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HTML Cheat Sheet – A Basic Guide to HTML

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What is HTML ?

HTML(HyperText Markup Language) is the most basic building block of all web pages. It provides structure to the content appearing on a website, such as images, text, or videos by creating a basic skeleton. HTML is still very useful today, the reason being no matter the framework or language we use to develop the web page, the output would be rendered in HTML.

HTML Cheat Sheet

What is HTML Cheat Sheet ?

Web developers sometimes need a simple, quick reference list of basic HTML elements that’s when this HTML Cheat Sheet comes into the picture. The whole purpose of this Cheat Sheet is to provide you with some quick accurate ready-to-use code snippets and necessary HTML tags and attributes.

Table of Content:

Main root: The <html> element represents the root (top-level element) of an HTML document also called the document element. All other elements must be descendants of this element.

<html> … </html>

Boilerplate:

HTML




<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
  
<head>
    <!-- Description of the document -->
    <meta charset="UTF-8" />
    <title>
        <!-- title goes here -->
        Geeks For Geeks
    </title>
</head>
  
<body>
    <!-- your content goes here -->
    Welcome to Geeks for Geeks
</body>
  
</html>


Sectioning Root:

Body: The HTML <body> Element represents the content of an HTML document. There can be only one <body> element in a document.

Headings: There are six headings available in HTML.

Heading Tags Description Syntax
<h1> Used for title generally once per page and has a font size of 2em. <h1>….</h1>
<h2> Used for medium sized titles and has a font size of 1.5em. <h2>….</h2>
<h3> Used for subsections and has a font size of 1.17em. <h3>….</h3>
<h4> Used for highlighting text with font size of 1em. <h4>….</h4>
<h5> Fifth level heading with font size of .83em. <h5>….</h5>
<h6> Displays least significant details and has a font size of .67em <h6>….</h6>

HTML




<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  
<head>
    <title>Heading Tags</title>
</head>
  
<body>
    <h1>GeeksforGeeks</h1>
    <h2>GeeksforGeeks</h2>
    <h3>GeeksforGeeks</h3>
    <h4>GeeksforGeeks</h4>
    <h5>GeeksforGeeks</h5>
    <h6>GeeksforGeeks</h6>
</body>
  
</html>


Container: The container tags are tags that have some data such as text, the
image between their opening and closing tags. The several container tags in HTML are:.

Tags Description Syntax
<div> Block element that defines a division in HTML document. <div>… </div>
<span> Inline element used to mark up a part of a text or document. <span>…</span>
<p> Used to represent a paragraph. <p>…</p>
<pre> Represents pre-formatted text to present exactly as written in the HTML file. <pre>…</pre>
<code> Used to represent source codes <code>…</code>

HTML




<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  
<head>
    <title> GeeksforGeeks </title>
    <meta name="keywords" content="Meta Tags, Metadata" />
    <meta name="description" content="Geeksforgeeks is a computer science portal." />
    <style type="text/css">
        body {
            background-color: powderblue;
        }
          
        h1 {
            color: black;
            font-family: arial;
        }
    </style>
</head>
  
<body>
    <p>
        GeeksforGeeks is a
        <!-- span tag starts-->
        <span style="color:red;font-weight:bolder">
            computer science</span> portal for
        <span style="background-color: lightgreen;">
            geeks
        </span>
        <!-- span tag ends -->
        <!-- pre tag starts here -->
    <pre>
        This
        is    a pre tag.
      </pre>
    </p>
    <!-- html pre tag ends here -->
    <!--code Tag starts here -->
    code tag: Displays code snippets.
    <code>
        #include<stdio.h>
            int main() {
            printf("Hello Geeks");
            }
            <!--code Tag ends here -->
    </code>
    <p>
        Click on the following link
        <!-- anchor tag starts -->
        <a href="https://www.geeksforgeeks.org">
            GeeksforGeeks
        </a>
        <!-- anchor tag ends -->
    </p>
</body>
  
</html>


Document Information: This section involves tags which are used to describe the HTML document by giving an overview of what it includes.

