Partner’s Capital, Deceased Partner’s Share in Goodwill and Accumulated Profits and Reserves
  • Accounting Treatment of Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities: Death of a Partner 
  • Accounting Treatment of Accumulated Profits and Reserves: Death of a Partner 
  • Accounting Treatment of Workmen Compensation Reserve: Death of a Partner 
  • Accounting Treatment of Investment Fluctuation Fund: Death of a Partner 
  • Accounting Treatment of Partner’s Capital Account: Death of a Partner (Fixed Capital)
  • Accounting Treatment of Partner’s Capital Account: Death of a Partner (Fluctuating Capital)
  • Accounting Treatment of Amount Due to Deceased Partner
  • Accounting Treatment of Joint Life Policy: Death of a Partner
  • Accounting Treatment of Individual Life Policy: Death of a Partner

Chapter 6: Dissolution of Partnership Firm

  • Dissolution of a Partnership Firm: Introduction 
  • Difference between Dissolution of Firm and Dissolution of Partnership 
  • Difference between Firm’s Debt and Private Debt 
  • Dissolution of Partnership: Realisation Account
  • Difference between Realisation Account and Revaluation Account
  • Dissolution of Firm: Accumulated Profits, Reserves and Losses
  • Dissolution of Firm: Partner’s Capital Account
  • Dissolution of Firm: Cash or Bank Account
  • Dissolution of Firm: Example
  • Dissolution of Firm: Accounting Treatment of Goodwill
  • Dissolution of Firm: Accounting Treatment of Joint Life Policy
  • Dissolution of Firm: Accounting Treatment of Contingent Assets and Contingent Liabilities
  • Dissolution of Firm: Rebate on Bills Payable/Creditors and Commission or Remuneration Payable to a Partner
  • Dissolution of Firm: Partner’s Current Account
  • Dissolution of Firm: Taking Over of Business by a Partner
  • Dissolution of Firm: Memorandum Balance Sheet

Chapter 7: Accounting for Share Capital

Chapter 8: Issue and Redemption of Debentures


Chapter 1: Financial Statements of a Company

Chapter 2: Analysis of Financial Statements

Chapter 3: Accounting Ratios

Chapter 4: Cash Flow Statement



Chapter 1: Overview of Computerised Accounting System

Chapter 2: Accounting Application of Electronic Spreadsheet

  • Concept of Electronic Spreadsheet 
  • Features offered by Electronic Spreadsheet 
  • Application in generating accounting information: Bank Reconciliation Statement, Asset Accounting, Loan Repayment of Loan Schedule, and Ratio Analysis 
  • Data Representation: Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams

Chapter 3: Using Computerised Accounting System

  • Steps in the installation of CAS, codification and Hierarchy of account heads, creation of accounts  
  • Data: Entry, Validation and Verification 
  • Adjusting Entries, Preparation of Balance Sheet, Profit and Loss Account with Opening and Closing Entries 
  • Need and Security features of the system 

Class 12 Business Studies Course Structure 2022-23

Business Studies is a study of how to control and manage an organization effectively and efficiently. The detailed syllabus of Class 12 Business Studies cove every important topic, like Functions of Management, Principles of Management, Marketing, Stock Exchange, Training, Recruiting, Planning, and many more. 

CBSE Class 12 Business Studies detailed Syllabus 

Part A: Principles and Functions of Management

Unit 1: Nature and Significance of Management

  • Management – concept, objectives, and importance
  • Management as Science, Art and Profession
  • Levels of Management
  • Management functions-planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling
  • Coordination- concept and importance

Unit 2: Principles of Management

  • Principles of Management- concept and significance
  • Fayol’s principles of management
  • Taylor’s Scientific management- principles and techniques

Unit 3: Business Environment

  • Business Environment- concept and importance
  • Dimensions of Business Environment-Economic, Social, Technological, Political and Legal
  • Demonetization – concept and features

Unit 4: Planning

  • Concept, importance and limitation
  • Planning process
  • Single use and standing plans. Objectives, Strategy, Policy, Procedure, method Rule, budget and Programme

Unit 5: Organising

  • Concept and importance
  • Organising Process
  • Structure of organisation- functional and divisional concept. Formal and informal organisation- concept
  • Delegation: concept, elements and importance
  • Decentralization: concept and importance

