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CBSE Class 12 Syllabus 2024-25: Subject-wise PDF Download

Last Updated : 29 Apr, 2024
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CBSE Class 12 Syllabus 2024-25 has been released by the Central Board of Secondary Education(CBSE). Students can now download the subject-wise syllabus for CBSE Class 12. This year, CBSE has updated few topics and chapters which we have updated in the article below. Students are advised to go through the latest syllabus of CBSE Class 12th carefully to have a clear understanding of the CBSE Class 12th Exam.

CBSE Class 12 Syllabus 2023-24

By following the CBSE Class 12th syllabus and CBSE Class 12 exam pattern, Students can manage their time table effectively to get better CBSE results. GeeksforGeeks has covered all Class 12th subjects such as Mathematics, Science, Social Science, Languages, and Skill-Based Subjects to make students well prepared.

Let’s take a detailed look at the CBSE Class 12th Syllabus 2024-25.

CBSE Class 12 Syllabus 2024-25: Subject-wise PDF Download

Students of Class 12 under CBSE have to prepare for the following subjects:

Class 12 English (Core) Syllabus 2024-25

Students are expected to have a sufficient level of language ability in English by the time they enter class XII, and the course primarily focuses on developing higher-order language abilities.
For many students, the higher secondary stage will serve as a preparation for university, where a high level of English proficiency may be necessary. For another majority of cases, however, the higher secondary level may serve as a preparation for professional admission. The Core Course should cater to both groups by promoting academic language skills as well as workplace language skills. 

CBSE Class 12 English Core Detailed Syllabus:

Section A: Reading Comprehension through Unseen Passage (18 Marks)

One unseen passage to assess comprehension, interpretation inference, and vocabulary. The passage may be factual, descriptive, or literary.

One unseen case-based passage with verbal/visual inputs like statistical data, charts, etc.

Note: The combined word limit for both passages will be 600-750.

Multiple Choice Questions / Objective Type Questions will be asked. (10+8 = 18 Marks)

  • Note Making and Summarization based on a passage of approximately 200-250 words.
    1. Note Making:
      • Title: 1
      • Numbering and indenting: 1
      • Key/glossary: 1
      • Notes: 2
    2. Summary (up to 50 words): 3 Marks
      • Content
      • Expression

Section B

  1. Questions on Gap filling (Tenses, Clauses)
  2. Questions on re-ordering/transformation of sentences
    (Total seven questions to be done out of the eight given).
Creative Writing Skills
  1. Short writing task – Classified Advertisements up to 50 words. One out of the two given questions to be answered (3 Marks: Format: 1 / Content: 1 / Expression: 1)
  2. Short writing task –Poster up to 50 words. One out of the two given questions is to be answered.(3marks: Format: 1 / Content: 1 / Expression: 1)
  3. Writing a Speech in 120-150 words based on verbal/visual cues related to some contemporary / age-appropriate topic.
  4. Writing a Debate based on visual/verbal inputs in 120-150 words. The theme should be contemporary topical issues. One out of the two given questions is to be answered. (5 Marks: Format: 1 / Content: 2 / Expression: 2)

Section C

Section 1:

Reference to the     Context

  • One Poetry extracts out of two from the book Hornbill to assess comprehension, interpretation, analysis and appreciation. (3××1=3 Marks)
  • One Prose extract out of two from the book Hornbill to assess comprehension, interpretation, analysis and appreciation. (3××1=3 Marks)
  • One prose extracts out of two from the book Snapshots to assess comprehension, interpretation and analysis. (4××1=4 Marks)

Section 2: 

Two Short answer type questions (one from Prose and one from Poetry from the book Hornbill), out of four, to be answered in 40-50 words. Questions should elicit inferential responses through critical thinking. (3××2=6 Marks)

Section 3: 

One Short answer type question, from the book Snapshots, to be answered In 40- 50 words. Questions should elicit inferential responses through critical thinking. Any 1 out of 2 questions to be done. (3××1=3 Marks)

Section 4:

One Long answer type question, from Prose/Poetry Hornbill, to be answered in 120-150 words. Questions can be based on incident/theme/passage/extract/event as reference points to assess extrapolation beyond and across the text. The question will elicit an analytical and evaluative response from the student. Any 1 out of 2 questions to be done. (1××6=6 Marks)

Section 5: 

One Long answer type question, based on the chapters from the book Snapshots to be answered in 120-150 words to assess global comprehension and extrapolation beyond the text. Questions to provide evaluative and analytical responses using incidents, events, and themes as reference points. Any 1 out of 2 questions to be done. (1××6=6 Marks)

This section will have a variety of assessment items including Multiple Choice Questions, Objective Type Questions, Short Answer Type Questions and Long Answer Type Questions to assess comprehension, analysis, interpretation and extrapolation beyond the text.

Class 12 Maths Syllabus 2024-25

Class 12 Maths curriculum is the foundation course for various competitive exams like JEE, NEET, Olympiads, etc. Therefore, GeeksforGeeks presented all the concepts covered in various numbers of the article that covers the whole syllabus of CBSE class 12 Maths in detail, along with every chapter categorized into relevant topics prescribed by the CBSE board and as per the syllabus given in NCERT Class 12 Maths textbooks.

CBSE Class 12 Maths Detailed Syllabus:

Chapters Name

Important Covered Topics In Particular Chapters

Chapter 1: Relations and Functions 
Chapter 2: Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Chapter 3: Matrices 
Chapter 4: Determinants 
Chapter 5: Continuity and Differentiability 
Chapter 7: Application of Derivatives 
Chapter 7: Integrals
Chapter 8: Application of Integrals
Chapter 9: Differential Equations
Chapter 10: Vector Algebra
Chapter 11: Three-Dimensional Geometry
Chapter 12: Linear Programming
Chapter 13: Probability

Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2024-25

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2024-25 has changed over time to reflect the evolution of the subject and the changing needs of society. Senior Secondary is a stepping stone for students who want to pursue higher education in Physics or pursue professional courses such as Engineering, Physical and Biological Science, Commerce, or Computer Applications. 

The current revised syllabus was created in accordance with the National Curriculum Framework 2005 and the guidelines provided by the Focus Group on Teaching of Physics in 2005, with the goal of meeting the evolving needs of all student groups. Greater emphasis has been placed on the application of various concepts, which has been motivated by real-life situations and other subject areas.

CBSE Class 12 Physics Detailed Syllabus:

Chapters Name

Important Covered Topics In Particular Chapters

Chapter 1: Electric Charges and Fields
Chapter 2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
Chapter 3: Current Electricity
Chapter 4: Moving Charges and Magnetism
Chapter 5: Magnetism and Matter
Chapter 6: Electromagnetic Induction
Chapter 7: Alternating Current
Chapter 8: Electromagnetic Waves
Chapter 9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Chapter 10 Wave Optics
Chapter 11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Chapter 12: Atoms
Chapter 13: Nuclei
Chapter 14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2024-25

The CBSE Chemistry Syllabus has changed over time to reflect the evolution of the subject and the changing needs of society. Senior Secondary is a stepping stone for students who want to pursue higher education in Chemistry or pursue professional courses such as Engineering, Physical and Biological Science, Commerce, or Computer Applications.

The current revised syllabus was created in accordance with the National Curriculum Framework 2005 and the guidelines provided by the Focus Group on Teaching of Chemistry in 2005, with the goal of meeting the evolving needs of all student groups. Greater emphasis has been placed on the application of various concepts, which has been motivated by real-life situations and other subject areas.

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Detailed Syllabus:

Chapters Name

Important Covered Topics In Particular Chapters

Unit 1: The Solid State 
Unit 2: Solutions 
Unit 3: Electrochemistry
Unit 4: Chemical Kinetics
Unit 5: Surface Chemistry
Unit 6: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements 
Unit 7: The p-Block Elements 
Unit 8: d- and f-Block Elements
Unit 9: Coordination Compounds 
Unit 10: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Unit 11: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Unit 12: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 
Unit 13: Amines
Unit 14: Biomolecules
Unit 15: Polymers
Unit 16: Chemistry in Everyday Life

Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2024-25

The CBSE Biology Syllabus has changed over time to reflect the evolution of the subject and the changing needs of society. Senior Secondary is a stepping stone for students who want to pursue higher education in Biology or pursue professional courses such as Engineering, Physical and Biological Science, Commerce, or Computer Applications.

The current revised syllabus was created in accordance with the National Curriculum Framework 2005 and the guidelines provided by the Focus Group on Teaching of Biology in 2005, with the goal of meeting the evolving needs of all student groups. Greater emphasis has been placed on the application of various concepts, which has been motivated by real-life situations and other subject areas.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Detailed Syllabus:

Unit Name

Topics Covered

Unit I Reproduction
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Human Reproduction
  • Reproductive Health
Unit II Genetics and Evolution
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Evolution
Unit III Biology in human welfare
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Strategies for Enhancement in 165 Food Production
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
Unit IV Biotechnology
  • Biotechnology: Principles and Processes
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
Unit V Ecology
  • Organisms and Populations
  • Ecosystem
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Environmental Issues

Chapters Name

Important Covered Topics In Particular Chapters

Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms
  • Asexual Reproduction
  • Sexual Reproduction
  • Pre-fertilisation Events
  • Post-fertilisation Events
  • Embryogenesis
Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Animals
Chapter 3: Human Reproduction
Chapter 4: Reproductive Health
Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Chapter 7: Evolution
Chapter 8: Human Health and Disease
Chapter 9: Strategies For Enhancement in Food Production
Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Microbes In Household Products
  • Microbes In Industrial Products
  • Microbes In Sewage Treatment
  • Microbes In the Production Of Biogas
  • Microbes As Biocontrol Agents
  • Microbes As Biofertilisers
Chapter 11: Biotechnology: Principles and Process
  • Restriction Enzymes
  • Cloning Vectors
  • Competent Host (for Transformation With Recombinant DNA)
  • Processes Of Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Insertion Of Recombinant DNA
Chapter 12: Biotechnology and Its Application
  • Biotechnological Applications In Agriculture
  • Genetically Engineered Insulin
  • Gene Therapy
  • Molecular Diagnosis
  • Transgenic Animals
  • Ethical Issues
Chapter 12: Organisms and Populations
  • Organism And Its Environment
  • Major Abiotic Factors
  • Responses To Abiotic Factors
  • Adaptations
  • Population Attributes
  • Population Growth
  • Life History Variation
  • Population Interactions
  • Predation
  • Competition
  • Parasitism
  • Commensalism
  • Mutualism
Chapter 13: Ecosystem
Chapter 14: Biodiversity and Its Conservation
Chapter 15: Environmental Issues

Evaluation Scheme


One Major Experiment 5 5
One Minor Experiment 2 & 3 4
Slide Preparation 1, & 4 5
Spotting 7
Practical Record + Viva Voce (Credit to the student’s work over the academic session may be given) 4

Investigatory Project and its

Project Record + Viva Voce

Total 30

A. List of Experiments 60 Periods

Prepare a temporary mount to observe pollen germination.
Study the plant population density by quadrat method.
Study the plant population frequency by quadrat method.
Prepare a temporary mount of the onion root tip to study mitosis.
Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc.

B. Careful observation of the following (Spotting)

Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds).
Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide or scanning electron micrograph.
Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper/mice).
Meiosis in onion bud cells or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.
T.S. of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian).
Mendelian inheritance uses seeds of different colours/sizes of any plant.
Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow’s peak and colourblindness.
Controlled pollination – emasculation, tagging and bagging.
Common disease-causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, and any fungus-causing ringworm through permanent slides, models or virtual images. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.
Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) were found in xeric conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) were found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.

Class 12 Accountancy Syllabus 2024-25

CBSE Class 12 Accountancy is a practice through which business transactions are recorded, classified, and reported for the proper and successful running of an organization. The detailed syllabus of Accountancy class 12 covers every important topic like Accounting for Non-for-Profit Organisations, Partnership, Admission of a Partner, Retirement of a Partner, Issue of Shares, Issue of Debentures, Financial Statements of a Company, Cash Flow Statement, Computerized Accounting of a Company and so on.

CBSE Class 12 Accountancy Detailed Syllabus:


Chapter Name

Topics Covered 

Chapter 1: Accounting for Non-for-Profit Organization
Chapter 2: Accounting for Partnership: Basic Concepts
Chapter 3: Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm: Change in Profit Sharing Ratio
Chapter 4: Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm: Admission of a Partner
Chapter 5: Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm: Retirement or Death of a Partner
Chapter 6: Dissolution of Partnership Firm
Chapter 7: Accounting for Share Capital
Chapter 8: Issue and Redemption of Debentures


Chapter Name 

Topics Covered

Chapter 1: Financial Statements of a Company
Chapter 2: Analysis of Financial Statements
Chapter 3: Accounting Ratios
Chapter 4: Cash Flow Statement


Chapter Name

Topics Covered

Chapter 1: Overview of Computerised Accounting System
Chapter 2: Accounting Application of Electronic Spreadsheet
  • Concept of Electronic Spreadsheet 
  • Features offered by Electronic Spreadsheet 
  • Application in generating accounting information: Bank Reconciliation Statement, Asset Accounting, Loan Repayment of Loan Schedule, and Ratio Analysis 
  • Data Representation: Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams
Chapter 3: Using a Computerised Accounting System
  • Steps in the installation of CAS, codification and Hierarchy of account heads, creation of accounts  
  • Data: Entry, Validation and Verification 
  • Adjusting Entries, Preparation of Balance Sheet, Profit and Loss Account with Opening and Closing Entries 
  • Need and Security features of the system 

Class 12 Business Studies Syllabus 2024-25

Business Studies for Class 12 CBSE is a study of how to control and manage an organization effectively and efficiently. The detailed syllabus of Class 12 Business Studies covers every important topic, like Functions of Management, Principles of Management, Marketing, Stock Exchange, Training, Recruiting, Planning, and many more. 

CBSE Class 12 Business Studies detailed Syllabus:

Part A: Principles and Functions of Management

Unit Name

Topics Covered

Chapter 1: Nature and Significance of Management
Chapter 2: Principles of Management
Chapter 3: Business Environment
Chapter 4: Planning
Chapter 5: Organising
Chapter 6: Staffing
Chapter 7: Directing
Chapter 8: Controlling

Part B: Business Finance and Marketing

Unit Name

Topics Covered

Chapter 9: Financial Management
Chapter 10: Financial Markets
Chapter 11: Marketing
Chapter 12: Consumer Protection
Unit 13: Project Work  It Includes all practical work and Projects.

Class 12 Computer Science Syllabus 2024-25

CBSE Class 12 Computer Science Detailed Syllabus:

Unit Name 

Topics Covered

Unit I: Computational Thinking and Programming 
  • Revision of Python topics covered in Class XI.
  • Functions: types of function (built-in functions, functions defined in module, user-defined functions), creating user-defined function, arguments and parameters, default parameters, positional parameters, function returning value(s), flow of execution, scope of a variable (global scope, local scope)
  • Introduction to files, types of files (Text file, Binary file, CSV file), relative and absolute paths
  • Text file: opening a text file, text file open modes (r, r+, w, w+, a, a+), closing a text file, opening a file using with clause, writing/appending data to a text file using write() and write lines(), reading from a text file using read(), readline() and readlines(), seek and tell methods, manipulation of data in a text file
  • Binary file: basic operations on a binary file: open using file open modes (rb, rb+, wb, wb+, ab, ab+), close a binary file, import pickle module, dump() and load() method, read, write/create, search, append and update operations in a binary file
  • CSV file: import csv module, open / close csv file, write into a csv file using csv.writer() and read from a csv file using csv.reader( )
  • Data Structure: Stack, operations on stack (push & pop), implementation of stack using list.
Unit II: Computer Networks
Unit III: Database Management                                                                                                                                                                          

CBSE Class 12 – Computer Science Practical:

S.No.      Unit Name Marks (Total = 30)

Lab Test:

1. Python program (60% logic + 20% documentation + 20% code quality)

2. A stub program with Python SQL connectivity must be provided with blanks (4 blanks) to be filled by the student with the desired SQL query. 4

Report file: (i) Minimum 15 Python programs.

(ii) SQL Queries – Minimum 5 sets using one table / two tables.

(iii) Minimum 4 programs based on Python – SQL connectivity

3 Project (using concepts learnt in Classes 11 and 12) 8
4 Viva voce 3

Suggested Practical List:

Python Programming

  • Read a text file line by line and display each word separated by a #.
  • Read a text file and display the number of vowels/consonants/uppercase/lowercase characters in the file.
  • Remove all the lines that contain the character ‘a’ in a file and write it to another file.
  • Create a binary file with the name and roll number. Search for a given roll number and display the name, if not found display an appropriate message.
  • Create a binary file with roll number, name and marks. Input a roll number and update the marks.
  • Write a random number generator that generates random numbers between 1 and 6 (simulates a dice).
  • Write a Python program to implement a stack using the list.
  • Create a CSV file by entering user-id and password, and read and search the password for the given user id.

Database Management

  • Implements the following SQL commands on the student table:
    • ALTER table to add new attributes/modify data type/drop attribute
    • UPDATE table to modify data
    • ORDER By to display data in ascending/descending order o DELETE to remove tuple(s)
    • GROUP BY and find the min, max, sum, count and average
  • A similar exercise may be framed for other cases.
  • Integrate SQL with Python by importing suitable modules.

Suggested Reading Material for Computer Science

  • NCERT Textbook for COMPUTER SCIENCE (Class XII)
  • Support Materials on the CBSE website.
At Last, Make Computer Science Projects.

Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2024-25

CBSE Class 12 Economics Detailed Syllabus:

Macroeconomics deals with the study of the national economy as a whole. The notes of Class 12 Macroeconomics contain six chapters covering important topics, like National Income, Circular Flow of Income, Balance of Payment, Government Budget, and many more. 

Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics

Unit 1: National Income and Related Aggregates
Unit 2: Money and Banking
Unit 3: Determination of Income and Employment
Unit 4: Government Budget and the Economy
Unit 5: Balance of Payments

Economic Development is a wider concept than economic growth and deals with the programs, activities, and policies that aim at improving the economic well-being and quality of life of a country. The notes of Class 12 Indian Economic Development contain 10 chapters covering important topics, like World Trade Organisation, Economic Reforms, Agriculture, Industrial Sector, Sustainable Environment, GDP, Employment, Rural Development, Human Capital and Human Development, Unemployment, Liberalization, Privatisation, Globalisation, and many more. 

Part B: Indian Economic Development

Unit 6: Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991
Unit 7: Current challenges facing Indian Economy
Unit 8: Development Experience of India
  • Comparative Development Experiences of India and its Neighbours: Introduction  
  • Comparative Development Experiences of India and its Neighbours: Demographic Indicators  

Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2024-25

CBSE Class 12 Geography Detailed Syllabus

Part A: Fundamentals of Human Geography (90 Periods)

Unit Name

Topics Covered

Unit 1: Human Geography: Nature and Scope (07 Periods)
  • The Naturalisation of Humans and Humanisation of Nature
  • Human Geography through the Corridors of Time
  • Fields and Sub-fields of Human Geography
Unit 2: People (20 Periods)
  • The World Population- distribution, density and Growth
  • Population change – Components of population change, Demographic Transition
  • Human development – concept; selected indicators, international comparisons
Unit 3: Human Activities (32 Periods)
  • Primary activities – concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities – some examples from selected countries
  • Secondary activities- concept; manufacturing: types – household, small scale, large scale; agro-based and mineral-based industries;
  • Tertiary activities – concept; trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities
  • Quaternary activities- concept; people engaged in quaternary activities – a case study from selected countries
Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade (26 Periods)
  • Land transport – roads, railways; transcontinental railways Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes
  • Air transport- Intercontinental air routes Oil and gas pipelines
  • Satellite communication and cyberspace importance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS
  • International trade- bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade; the role of WTO in international trade

Map Work on the identification of features based on 1-5 units on the outline

Physical/Political map of the World (05 Periods)

Part B: India: People and Economy (90 Periods)

Unit Name

Topics Covered

Unit 6: People (15 Periods)
  • Population: distribution, density and growth; composition of the population – linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in the growth of population
Unit 7: Human Settlements (10 Periods)
  • Rural settlements – types and distribution
  • Urban settlements – types, distribution and functional classification
Unit 8: Resources and Development (30 Periods)
  • Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use; geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber); agricultural development and problems
  • Water resources-availability and utilization irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management
  • Mineral and energy resources- distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation
  • Planning in India- target group area planning (case study); the idea of sustainable development (case study)
Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade (15 Periods)
  • Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication networks
  • International trade- changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; seaports and their hinterland and airports
Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and Problems (15 Periods)
  • Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal
  • Urbanization, rural-urban migration; problems of slums
  • Land degradation
Map work on locating and labelling of features based on the above units on an outline map of India (05 Periods)

Part C: Practical Work in Geography Part II (40 Periods)

Unit Name

Topics Covered

Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping (25 Periods)
  • Type and Sources of data: Primary, Secondary and other sources
  • Tabulating and processing of data; calculation of averages, measures of central tendency
  • Representation of data- construction of diagrams: bars, circles and flowchart; thematic maps; construction of dot; choropleth and isopleths maps
Unit 2: Spatial Information Technology (15 Periods) Introduction to GIS; hardware requirements and software modules; data formats; raster and vector data, data input, editing and topology building; data analysis; overlay and buffer.

Class 12 History Syllabus 2024-25

CBSE Class 12 History Detailed Syllabus:


Unit Name

Topics Covered

Chapter 1: Bricks, Beads and Bones: The Harappan Civilization
  • Broad overview: Early urban centres
  • Story of discovery: Harappan civilization
  • Excerpt: Archaeological report on a major site
  • Discussion: How it has been utilized by archaeologists/ historians
Chapter 2: Kings, Farmers and Towns: Early States and Economies 
  • Broad overview: Political and economic 
  • History from the Mauryan to the Gupta period
  • Story of discovery: Inscriptions and the Decipherment of the script. 
  • Shifts in the Understanding of political and economic history. 
  • Excerpt: Ashokan inscription and Gupta period land grant 
  • Discussion: Interpretation of inscriptions by historians.
Chapter 3: Kinship, Caste And Class: Early Societies 
  • Broad overview 
  • Social Histories: Using the Mahabharata Issues in social history, including caste, class, kinship and gender
  • Story of discovery: Transmission and publications of the Mahabharat 
  • Excerpt: from the Mahabharata, illustrating how it has been used by historians. 
  • Discussion: Other sources for reconstructing social history.
Chapter 4: Thinkers, Bliefes and Buildings: Cultural Developments
  • Broad overview
  • A History of Buddhism: Sanchi Stupa 
  • A brief review of religious histories of Vedic religion, Jainism, Vaishnavism, Shaivism (Puranic Hinduism)
  • Focus on Buddhism
  • Story of discovery: Sanchi stupa
  • Excerpt: Reproduction of sculptures from Sanchi
  • Discussion: Ways in which sculpture has been interpreted by historians, and other sources for reconstructing the history of Buddhism.


Unit Name

Topics Covered

Chapter 5: Through the Eyes of Travellers: Perceptions of Society
  • Broad Overview: outlines of social and cultural life as they appear in the traveller’s account
  • Story of their writings: A discussion of where they travelled, what they wrote and for whom they wrote. 
  • Excerpts: from Al Biruni, Ibn Battuta, Francois Bernier. 
  • Discussion: What these travel accounts can tell us and how they have been interpreted by historians?
Chapter 6: Bhakti–Sufi Traditions: Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional Texts
  • Broad overview: Outline of religious developments during this period saints.
  • Ideas and practices of the Bhakti-Sufi
  • Story of Transmission: How Bhakti-Sufi compositions have been preserved.
  • Excerpt: Extracts from selected Bhakti-Sufi works.
  • Discussion: Ways in which these have been interpreted by historians.
Chapter 7: An Imperial Capital: Vijayanagara 
  • Broad Over View: New Architecture: Hampi
  • Outline of new buildings during Vijayanagar period-temples, forts, irrigation facilities.
  • Relationship between architecture and the political system
  • Story of Discovery: Account of how Hampi was found.
  • Excerpt: Visuals of buildings at Hampi
  • Discussion: Ways in which historians have analyzed and interpreted these structures.
Chapter 8: Peasants, Zamindars and the State: Agrarian Society and the Mughal Empire 
  • Broad overview: The Aini-Akbari
  • Structure of agrarian relations in the 16th and 17th centuries
  • Patterns of change over the period
  • Story of Discovery: Account of the compilation and translation of Ain I Akbari
  • Excerpt: from the Ain-i-Akbari
  • Discussion: Ways in which historians have used texts to reconstruct history.
Chapter 9: Kings and Chronicles: The Mughal Courts
  • The Mughals and Their Empire
  • Different Chronicles of Mughals
  • The Paintings of the Mughal Period
  • Historical Text of Mughals: Akbar Nama and the Badshah Nama
  • The Ideal Kingdom of the Mughal Empire
  • Capitals and Courts of the Mughals
  • The Mughal Household
  • The Officials in Mughal Administration
  • Jesuit Missionaries in the Mughal Court
  • Akbar’s Quest for Religion


Unit Name

Topics Covered

Chapter 10: Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official Archives
  • Colonialism and Rural Society: Evidence from Official Reports
  • Life of zamindars, peasants and artisans in the late18th century
  • Permanent Settlement, Santhals and Paharias
  • Story of official records: An account of why official Investigations into rural societies were undertaken and the types of records and reports produced. 
  • Excerpts: From Fifth Report
  • Discussion: What do the official records tell and do not tell, and how they have been used by historians?
Chapter 11: Rebels and the Raj: 1857 Revolt and its Representations
  • The events of1857-58 
  • Vision of Unity
  • How these events were recorded and narrated.
  • Focus: Lucknow
  • Excerpts: Pictures of 1857. Extracts from contemporary accounts.
  • Discussion: How the pictures of 1857 shaped British opinion of what had happened.
Chapter 12: Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement: Civil Disobedience and Beyond 
  • The Nationalist Movement 1918 -48 
  • The nature of Gandhian politics and leadership.
  • Focus: Mahatma Gandhi and the three movements and his last days as “finest hours”
  • Excerpts: Reports from English and Indian language newspapers and other contemporary writings.
  • Discussion: How newspapers can be a source of history
Chapter 13: Framing the Constitution: The Beginning of a New Era 
  • The Making of the Constitution an overview
  • Independence and then a new nation-state.
  • The making of the Constitution
  • Focus: The Constituent Assembly Debates
  • Excerpts: from the debates
  • Discussion: What do such debates reveal and how they can be analyzed?


Book 1 

1 Page 2

Mature Harappan sites:

  • Harappa, Banawali, Kalibangan, Balakot, Rakhigarhi, Dholavira, Nageshwar, Lothal, Mohenjodaro, Chanhudaro, KotDiji.
2 Page 30

Mahajanapada and cities :

  • Vajji, Magadha, Kosala, Kuru, Panchala, Gandhara, Avanti, Rajgir, Ujjain, Taxila, Varanasi.
3 Page 33

Distribution of Ashokan inscriptions:

  • Kushanas, Shakas, Satavahanas, Vakatakas,Guptas
  • Cities/towns: Mathura, Kannauj, Puhar, Braghukachchha
  • Pillar inscriptions -Sanchi, Topra, Meerut Pillar and Kaushambi.
  • Kingdom of Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas.
4 Page 43

Important kingdoms and towns:

  • Kushanas, Shakas, Satavahanas, Vakatakas,Guptas.
  • Cities/towns: Mathura, Kanauj, Puhar, Braghukachchha, Shravasti, Rajgir, Vaishali, Varanasi, Vidisha
5 Page 95

Major Buddhist Sites:

  • Nagarjunakonda, Sanchi, Amaravati, Lumbini, Nasik, Bharhut, BodhGaya, Shravasti, Ajanta.

Book 2

6 Page 174

Bidar, Golconda, Bijapur, Vijayanagar, Chandragiri, Kanchipuram, Mysore,

Thanjavur, Kolar, Tirunelveli, Quilon

7 Page 214

Territories under Babur, Akbar and Aurangzeb:

  • Delhi, Agra, Panipat, Amber, Ajmer, Lahore, