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Manual Testing – Software Testing

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Manual testing is a technique to test the software that is carried out using the functions and features of an application. In manual software testing, a tester carries out tests on the software by following a set of predefined test cases. In this testing, testers make test cases for the codes, test the software, and give the final report about that software. Manual testing is time-consuming because it is done by humans, and there is a chance of human errors.

Every new application must be manually tested before its testing can be automated. Manual Testing requires more effort than automation testing but is necessary to check automation feasibility. There is no requirement for knowledge of any testing tool in manual testing.

Characteristics of Manual Testing

  1. Human Performance: Human testers who use the product in the same way as end users conduct manual testing. Manually carrying out test cases, testers provide input and watch the result to find errors.
  2. Investigative Testing: Exploratory testing, in which testers examine the application without using pre-defined test cases, is a common component of manual testing. This method aids in locating unforeseen problems and evaluating the user experience.
  3. Flexibility: Throughout the testing process, testers are able to adjust to changing conditions and requirements. Based on their observations, they are able to adapt test cases or investigate new ideas.
  4. Initial Testing: Early in the software development life cycle, even before the program is fully developed, manual testing can be started. By doing exploratory testing, testers can find problems early in the development process.
  5. Examining Complex Situations: When testing complex scenarios that could be difficult to automate, manual testing works well. Testers are able to evaluate the interactions between various components and manoeuvre through complex workflows.
  6. Testing User Interfaces (UI): Manual testing is a good way to assess an application’s user interface. From a user’s point of view, testers can evaluate the general design, responsiveness and appearance and feel.

Why Need Manual Testing?

Below are some reasons why manual testing is required:

  • Bug-free and Stability: The main goal of manual testing is to ensure that the application is bug-free, stable, in conformance with the requirements and delivers a stable product to the customers.
  • Familiarity with the product: Manual testing helps the test engineers get more familiar with the product and get an end-user perspective. This helps them to write correct test cases for the software.
  • Fixing the defects: Manual testing helps to ensure that the defects are fixed by the developer and that retesting has been done on the fixed defects.

Steps in Manual Testing

The below diagram lists the steps in the manual testing process:

steps-manual-testing

  1. Requirement Analysis: Study the software project documentation, guides, and Application Under Test (AUT). Analyze the requirements from SRS.
  2. Test Plan Creation: Create a test plan covering all the requirements.
  3. Test Case Creation: Design the test cases that cover all the requirements described in the documentation.
  4. Test Case Execution: Review and baseline the test cases with the team lead and client. Execute the test cases on the application under test.
  5. Defect Logging: Detect the bugs, log and report them to the developers. 
  6. Defect Fix and Re-verification: When bugs are fixed, again execute the failing test cases to verify they pass.

Types of Manual Testing

There are different methods to implement manual testing, but it is broadly classified into three types of manual testing:

Types of Manual Testing
  1. Black Box Testing: In this technique, the tester or the QA analyst will only check the functionality of the particular module or particular method or sometimes the entire application by providing the different test cases manually. Here, the tester will give the input for the application and test it manually. If it returns the expected output, then the tester will proceed with another set of inputs and report all the results to the team. If the input given by the user manually is failed during the testing, then he/she will report this issue to the development team.  
  2. White Box Testing: In this technique, the person will check the internal structure of the system like designs, coding, etc., manually. Here, the development team will review the entire coding part line by line to ensure the correctness of the code. If he/she finds anything dissimilarities or errors in the code, they will correct or fix the errors in the coding or designs. Here, the process is entirely carried out manually and the process is efficient since the checking code or design is manually checked by humans.
  3. Gray Box Testing: This technique is the combination of both white-box testing and black-box testing. Here, the internal structure of the application is partially known by the tester. The tester will check both the internal structure and the functionality of the application manually. The tester will check the coding part as well as test the application by providing different test cases manually. If the input fails at some stage, the tester will then make the changes in the coding part.

Tools Used for Manual Testing

1. Test Link

It is a web-based test management system that facilitates software quality assurance, and it is one of the most user-friendly programs. It is available through a browser connected to the internet. 

Features of Text Link

  • This manual software testing tool support various programming language.
  • Support cross-browser testing across different platform.
  • Facility ti record and playback functionality for test automation.