Unit 6: Staffing

  • Concept and importance of staffing
  • Staffing as a part of Human Resource Management concept
  • Staffing process
  • Recruitment process
  • Selection – process
  • Training and Development – Concept and importance, Methods of training – on the job and off the job – vestibule training, apprenticeship training and internship training

Unit 7: Directing

  • Concept and importance
  • Elements of Directing
  • Motivation – concept, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Financial and non-financial incentives
  • Leadership – concept, styles – authoritative, democratic and laissez faire
  • Communication – concept, formal and informal communication; barriers to effective communication, how to overcome the barriers

Unit 8: Controlling

  • Controlling – Concept and importance
  • Relationship between planning and controlling
  • Steps in process of control

Part B: Business Finance and Marketing

Unit 9: Financial Management

  • Concept, role and objectives of Financial Management
  • Financial decisions: investment, financing and dividend- Meaning and factors affecting
  • Financial Planning – concept and importance
  • Capital Structure – concept and factors affecting capital structure
  • Fixed and Working Capital – Concept and factors affecting their requirements

Unit 10: Financial Markets

  • Financial Markets: Concept
  • Money Market: Concept
  • Capital market and its types (primary and secondary)
  • Stock Exchange – Functions and trading procedure
  • Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) – objectives and functions

Unit 11: Marketing

  • Marketing – Concept, functions and philosophies
  • Marketing Mix – Concept and elements
  • Product – branding, labelling and packaging – Concept
  • Price – Concept, Factors determining price
  • Physical Distribution – concept, components and channels of distribution
  • Promotion – Concept and elements; Advertising, Personal Selling, Sales Promotion and Public Relations

Unit 12: Consumer Protection

  • Concept and importance of consumer protection
  • The Consumer Protection Act, 2019: 
    • Meaning of consumer Rights and responsibilities of consumers
    • Who can file a complaint?
    • Redressal machinery
    • Remedies available
  • Consumer awareness – Role of consumer organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)

Unit 13: Project Work

Class 12 Computer Science Course Structure 2022-23

CBSE Class 12 Computer Science Detailed Syllabus

Unit I: Computational Thinking and Programming 

  • Revision of Python topics covered in Class XI.
  • Functions: types of function (built-in functions, functions defined in module, user defined functions), creating user defined function, arguments and parameters, default parameters, positional parameters, function returning value(s), flow of execution, scope of a variable (global scope, local scope)
  • Introduction to files, types of files (Text file, Binary file, CSV file), relative and absolute paths
  • Text file: opening a text file, text file open modes (r, r+, w, w+, a, a+), closing a text file, opening a file using with clause, writing/appending data to a text file using write() and writelines(), reading from a text file using read(), readline() and readlines(), seek and tell methods, manipulation of data in a text file
  • Binary file: basic operations on a binary file: open using file open modes (rb, rb+, wb, wb+, ab, ab+), close a binary file, import pickle module, dump() and load() method, read, write/create, search, append and update operations in a binary file
  • CSV file: import csv module, open / close csv file, write into a csv file using csv.writer() and read from a csv file using csv.reader( )
  • Data Structure: Stack, operations on stack (push & pop), implementation of stack using list.

Unit II: Computer Networks

Unit III: Database Management


S.No.Unit NameMarks (Total = 30)
1Lab Test:
1. Python program (60% logic + 20% documentation + 20% code quality)
2. A stub program with Python SQL connectivity must be provided with blanks (4 blanks) to be filled by the student with the desired SQL query.4
2Report file: (i) Minimum 15 Python programs.
(ii) SQL Queries – Minimum 5 sets using one table / two tables.
(iii) Minimum 4 programs based on Python – SQL connectivity
3Project (using concepts learnt in Classes 11 and 12)8
4Viva voce3

Suggested Practical List

Python Programming

  • Read a text file line by line and display each word separated by a #.
  • Read a text file and display the number of vowels/consonants/uppercase/lowercase characters in the file.
  • Remove all the lines that contain the character ‘a’ in a file and write it to another file.
  • Create a binary file with name and roll number. Search for a given roll number and display the name, if not found display appropriate message.
  • Create a binary file with roll number, name and marks. Input a roll number and update the marks.
  • Write a random number generator that generates random numbers between 1 and 6 (simulates a dice).
  • Write a Python program to implement a stack using list.
  • Create a CSV file by entering user-id and password, read and search the password for given user id.

