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Types of Solutions

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  • Last Updated : 24 Jan, 2022

Solutions are a part of our daily lives because they can be found in almost everything we use in our daily lives, such as soda, deodorant, sugar, salt, and so on. A solution is a type of mixture in which two or more substances combine to form a single solution; it can also be described as simple, and its properties may or may not have changed. 

Here in this article the concept, components, properties, types of solutions based on their nature, and so on. As this is one of the basic concepts from the Chapter Solution, this article will help to have a strong foundation in chemistry, to study it in higher classes. So, Let’s get started!

What are the Solutions?

A solution is a mixture of two or more components that is homogeneous. The makeup of a homogeneous mixture is consistent throughout. The true solution is also known as the homogeneous solution. 

True solutions have dissolved particles that are the same size as molecules. As a result, true solutions are referred to as molecular solutions. True solutions are formed only by soluble substances.

Filtration will not be able to separate the solute from the solution once it has been generated. A light beam is not permitted to pass through the solution. The particles of the solute inside the solution are invisible to the naked eye. A solution is a single-phase system that is stable.

Components of a Solution: Solute and Solvent

There are two parts in a homogeneous combination, the solute and solvent combine to form any solution. A solute is a substance in a solution that has a lower concentration and dissolves in the solvent, which has a higher concentration than the solute. The final state of homogeneous solutions is usually determined by the state of the solvent, though the state of the solute makes no difference in the solution as long as they are soluble in the solvent.

  • Solvent: Solvent is a large amount of substance present in a solution that dissolves solute in it. The solvent is also the medium of the solution. Some solvents are Water, Ethanol, Ethyl acetate, Acetone, Benzene etc.
  • Solute: Solute is the substance that is present at a minimum amount according to the need and that gets dissolved in the solvent. Some of the names of solutes are Salt in water, Sugar in tea, Oxygen in seawater, Zinc in dental amalgam etc.

Types of Solutions

Any state of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) can act as both a solvent and a solute during the formation of a solution. As a result, there are nine different types of solutions depending on the physical states of the solute and solvent as,

  • Gaseous solution: This is the type of solution in which the solvent is present in the gaseous state. It can be categorized into three types on the basis of solute present in it:
    • Gas-gas solution: The solution in which both the solute and solvent are present in the gas state is called a gas solution. eg: a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen, carbon dioxide and oxygen, etc.
    • Liquid-Gas solution: The solution in which the solute is present in the liquid state is called a liquid gas solution. eg: a mixture of nitrogen gas and chloroform.
    • Solid-Gas solution: The solution in which the solute is present in the solid-state is s called a solid gas solution. eg: a mixture of nitrogen gas and camphor.
  • Liquid solution: This is the type of solution in which the solvent is present in the liquid state. It has three types according to the solute present in it:
    • Liquid-Gas solution: The solution in which the solute is present in a gas state is called a liquid gas solution. eg: a mixture of oxygen and water.
    • Liquid-Liquid solution: The solution in which both the solvent and solute are present in the liquid state is called a liquid-liquid state. eg: a mixture of ethanoic acid and water also known as vinegar solution.
    • Liquid-Solid solution: The solution in which the solute is present in a solid-state is called a liquid-solid solution. eg: a mixture of sugar and salt.
  • Solid solution: This is the type of solution in which the solvent is present in a solid state is called a solid solution. It can also be categorized into three types:
    • Solid-Gas solution: The solution in which solute is present in a gas state is called a solid-gas solution. eg: a mixture of palladium and hydrogen.
    • Solid-Liquid solution: The solution in which solute is present in a liquid state is called a solid-liquid solution. eg: a mixture of salt and water.
    • Solid-Solid solution: The solution in which both the solute and solvent are present in a solid-state is called a solid-solid solution. eg; a mixture of silver and gold.

Some other different Types of Solutions are:

  • On the basis of Solvent
    • Aqueous solution: The solution which contains water as its solvent is known as an aqueous solution. For eg; A mixture of sugar and water, hydrogen and water, etc.
    • Non-Aqueous solution: The solution which doesn’t contain water as its solvent is known as a non-aqueous solution. For eg: a mixture of gold and copper, sand and salt, etc.
  • On the basis of the dissolution of Solute
    • Unsaturated solution: An unsaturated solution is defined as the solution in which a solvent can dissolve less amount of solute in it at a given temperature. For eg: a vinegar solution.
    • Saturated solution: A saturated solution can be defined as the solution in which the solvent can dissolve more amount of solute in comparison to the unsaturated solution in it at a given temperature. For eg: a sugar solution.
    • Supersaturated solution: A supersaturated solution is defined as a solution that consists of a large amount of solute in it at a given temperature where the extra will be reduced and crystallized quickly. For eg: a mixture of sodium acetate and water.
  • On the basis of the Amount of Solvent
    • Dilute solution: The dilute solution can be defined as the solution in which less amount of solute is dissolved in a large amount of solvent. For eg: salt solution, sugar solution, etc.
    • Concentrated solution: The concentrated solution can be defined as the solution in which a large amount of solute is dissolved in less amount solvent. For eg: orange juice, dark-coloured tea, etc.

Concentration of a Solution

The composition of solutions can be described by going through their concentration which can be expressed qualitatively or quantitatively. Most of the solutions are determined quantitatively in real life. There are some formulas that can be used to find out whether the solution is dilute or concentrated, that are:

  • Mass Percent = {Mass of the component in the solution / Total mass of the solution} × 100
  • Volume Percent = {Volume of the component / Total volume of the solution} × 100
  • Mole fraction of component = {Number of moles of the components / Total number of moles of all components} × 100

Sample Questions

Question 1: What is a vinegar solution made up of? What are they used for?

Answer:

A vinegar solution is a mixture of acetic acid and water. They are used to make glass, clean toilets, dishes, clean and disinfect countertops, etc.

Question 2: Why is orange juice considered a concentrated solution?

Answer:

Orange juice is considered a concentration solution because it has a large amount of orange as solute and the least amount of water as a solvent in it.

Question 3: How does temperature affect the solution?

Answer:

When the temperature increases in a solution the molecules of the solid particles start to break down and can change the state of the substances like melting of solid, change of a liquid into vapour, etc.

Question 4: Supersaturated solution is used in the ecological areas. How?

Answer:

A supersaturated solution is used in the ecological area because it helps to study the activity of organisms and populations.

Question 5: What is Solubility?

Answer:

The solubility of a substance can be defined as the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a specific amount of solvent at a particular temperature. The solubility of a substance depends upon the nature of the solute and solvent. They also depend upon the temperature and pressure around them. 

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