Tags Description Syntax
<head> Container for metadata which is data about data. <head>…</head>
<link> Used to link external style sheets or documents. <link>
<meta> Defines metadata about HTML document. <meta/>
<title> Defines the document’s title <title>…</title>
<style> Used to define style information (CSS) for a document. <style>…</style>

HTML




<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<!-- head tag starts here -->
  
<head>
    <!-- title tag -->
    <title>Title goes here </title>
  
    <!-- link tag  -->
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="style.css">
  
    <!-- meta tag starts -->
    <meta name="keywords" content="Meta Tags, Metadata" />
    <!-- meta tag ends -->
  
    <!-- style tag starts here -->
    <style>
        #first {
            font-family: Castellar;
            background-color: green;
            color: white;
        }
          
        .second {
            text-align: center;
            background-color: white;
            font-size: 30px;
            color: red;
        }
    </style>
    <!-- style tag ends here -->
</head>
<!-- head tag ends here -->
  
<body>
    <p id="first">Hello GeeksforGeeks.</p>
    <p class="second">Welcome Geeks</p>
</body>
  
</html>


Sectioning Content:Sectioning Content elements by default define ARIA
landmark. These elements are mostly descendant of HTML body element.

Tags Description Syntax
<header> Used to give introductory content about the document. <header>… </header>
<main> Represents the main dominant content of a document. <main>… </main>
<section> Structural HTML element used to group together related elements. <section>… </section>
<nav> Represents a section of a page to provide navigation links <nav>…</nav>
<article> Represents a self-contained composition which is independently distributable or reusable. <article>… </article>
<aside> Defines some content aside from the content it is placed in. <aside>… </aside>
<footer> Represents a footer for its sectioning root element <footer>… </footer>
<address> Provides contact information for a person, people, or an organization. <address>..</address>

HTML




<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  
<body>
    <h3>HTML Header Tag</h3>
    <hr>
    <article>
        <!-- header tag starts -->
        <header>
            <h3>GeeksforGeeks Learning</h3>
            <h3> HTML nav Tag</h3>
            <!-- nav tag starts -->
            <nav>
                <a href="#">Home</a> |
                <a href="#">Interview</a> |
                <a href="#">Languages</a> |
                <a href="#">Data Structure</a> |
                <a href="#">Algorithm</a>
            </nav>
            <!-- nav tag ends -->
        </header>
        <!-- header tag ends -->
    </article>
    <!-- main tag starts here -->
    <main>
        <!-- HTML section tag is used here -->
        <section>
            <h1>Geeksforgeek: Section 1</h1>
            <p>Content of section </p>
        </section>
        <!-- HTML section tag ends here -->
        <!-- aside tag starts here -->
        <aside>
            <h1>This is heading text in aside Tag</h1>
            <p>This is paragraph text in aside Tag</p>
        </aside>
        <!-- aside tag ends here -->
    </main>
    <!-- main tag ends here -->
    <!--HTML footer tag starts here-->
    <footer>
        <article>
            <!-- address tag starts from here -->
            <address>
                Organization Name: GeeksforGeeks <br>
                Web Site:
                <a href="https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/about/contact-us/">
                    GeeksforGeeks</a><br>
                visit us:<br>
                GeeksforGeeks<br>
                A-118, Sector 136, Noida, <br>
                Uttar Pradesh (201305)
            </address>
            <!-- address tag ends here -->
        </article>
        <br>
        <a href="https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/about/">
            About Us
        </a>|
            Privacy Policy
        </a>|
        <a href="https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/careers/">
            Careers
        </a>
        <p>@geeksforgeeks, Some rights reserved</p>
    </footer>
    <!-- footer tag ends here -->
</body>
  
</html>


Text formatting and Inline text semantics: Text formatting is used in HTML to make the document look more comprehensive and attractive. The HTML inline text semantics is used to define the meaning, structure, or style of a word, line, or any arbitrary piece of text.

Tags Description Syntax

<em>
Used to put stress on some text or show some degree of emphasis. <em>…</em>
<strong> Indicates that the content has strong importance. <strong>…</strong>
<sub> Writes the text as subscript. <sub>…</sub>

<sup>
Writes the text as superscript. <sup>…</sup>

<abbr>
Represents an abbreviation or acronym. <abbr>… </abbr>
<mark> Highlights important text for reference or notation purposes. <mark>…</mark>

<cite>
Describes the title of a creative work. <cite>…</cite>
<time> Used to represent a specific period of time. <time>…</time>

HTML




<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  
<head>
    <title> Geeks for Geeks </title>
</head>
  
<body>
    <!-- emphasis -->
    <div><em>Emphasized text</em></div>
    <!-- strong -->
    <div><strong>Important text!</strong></div>
    <!-- subscript -->
    <div>GFG<sub>subscript text</sub></div>
    <!-- superscript -->
    <div>GFG<sup>Superscript text</sup></div>
    <!-- abbreviation -->
    <div><abbr>Abbreviation</abbr></div>
    <!-- mark -->
    <div><mark>Highlighted text</mark></div>
    <!-- cite -->
    <div><cite>Title of creative work</cite></div>
    <!-- time -->
    <div>Time<time>9:00 am</time>
        to <time>7:00 pm</time>
    </div>
</body>
  
</html>


Lists: Lists can be either numerical, alphabetic, bullet, or other symbols. You can specify list type and list items in HTML for the clean document. There are three list types in HTML:

  • Unordered list: Used to group a set of related items in no particular order.
  • Ordered list: Used to group a set of related items in a specific order.
  • Description list: Used to display name/value pairs such as terms and definitions.
Tags Description Syntax
<ul> Represents an unordered list of items.
list.
<ul>…</ul>
<ol> The HTML <ol> element represents an ordered list of items. <ol>…</ol>

<li>
Represents an item in a list. <li>…</li>
<dl> Represents a description list. <dl>…</dl>
<dd> Used to describe a term/name in a description list. <dd>…</dd>
<dt> Specifies a term in a description. <dt>…</dt>

HTML




<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  
<head>
    <title>GeeksforGeeks</title>
</head>
  
<body>
    <h2>Welcome To GeeksforGeeks Learning</h2>
    <h5>Unordered List</h5>
    <!-- Unordered List -->
    <ul>
        <li>Data Structures & Algorithm</li>
        <li>Web Technology</li>
        <li>Aptitude & Logical Reasoning</li>
    </ul>
    <h5>Ordered List</h5>
    <!-- Ordered List -->
    <ol>
        <li>Array</li>
        <li>Linked List</li>
        <li>Stacks</li>
    </ol>
    <h5>Description List</h5>
    <!-- Description List -->
    <dl>
        <dt>Courses:</dt>
        <dd>100 </dd>
        <dt> Quizes:</dt>
        <dd> 500 </dd>
        <dt> Interview Experiences:</dt>
        <dd>1000 </dd>
    </dl>
</body>
  
</html>


Tables: Arranges data in tabular form

Tags Description Syntax
<caption> Specifies caption of a table. <caption>…</caption>
<table> Represents data in a two-dimensional table. <table>…</table>
<thead> <thead>…</thead>
<tbody> Used to group primary content of an HTML table. <tbody>…</tbody>
<th> Defines a cell as header of a group of cells of the table. <th>…</th>
<td> Defines a cell of a table. <td>…</td>
<tr> Defines a row in an HTML table. <tr>…</tr>

<tfoot>
Defines a set of rows summarizing the columns of the table. <tfoot>…</tfoot>

HTML




<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  
<head>
    <title>HTML Table</title>
</head>
  
<body>
    <!-- table starts here -->
    <table>
        <!-- Table Caption -->
        <caption>Geeks For Geeks Learning</caption>
        <!-- Table row starts -->
        <tr>
            <!--Headers -->
            <th>Programming Languages</th>
            <th>Development</th>
        </tr>
        <!-- Table row ends -->
        <tr>
            <!-- Table data -->
            <td>C programming </td>
            <td>Full stack development</td>
        </tr>
        <tr>
            <td>Java programming</td>
            <td>Backend development</td>
        </tr>
        <tr>
            <td>Angular </td>
            <td>Frontend Development</td>
        </tr>
        <!-- Table Footer starts here -->
        <tfoot>
            <tr>
                <td>Footer content</td>
            </tr>
        </tfoot>
        <!-- Table footer ends here -->
    </table>
</body>
  
</html>


Forms: An HTML form is a section of a document that acts as a container for different types of input elements, such as text fields, passwords, menus, checkboxes, radio buttons, submit buttons, etc.