Database Management

  • Implements the following SQL commands on the student table:
    • ALTER table to add new attributes/modify data type/drop attribute
    • UPDATE table to modify data
    • ORDER By to display data in ascending/descending order o DELETE to remove tuple(s)
    • GROUP BY and find the min, max, sum, count and average
  • Similar exercise may be framed for other cases.
  • Integrate SQL with Python by importing suitable module.

Suggested Reading Material

  • NCERT Textbook for COMPUTER SCIENCE (Class XII)
  • Support Materials on the CBSE website.


Class 12 Economics Course Structure 2022-23

CBSE Class 12 Economics Detailed Syllabus

Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics

Unit 1: National Income and Related Aggregates (30 Periods)

  • What is Macroeconomics? 
  • Basic concepts in macroeconomics: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment, and depreciation.
  • Circular flow of income (two-sector model); Methods of calculating National Income – Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method.
  • Aggregates related to National Income 
    • Gross National Product (GNP) 
    • Net National Product (NNP) 
    • Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 
    • Net Domestic Product (NDP) 
  • Real and Nominal GDP
  • GDP and Welfare

Unit 2: Money and Banking (15 Periods)

  • Money – meaning and functions, supply of money – Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks.
  • Money creation by the commercial banking system.
  • Central bank and its functions
    • Bank of issue 
    • Govt. Bank 
    • Banker’s Bank 
    • Control of Credit through Bank Rate 
    • CRR
    • SLR
    • Repo Rate
    • Reverse Repo Rate 
    • Open Market Operations
    • Margin requirement.

Unit 3: Determination of Income and Employment (30 Periods) 

  • Aggregate demand and its components 
  • Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal)
  • Short-run equilibrium output 
  • Investment multiplier and its mechanism
  • Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.
  • Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them – changes in government spending
  • Taxes 
  • Money supply

Unit 4: Government Budget and the Economy (17 Periods)

  • Government budget – meaning, objectives, and components
  • Classification of receipts – revenue receipts and capital receipts; 
  • Classification of expenditure – revenue expenditure and capital expenditure 
  • Balanced, Surplus, and Deficit Budget – measures of government deficit.

Unit 5: Balance of Payments (18 Periods)

  • Balance of payments account – meaning and components
  • Balance of payments – Surplus and Deficit
  • Foreign exchange rate – meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating 
  • Determination of exchange rate in a free market, Merits and demerits of flexible and fixed exchange rate
  • Managed Floating exchange rate system

Part B: Indian Economic Development

Unit 6(Part A): Development Experience (1947-90): (28 Periods)

  • A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence.
  • Indian economic system
  • Common goals of Five Year Plans.
  • Main features, problems, and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy)
  • Industry (IPR 1956; SSI – role & importance)
  • Foreign trade.

Unti 6(Part B): Economic Reforms since 1991:

  • Features and appraisals of liberalisation
  • Globalization
  • Privatization (LPG policy)
  • Concepts of demonetization 
  • GST

Unit 7: Current challenges facing Indian Economy (60 Periods)

  • Human Capital Formation: How people become a resource
  • Role of human capital in economic development
  • Growth of the Education Sector in India 
  • Rural development: Key issues – credit and marketing – the role of cooperatives
  • Agricultural diversification
  • Alternative farming – organic farming 
  • Employment: Growth and changes in the workforce participation rate in formal and informal sectors
  • Problems and policies 
  • Sustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment, including global warming

Unit 8: Development Experience of India: (12 Periods)

  • A comparison with neighbours 
  • India and Pakistan
  • India and China
  • Issues: economic growth, population, sectoral development, and other Human Development Indicators

Part C: Project in Economics (20 Periods)

Class 12 Geography Course Structure 2022-23

CBSE Class 12 Geography Detailed Syllabus

Part A: Fundamentals of Human Geography (90 Periods)

Unit 1: Human Geography: Nature and Scope (07 Periods)

  • Naturalisation of Humans and Humanisation of Nature
  • Human Geography through the Corridors of Time
  • Fields and Sub-fields of Human Geography

Unit 2: People (20 Periods)

  • The World Population- distribution, density and growth
  • Population change – Components of population change, Demographic Transition
  • Human development – concept; selected indicators, international comparisons

Unit 3: Human Activities (32 Periods)

  • Primary activities – concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities – some examples from selected countries
  • Secondary activities- concept; manufacturing: types – household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries;
  • Tertiary activities – concept; trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities
  • Quaternary activities- concept; people engaged in quaternary activities – case study from selected countries

Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade (26 Periods)

  • Land transport – roads, railways; transcontinental railways Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes
  • Air transport- Intercontinental air routes Oil and gas pipelines
  • Satellite communication and cyber space importance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS
  • International trade- bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade; role of WTO in international trade

Map Work on identification of features based on 1-5 units on the outline

Physical/Political map of World (05 Periods)

Part B: India: People and Economy (90 Periods)

Unit 6: People (15 Periods)

  • Population: distribution, density and growth; composition of population – linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in growth of population

Unit 7: Human Settlements (10 Periods)

  • Rural settlements – types and distribution
  • Urban settlements – types, distribution and functional classification

Unit 8: Resources and Development (30 Periods)

  • Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use; geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber); agricultural development and problems
  • Water resources-availability and utilization irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management
  • Mineral and energy resources- distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation
  • Planning in India- target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study)

Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade (15 Periods)

  • Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication net works
  • International trade- changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports

Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems (15 Periods)

  • Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal
  • Urbanization, rural-urban migration; problems of slums
  • Land degradation

Map work on locating and labeling of features based on above units on outline map of India (05 Periods)

Part C: Practical Work in Geography Part II (40 Periods)

Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping (25 Periods)

  • Type and Sources of data: Primary, Secondary and other sources
  • Tabulating and processing of data; calculation of averages, measures of central tendency
  • Representation of data- construction of diagrams: bars, circles and flowchart; thematic maps; construction of dot; choropleth and isopleths maps

Unit 2: Spatial Information Technology (15 Periods)

  • Introduction to GIS; hardware requirements and software modules; data formats; raster and vector data, data input, editing and topology building; data analysis; overlay and buffer.

Class 12 History Course Structure 2022-23

CBSE Class 12 History Detailed Syllabus


Chapter 1: Bricks, Beads and Bones : The Harappan Civilization

  • Broad overview: Early urban centers
  • Story of discovery: Harappan civilization
  • Excerpt: Archaeological report on a major site
  • Discussion: How it has been utilized by archaeologists/ historians

Chapter 2: Kings, Farmers and Towns: Early States and Economies 

  • Broad overview: Political and economic 
  • History from the Mauryan to the Gupta period
  • Story of discovery: Inscriptions and the Decipherment of the script. 
  • Shifts in the Understanding of political and economic history. 
  • Excerpt: Ashokan inscription and Gupta period land grant 
  • Discussion: Interpretation of inscriptions by historians.

Chapter 3: Kinship, Caste And Class: Early Societies 

  • Broad overview 
  • Social Histories: Using the Mahabharata Issues in social history, including caste, class, kinship and gender
  • Story of discovery: Transmission and publications of the Mahabharat 
  • Excerpt: from the Mahabharata, illustrating how it has been used by historians. 
  • Discussion: Other sources for reconstructing social history.

Chapter 4: Thinkers, Bliefes and Buildings: Cultural Developments

  • Broad overview
  • A History of Buddhism: Sanchi Stupa 
  • A brief review of religious histories of Vedic religion, Jainism, Vaishnavism, Shaivism (Puranic Hinduism)
  • Focus on Buddhism
  • Story of discovery: Sanchi stupa
  • Excerpt: Reproduction of sculptures from Sanchi
  • Discussion: Ways in which sculpture has been interpreted by historians, other sources for reconstructing the history of Buddhism.


Chapter 5: Through the Eyes of Travellers: Perceptions of Society

  • Broad Overview: outlines of social and cultural life as they appear in traveller’s account
  • Story of their writings: A discussion of where they travelled, what they wrote and for whom they wrote. 
  • Excerpts: from Al Biruni, Ibn Battuta, Francois Bernier. 
  • Discussion: What these travel accounts can tell us and how they have been interpreted by historians.

Chapter 6: Bhakti–Sufi Traditions: Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional Texts

  • Broad overview: Outline of religious developments during this period saints.
  • Ideas and practices of the Bhakti-Sufi
  • Story of Transmission: How Bhakti-Sufi compositions have been preserved.
  • Excerpt: Extracts from selected Bhakti-Sufi works.
  • Discussion: Ways in which these have been interpreted by historians.