2. Bugzilla

It is a web-based bug-tracking tool that is developed by Mozilla. It has a simple bug search that searches the complete text of the bug. Features

Features of Bugzilla

  • Supports various OS like Mac, Windows, and Linux.
  • Facility to list the software bug in different format.
  • Bugzilla has advance searching facility.

3. Jira

It is a manual testing tool that helps teams assign, track, report, and manage work and bring teams together. This tool is compatible with agile software projects also. 

Features of Jira

  • Option to track and manage bugs and defects.
  • Prioritize and assign tasks.
  • Collaborate with team members.
  • Easily generate reports and track progress.

4. LoadRunner

It is one of the most widely used performance testing tools. The primary purpose of this tool is to categorize the most prevalent causes of performance problems.  

Features of LoadRunner

  • Simulates real-world user behavior and load.
  • Identifies bottlenecks and performance issues.
  • Scalable architecture for large-scale testing.
  • Provides detailed reports and analysis.

5. Apache JMeter:

It is an open-source load testing tool for analyzing and measuring the performance of a variety of services. It has an easy-to-use user interface. 

Features of JMeter

  • Simulates various types of load (web, database, etc.).
  • Highly configurable and extensible.
  • Integrates with various plugins for additional features.
  • Provides comprehensive performance reports and graphs.
  • Manual Testing vs. Automation Testing

6. Perfecto

It is a software which is used to do manual testing specifically for mobile user interface.

Features of perfecto

  • It consists of various mobile devices screen resolutions which allows us to test the user interface of mobile view with various screen virtual devices.
  • For example, it provides the exact screen resolution of iPhone, Samsung, iPad, Pixel and so on depends on requirements needed.
  • Provides real device user interface experiences.
  • Provides good test environment to find the defects.
  • Developers can also use this to pre-validate their developed code to test for all versions.
  • It allows supports some tablet screen resolutions like iPad.

Differences between Manual Testing and Automation Testing

ParametersManual Testing Automation Testing
DefinitionIt is the process of manually testing the software.It involves the usage of automation tools for executing the test cases.
Test case executionTest cases are executed manually by the QA Testers.Test cases are executed automatically using automation tools and scripts. 
EfficiencyManual testing is less-efficient and time-consuming. Automation testing is more efficient and less time-consuming.
Test coverageIt is difficult to ensure 100% test coverage.More test coverage can be ensured in automation testing. 
Programming knowledgeThere is no need to have programming knowledge, only product knowledge is required. It is important to have programming knowledge to write test scripts. 

Advantages of Manual Testing

  1. Fast and accurate visual feedback: It detects almost every bug in the software application and is used to test the dynamically changing GUI designs like layout, text, etc.
  2. Less expensive: It is less expensive as it does not require any high-level skill or a specific type of tool. 
  3. No coding is required: No programming knowledge is required while using the black box testing method. It is easy to learn for the new testers. 
  4. Efficient for unplanned changes: Manual testing is suitable in case of unplanned changes to the application, as it can be adopted easily.

Disadvantages of Manual Testing

  1. Less reliable: Manual testing is less reliable as it does not provide testing on all aspects of testing.
  2. Can not be reused: There is a need to develop separate test cases for each new software.
  3. Large human resources required: Manual testing requires numerous human resources, and there are some tasks that can’t be performed manually.
  4. Needs experience: The tester needs to know the application well. They develop test cases based on their experience, there is no proof that all the functions are covered or not.
  5. Time-consuming: If the project is large, then the testing process is time-consuming.

Conclusion

Well, this is the end of the article, here we have discussed detailed information about manual testing as well as automated testing. You will also find the key difference between manual and automated software testing along with the popular tool that is used for manual testing.

Manual Testing: FAQs

Q1. Is coding required for manual testing?

No, coding skills are not required for manual testing. However, some say that a basic understanding of programming can help manual testers grow professionally.

Q2. How do beginners learn manual testing?

Practice using manual testing tool like Selenium, Bugzilla, Text Link will give you an overview on how this tool. Along with this use guide that include manual testing.

Q3. Is manual testing a good career?

Manual testing can be a good career choice. Becaue It is easy to learn, no coding required along with this there is no prerequisites to learn manual software testing.




Last Updated : 30 Jan, 2024
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