Tags Description Syntax
<form> Represents a section containing controls for submitting information. <form>…</form>
<input> Creates interactive controls for forms in order to accept data . <input>…</input>
<textarea> Create a multi-line plain-text editing control <textarea>…</textarea>
<select> Represents a control that provides a menu of options to select from. <select>…</select>
<option> Defines an option in a select list. <option>…</option>
<optgroup> Creates a grouping of options within a <select> element. <optgroup>.</optgroup>
<progress> Displays an indicator showing the degree of completion of a task. <progress>…</progress>
<datalist> Used to give a predefined options for an <input> element and adds an autocomplete feature to
it.
<datalist>…</datalist>
<button> Represents a clickable button. <button>…</button>
<label> Specifies a label for an <input> element. <label>…</label>

HTML




<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
  
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
    <title>GfG</title>
</head>
  
<body>
    <form>
        <fieldset>
            <legend>Personal Details</legend>
            <p>
            <p>select used here:</p>
            <!-- label starts -->
            <label>
                Salutation
                <br />
                <!-- select starts -->
                <select name="salutation">
                    <option>--None--</option>
                    <option>Mr.</option>
                    <option>Ms.</option>
                    <option>Mrs.</option>
                </select>
                <!-- select ends -->
            </label>
            <!-- label ends -->
            </p>
            <p>
                <label>First name: 
                  <input name="firstName" placeholder="input element used here" />
                </label>
            </p>
            <p>
                <label>Last name: <input name="lastName" /></label>
            </p>
            <p>
                Gender :
                <label>
                  <input type="radio" name="gender" value="male" /> Male
                </label>
                <label>
                  <input type="radio" name="gender" value="female" /> Female
                </label>
            </p>
            <label Language preferred: </label>
                <input list="lang" placeholder="datalist used here">
                <!--datalist Tag starts here -->
                <datalist id="lang">
                    <option value="java"></option>
                    <option value="reactjs"></option>
                    <option value="php"></option>
                    <option value="python"></option>
                </datalist>
                <!--datalist Tag ends here -->
                <p>
                    <label>Email:
                       <input type="email" name="email" />
                    </label>
                </p>
                <p>
                    <label>Date of Birth:
                       <input type="date" name="birthDate"/>
                    </label>
                </p>
                <p>
                    <!-- HTML address tag -->
                    <label>
                        Address :
                        <br />
                        <!--Textarea  -->
                        <textarea name="address" 
                                  placeholder="Textarea used here">
                        </textarea>
                    </label>
                </p>
                <p>
                    <button type="submit">Submit</button>
                </p>
                <p>Progress tag used here:</p>
                Downloading progress for your profile:
                <!--HTML progress tag starts here-->
                <progress value="57" max="100" placeholder="progress tag used here">
                </progress>
                <!--HTML progress tag ends here-->
        </fieldset>
    </form>
</body>
  
</html>


Multimedia: Multimedia is anything you can hear or see in the form of images, videos, or sounds. It comes in various format.HTML helps you to add multimedia files to your website.

Tags Description Syntax
<img> Used to link images to web pages. <img />
<audio> Used to include sound content in documents. <audio>…</audio>
<video> Embeds a media player which supports video files in the document. <video>…</video>
<figure> Groups various diagrams, images, illustrations, and code snippets into the document. <figure>…</figure>
<figcaption> Used to provide the caption of the content. <figcaption>…</figcaption>
<embed> Embeds multimedia in a Web page <embed>…</embed>
<object> Includes objects, such as images, audios, videos, Portable Document Format (PDF) in a Web page. <object>…</object>

HTML




<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  
<body style="text-align: center;">
    <p>image here</p>
    <!-- image tag starts here-->
    <img src=
         width="420" height="100" alt="Geeksforgeeks.org">
    <!-- image tag ends here-->
    <p> Audio Sample</p>
    <!-- audio tag starts here -->
    <audio controls>
        <source src="test.mp3" type="audio/mp3">
        <source src="test.ogg" type="audio/ogg">
    </audio>
    <!-- audio tag ends here -->
    <p> Video sample</p>
    <!-- Video tag starts here -->
    <video width="400" height="350" controls>
        <source src="myvid.mp4" type="video/mp4">
        <source src="myvid.ogg" type="video/ogg">
    </video>
    <!-- Video tag ends here -->
    <p> HTML Figure here</p>
    <!--HTML figure tag starts here-->
    <figure>
        <img src=
             width="304" height="228" alt="The Pulpit Rock">
        <figcaption>Figure Caption goes here </figcaption>
    </figure>
    <!--HTML figure tag ends here-->
    <p> HTML Object here</p>
    <!--HTML object tag starts here-->
    <object data=
            width="550px" height="150px">
        GeeksforGeeks
        <!--HTML object tag ends here-->
    </object>
</body>
  