Chapter 7: An Imperial Capital: Vijayanagara 

  • Broad Over View: New Architecture: Hampi
  • Outline of new buildings during Vijayanagar period-temples, forts, irrigation facilities.
  • Relationship between architecture and the political system
  • Story of Discovery: Account of how Hampi was found.
  • Excerpt: Visuals of buildings at Hampi
  • Discussion: Ways in which historians have analyzed and interpreted these structures.

Chapter 8: Peasants, Zamindars and the State: Agrarian Society and the Mughal Empire 

  • Broad overview: The Aini-Akbari
  • Structure of agrarian relations in the 16th and 17th centuries
  • Patterns of change over the period
  • Story of Discovery: Account of the compilation and translation of Ain I Akbari
  • Excerpt: from the Ain-i-Akbari
  • Discussion: Ways in which historians have used texts to reconstruct history.

Chapter 9: Kings and Chronicles: The Mughal Courts

  • The Mughals and Their Empire
  • Different Chronicles of Mughals
  • The Paintings of Mughal Period
  • Historical Text of Mughals: Akbar Nama and the Badshah Nama
  • The Ideal Kingdom of Mughal Empire
  • Capitals and Courts of the Mughals
  • The Mughal Household
  • The Officials in Mughal Administration
  • Jesuit Missionaries in the Mughal Court
  • Akbar’s Quest for Religion


Chapter 10: Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official Archives

  • Colonialism and Rural Society: Evidence from Official Reports
  • Life of zamindars, peasants and artisans in the late18th century
  • Permanent Settlement, Santhals and Paharias
  • Story of official records: An account of why official Investigations into rural societies were undertaken and the types of records and reports produced. 
  • Excerpts: From Fifth Report
  • Discussion: What the official records tell and do not tell, and how they have been used by historians.

Chapter 11: Rebels and the Raj: 1857 Revolt and its Representations

  • The events of1857-58 
  • Vision of Unity
  • How these events were recorded and narrated.
  • Focus: Lucknow
  • Excerpts: Pictures of 1857. Extracts from contemporary accounts.
  • Discussion: How the pictures of 1857 shaped British opinion of what had happened.

Chapter 12: Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement: Civil Disobedience and Beyond 

  • The Nationalist Movement 1918 -48 
  • The nature of Gandhian politics and leadership.
  • Focus: Mahatma Gandhi and the three movements and his last days as “finest hours”
  • Excerpts: Reports from English and Indian language newspapers and other contemporary writings.
  • Discussion: How newspapers can be a source of history

Chapter 13: Framing the Constitution: The Beginning of a New Era 

  • The Making of the Constitution an overview
  • Independence and then a new nation-state.
  • The making of the Constitution
  • Focus: The Constituent Assembly Debates
  • Excerpts: from the debates
  • Discussion: What such debates reveal and how they can be analyzed.


Book 1 
1Page 2

Mature Harappan sites:

  • Harappa, Banawali, Kalibangan, Balakot, Rakhigarhi, Dholavira, Nageshwar, Lothal, Mohenjodaro, Chanhudaro, KotDiji.
2Page 30

Mahajanapada and cities :

  • Vajji, Magadha, Kosala, Kuru, Panchala, Gandhara, Avanti, Rajgir, Ujjain, Taxila, Varanasi.
3Page 33

Distribution of Ashokan inscriptions:

  • Kushanas, Shakas, Satavahanas, Vakatakas,Guptas
  • Cities/towns: Mathura, Kannauj, Puhar, Braghukachchha
  • Pillar inscriptions -Sanchi, Topra, Meerut Pillar and Kaushambi.
  • Kingdom of Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas.
4Page 43

Important kingdoms and towns:

  • Kushanas, Shakas, Satavahanas, Vakatakas,Guptas.
  • Cities/towns: Mathura, Kanauj, Puhar, Braghukachchha, Shravasti, Rajgir, Vaishali, Varanasi,Vidisha
5Page 95

Major Buddhist Sites:

  • Nagarjunakonda, Sanchi, Amaravati, Lumbini, Nasik, Bharhut, BodhGaya, Shravasti, Ajanta.
Book 2
6Page 174Bidar, Golconda, Bijapur, Vijayanagar, Chandragiri, Kanchipuram, Mysore,
Thanjavur, Kolar, Tirunelveli, Quilon
7Page 214

Territories under Babur, Akbar and Aurangzeb:

  • Delhi, Agra, Panipat, Amber, Ajmer, Lahore, Goa.
Book 3
8Page 297

Territories/cities under British Control in1857:

  • Punjab, Sindh, Bombay, Madras Fort St. David, Masulipatam, Berar, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Avadh, Surat, Calcutta, Daccan, Patna, Benaras, Allahabad and Lucknow.
9Page 305

Main centres of the Revolt of 1857:

  • Delhi, Meerut, Jhansi, Lucknow, Kanpur, Azamgarh, Calcutta, Benaras, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Agra, Avadh.

Important centres of the National Movement:

  • Champaran, Kheda, Ahmedabad, Benaras, Amritsar, ChauriChaura, Lahore, Bardoli, Dandi, Bombay (Quit India Resolution), Karachi.


Class 12 Informatics Practices Course Structure 2022-23

CBSE Class 12 Informatics Practices Detailed Syllabus

Unit 1: Data Handling using Pandas 

  • Introduction to Python libraries- Pandas, Matplotlib
  • Data structures in Pandas – Series and Data Frames.
  • Series: Creation of Series from – ndarray, dictionary, scalar value; mathematical operations; Head and Tail functions; Selection, Indexing and Slicing.
  • Data Frames: creation – from dictionary of Series, list of dictionaries, Text/CSV files; display; iteration; Operations on rows and columns: add, select, delete, rename; Head and Tail functions; Indexing using Labels, Boolean Indexing
  • Importing/Exporting Data between CSV files and Data Frames 
  • Data Visualization
  • Purpose of plotting; drawing and saving following types of plots using Matplotlib – line plot, bar graph, histogram
  • Customizing plots: adding label, title, and legend in plots.

Unit 2: Database Query using SQL

  • Math functions: POWER (), ROUND (), MOD ().
  • Text functions: UCASE ()/UPPER (), LCASE ()/LOWER (), MID ()/SUBSTRING ()/SUBSTR (), LENGTH (), LEFT (), RIGHT (), INSTR (), LTRIM (), RTRIM (), TRIM ().
  • Date Functions: NOW (), DATE (), MONTH (), MONTHNAME (), YEAR (), DAY (), DAYNAME ().
  • Aggregate Functions: MAX (), MIN (), AVG (), SUM (), COUNT (); using COUNT (*).
  • Querying and manipulating data using Group by, Having, Order by.

Unit 3: Introduction to Computer Networks

  • Introduction to networks, Types of network: LAN, MAN, WAN.
  • Network Devices: modem, hub, switch, repeater, router, gateway
  • Network Topologies: Star, Bus, Tree, Mesh.
  • Introduction to Internet, URL, WWW, and its applications- Web, email, Chat, VoIP.
  • Website: Introduction, difference between a website and webpage, static vs dynamic web page, web server and hosting of a website.
  • Web Browsers: Introduction, commonly used browsers, browser settings, add-ons and plug-ins, cookies.

Unit 4: Societal Impacts

  • Digital footprint, net and communication etiquettes, data protection, intellectual property rights (IPR), plagiarism, licensing and copyright, free and open source software (FOSS), cybercrime and cyber laws, hacking, phishing, cyber bullying, overview of Indian IT Act.
  • E-waste: hazards and management.
  • Awareness about health concerns related to the usage of technology.

Project Work

The aim of the class project is to create tangible and useful IT applications. The learner may identify a real-world problem by exploring the environment. e.g. Students can visit shops/business places, communities or other organizations in their localities and enquire about functioning of the organization, and how data are generated, stored, and managed.
The learner can take data stored in csv or database file and analyze using Python libraries and generate appropriate charts to visualize.
If an organization is maintaining data offline, then the learner should create a database using MySQL and store the data in tables. Data can be imported in Pandas for analysis and visualization.
Learners can use Python libraries of their choice to develop software for their school or any other social good.
Learners should be sensitized to avoid plagiarism and violation of copyright issues while working on projects. Teachers should take necessary measures for this. Any resources (data, image etc.) used in the project must be suitably referenced.
The project can be done individually or in groups of 2 to 3 students. The project should be started by students at least 6 months before the submission deadline.

Class 12 Political Science Course Structure 2022-23

CBSE Class 11 Political Science Detailed Syllabus

Part A: Contemporary World Politics

Chapter 1: The End of Bipolarity (22 Periods)

  • Disintegration of Soviet Union
  • Unipolar World, Middle East Crisis – Afghanistan
  • Gulf War
  • Democratic Politics 
  • Democratization – CIS and the 21st Century (Arab Spring).

Chapter 2: New Centres of Power (18 Periods)

  • Organizations: European Union, ASEAN, SAARC, BRICS. 
  • Nations: Russia, China, Israel, India.

Chapter 3: Contemporary South Asia (18 Periods)

  • Conflicts and efforts for Peace and Democratization in South Asia: Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives.

Chapter 4: United Nations and its Organizations (10 Periods)

  • Principle Organs, Key Agencies: UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO, ILO, Security Council and the Need for its Expansion.

Chapter 5:Security in Contemporary World (12 Periods)

  • Security: Meaning and Types; Terrorism.

Chapter 6: Environment and Natural Resources (12 Periods)

  • Environmental Movements, 
  • Global Warming 
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation of Natural Resources.

Chapter 7: Globalization (12 Periods)

  • Globalization: Meaning
  • Manifestations
  • Debates.

Part B: Politics in India Since Independence

Chapter 8: Challenges of Nation- Building (16 Periods)

  • Nation and Nation Building, 
  • Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel and Integration of States, 
  • Legacy of Partition: Challenge of Refugee, Resettlement, 
  • Kashmir Issue, 
  • Nehru’s Approach to Nation–Building, 
  • Political Conflicts over Language and Linguistic Organization of States.

Chapter 9: Planned Development (8 Periods)

  • Changing nature of India’s Economic Development, 
  • Planning Commission and Five year Plans, 
  • National Development Council, NITI Aayog.

Chapter 10: India’s Foreign Policy (20 Periods)

  • Principles of Foreign Policy; 
  • India’s Changing Relations with Other Nations: US, Russia, China, Israel; 
  • India’s Relations with its Neighbours: Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Myanmar; 
  • India’s Nuclear Programme.

Chapter 11: Parties and the Party Systems in India (30 Periods)

  • Congress System, 
  • Bi-party System, 
  • Multi-party Coalition System.

Chapter 12: Democratic Resurgence (30 Periods)

  • Jai Prakash Narayan and Total Revolution, 
  • Ram Manohar Lohia and Socialism, 
  • Deendayal Upadhyaya and Integral Humanism, 
  • National Emergency, 
  • Democratic Upsurges – Participation of the Adults, Backwards and Youth.

Chapter 12: Regional Aspirations (36Periods)

  • Rise of Regional Parties, 
  • Punjab Crisis, 
  • The Kashmir issue, 
  • Movements for Autonomy.

Chapter 13: Indian Politics: Recent Trends and Developments (36 Periods)

  • Era of Coalitions: National Front, 
  • United Front, 
  • United Progressive Alliance [UPA] – I & II,
  • National Democratic Alliance [NDA] – I, II, III & IV, 
  • Issues of Development and Governance.

Class 11 Psychology Course Structure 2022-23

CBSE Class 11 Psychology detailed Syllabus 

Chapter 1: Variations in Psychological Attributes

  • Introduction
  • Individual Differences in Human Functioning
  • Assessment of Psychological Attributes
  • Intelligence
  • Psychometric Theories of Intelligence, Information Processing Theory: Planning, Attention-arousal and Simultaneous successive Model of Intelligence, Triarchic Theory of Intelligence; Theory of Multiple Intelligences.
  • Individual Differences in Intelligence
  • Culture and Intelligence
  • Emotional Intelligence
  • Special Abilities: Aptitude: Nature and Measurement
  • Creativity

Chapter 2: Self and Personality

  • Introduction
  • Self and Personality
  • Concept of Self
  • Cognitive and Behavioural Aspects of Self
  • Culture and Self
  • Concept of Personality
  • Major Approaches to the Study of Personality
    • Type Approaches
    • Trait Approaches
    • Psychodynamic Approach and Post Freudian Approaches
    • Behavioural Approach
    • Cultural Approach
    • Humanistic Approach
  • Assessment of Personality
    • Self-report Measures
    • Projective Techniques
    • Behavioural Analysis

Chapter 3: Meeting Life Challenges

  • Introduction
  • Nature, Types and Sources of Stress
  • Effects of Stress on Psychological Functioning and Health
    • Stress and Health
    • General Adaptation Syndrome
    • Stress and Immune System
    • Lifestyle
  • Coping with Stress
    • Stress Management Techniques
  • Promoting Positive Health and Well-being
    • Life Skills
    • Positive Health

Chapter 4: Psychological Disorders

  • Introduction
  • Concepts of Abnormality and Psychological Disorders
    • Historical Background
  • Classification of Psychological Disorders
  • Factors Underlying Abnormal Behaviour
  • Major Psychological Disorders
    • Anxiety Disorders
    • Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
    • Trauma-and Stressor-Related Disorders
    • Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
    • Dissociative Disorders
    • Depressive Disorder
    • Bipolar and Related Disorders
    • Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders
    • Neurodevelopmental Disorders
    • Disruptive, Impulse-Control and Conduct Disorders
    • Feeding and Eating Disorders
    • Substance Related and Addictive Disorders

Chapter 5: Therapeutic Approaches

  • Nature and Process of Psychotherapy
    • Therapeutic relationship
  • Types of Therapies
    • Behaviour Therapy
    • Cognitive Therapy
    • Humanistic-Existential Therapy
    • Alternative Therapies
    • Factors contributing to healing in psychotherapy
    • Ethics in Psychotherapy
  • Rehabilitation of the Mentally Ill

Chapter 6: Attitude and Social Cognition

  • Introduction
  • Explaining Social Behaviour
  • Nature and Components of Attitudes
  • Attitude Formation and Change
    • Attitude Formation
    • Attitude Change
    • Attitude-Behaviour Relationship
  • Prejudice and Discrimination
  • Strategies for Handling Prejudice

Chapter 7: Social Influence and Group Processes

  • Introduction
  • Nature and Formation of Groups
  • Type of Groups
  • Influence of Group on Individual Behaviour
    • Social Loafing
    • Group Polarisation


CBSE Class 11 Sociology Course Structure 2022-23

CBSE Class 11 Sociology detailed Syllabus 


Unit 1: Introducing Indian Society (0 Periods)

  • Colonialism, Nationalism, Class and Community (Non-evaluative)

Unit 2: The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society (10 Periods)

  • Theories and concepts in demography
  • Rural-Urban Linkages and Divisions
  • Population Policy in India

Unit 3: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change (12 Periods)

  • Caste and the Caste System
  • Tribal Communities
  • Family and Kinship

Unit 5: Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion (18 Periods)

  • Social Inequality and Social Exclusion
  • Systems justifying and perpetuating Inequality – Caste, Tribe, the Other Backward Classes
  • Adivasi Struggles
  • The Struggle for Women’s Equality and Rights
  • The struggles of the Differently Abled

Unit 6: The Challenges of Cultural Diversity (22 Periods)

  • Cultural communities and the nation state
  • Regionalism in the Indian context
  • The Nation state and religion related issues and identities
  • Communalism, secularism and the nation state
  • State and Civil Society

Unit 7 Suggestions for Project Work (10 Periods)


Unit 8: Structural Change (8 Periods)

  • Understanding Colonialism, Industrialization, Urbanization

Unit 9: Cultural Change (12 Periods)

  • Social Reform Movements
  • Different Kinds of Social Change: Sanskritisation, Westernization, Modernization, Secularization

Unit 11: Change and Development in Rural Society (10 Periods)

  • Agrarian Structure: Caste & class in Rural India
  • Land Reforms, Green Revolution and Emerging Agrarian society
  • Green revolution and its social consequences
  • Transformation in Rural Society
  • Circulation of labour
  • Globalization, Liberalization and Rural Society

Unit 12: Change and Development in Industrial Society (12 Periods)

  • From Planned Industrialization to Liberalization
  • How people find Jobs
  • Work Processes: How work is carried out, working conditions, home based work, Strikes and Unions

Unit 15: Social Movements (18 Periods)

  • Concept of Social Movements
  • Theories and Classification of Social Movements
  • Environmental Movements
  • Class-Based Movements: Workers, Peasants
  • Caste-Based Movements: Dalit Movement, Backward Class/Castes, Trends in Upper Caste Responses
  • Tribal Movements
  • Women’s Movements in Independent India

My Personal Notes arrow_drop_up
Like Article
Save Article
Related Articles

Start Your Coding Journey Now!