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Redressal Agencies under the Consumer Protection Act, 2019

Last Updated : 17 May, 2023
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The three-tier grievances machinery set up by the Consumer Protection Act 2019 to redress consumer grievances is known as Redressal Agencies. The three agencies are District Commission, State Commission, and National Commission.

According to the Consumer Protection Act 2019, a Consumer is a person who buys any goods or avails any services for a consideration, which has been paid or promised to pay or partly paid or partly promised or under any scheme of deferred payment. A consumer also includes a person who is using the goods or beneficiary of service with the approval of the buyer and applies to both online and offline transactions through electronic means of teleshopping or direct selling or multilevel marketing. 

Redressal Agencies or Three-Tier Grievances Machinery under the Consumer Protection Act

The three redressal agencies under the Consumer Protection Act, 2019 are District Commission, State Commission, and National Commission. 

1. District Commission

A district commission includes a president (who can be a working or retired judge of the District Court) and two other members. They are appointed by the state government. One can file a complaint for goods and services of ₹1 crore or less in this agency. For the complaints filed, if the district commission feels a requirement, it sends the goods to the laboratory for testing and gives its decision based on the laboratory report and facts. 

If the aggrieved party is not happy with the jurisdiction of the district commission, then they can appeal against the judgment of this agency in the State Commission within 45 days. 

2. State Commission

A state commission includes a president (who must be a working or retired judge of the High Court) and at least two other members. They are appointed by the state government. One can file a complaint of goods and services worth less than ₹10 crores and more than ₹1 crore in this agency. After receiving a complaint from the aggrieved party, the state commission contacts the party against whom the complaint has been filed. Also, for the complaints filed, if the state commission feels a requirement, it sends the goods to the laboratory for testing. 

If the aggrieved party is not happy with the jurisdiction of the state commission, then they can appeal against the judgment of this agency in the National Commission within 30 days by depositing 50% of the fine money. 

3. National Commission

A national commission includes a president and four other members one of whom shall be a woman, and Central Government appoints them. One can file a complaint of goods and services worth more than ₹10 crores in this agency. After receiving a complaint from the aggrieved party, the national commission informs the party against whom the complaint has been filed. Also, for the complaints filed, if the state commission feels a requirement, it sends the goods to the laboratory for testing, and then gives judgement based on the reports. 

If the aggrieved party is not happy with the jurisdiction of the national commission, then they can appeal against the judgment of this agency in the Supreme Court within 30 days by depositing 50% of the fine money. 

District Commission v/s State Commission v/s National Commission

Basis

District Commission

State Commission

National Commission

Composition

A district commission includes a president and two other members, and one of the members has to be a woman.  A state commission includes a president and at least two other members, and one of the members has to be a woman.  A national commission includes a president and four other members one of whom shall be a woman.

Who can be a President

A working or retired judge of the District Court can be a president of the District Commission.  A working or retired judge of the High Court can be a president of the State Commission.  A working or retired judge of the Supreme Court can be a president of the National Commission. 

Appointment of President

By taking the recommendation of the selection committee, the state government appoints the president of the District Commission.  After consulting with the Chief Justice of the High Court, the state government appoints the president of the State Commission.  After consulting with the Chief Justice of India, the central government appoints the president of the National Commission. 

Jurisdiction

One can file a complaint for goods and services of ₹1 crore or less. One can file a complaint of goods and services worth less than ₹10 crores and more than ₹1 crore. One can file a complaint of goods and services worth more than ₹10 crores.

Appeal against orders

If the aggrieved party is not happy with the jurisdiction of the district commission, then they can appeal against its judgment in the State Commission within 45 days.  If the aggrieved party is not happy with the jurisdiction of the state commission, then they can appeal against its judgment in the National Commission within 30 days by depositing 50% of the fine money.  If the aggrieved party is not happy with the jurisdiction of the national commission, then they can appeal against its judgment in the Supreme Court within 30 days by depositing 50% of the fine money. However, one can file the complaint only when the value of goods and services exceeds ₹10 crores. 

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