</html>


Characters and Symbols: Some characters are reserved in HTML and they have special meaning when used in HTML document. Some of the most commonly used ones are:

Symbol Description Entity Name Number Code
© Copyright &copy; &#169;

&
Ampersand &amp; &#38;

>
Greater than &gt; &#62;

<
Less than &lt; &#60;
$ Dollar &dollar; &#36;

Quotation mark &quot; &#34;
Apostrophe &apos; &#39;

HTML




<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
  
<head>
    <title>HTML Characters and Symbols</title>
</head>
  
<body>
    <!-- Characters and Symbols are use inside of p element -->
    <p>This is the sign of copyright: © </p>
    <p>This is the sign of trademark: ™ </p>
    <p>This is the sign of ampersand: @ </p>
    <p>This is the sign of dollar : $ </p>
    <p>This is the sign of less than : < </p>
            <p>This is the sign of greater than : > </p>
            <p>This is the sign of quotation mark : " </p>
</body>
  
</html>


Attributes: HTML attributes are special words used to define the characteristics of an HTML element. Attributes have two parts- the name and the value. The name is the property you want to set and the value is the desired value of the attribute.

Attributes Description Syntax
alt Used in the image tag to specify the alternative text of the image < tag_name alt =”…” >
href Used to define a hyperlink. < tag_name href =”…” >
src Specifies URL of the image to be used. < tag_name src =”…” >
width Specifies the width of the image in pixels. < tag_name width =”…” >
height Specifies the height of the image in pixels. < tag_name height =”…” >
style Helps to change the look and feel of the document. < tag_name style =”…” >
id Unique identifier used to specify an area of a webpage. < tag_name id =”…” >
class Specifies one or more class names for an element. < tag_name class =”…” >
title Specifies extra information about an element. < tag_name title =”…” >
Placeholder Specifies a short hint that describes the expected value of an input field/text area <tag_name placeholder=” “>

HTML




<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  
<head>
    <title>HTML Attributes</title>
    <style>
        #geeks {
            background-color: green;
            color: white;
        }
          
        .gfg {
            background-color: white;
            font-size: 30px;
            color: red;
        }
    </style>
</head>
  
<body>
    <!-- source attribute-->
    <div>
        <p>source attribute:</p>
        <img src=
    </div>
    <!--Alternative text: alt attribute -->
    <div><img src=
          alt="Alternative text here">
    </div>
    <br>
    <!-- Link: href attribute-->
    <a href="https://ide.geeksforgeeks.org/">
        Click to open in the same tab
    </a>
    <br>
    <a href="https://ide.geeksforgeeks.org/" target="_blank">
        Click to open in a different tab
    </a>
  
    <!-- title attribute-->
    <h2 title="GeeksforGeeks: A computer science
    portal for geeks">
        Title attribute: hover to see the effect
    </h2>
  
    <!-- Width and Height attribute-->
    <p>Using width and height attribute here:</p>
    <img src=
         width="300px" height="100px">
  
    <!-- id attribute-->
    <h2 id="geeks">
        Styling using id attribute here
    </h2>
  
    <!-- class attribute -->
    <h2 class="gfg">
        Styling using class attribute here
    </h2>
  
    <!-- style -->
    <h2 style="font-family:Chaparral Pro Light; ">
        Styling using style attribute here
    </h2>
  
</body>
  
</html>


HTML is the foundation of webpages, is used for webpage development by structuring websites and web apps. You can learn HTML from the ground up by following this HTML Tutorial and HTML Examples.

We have a similar cheat sheet to help you with CSS concepts as well. Check it out here CSS Cheat Sheet


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Last Updated : 10 Jul, 2023
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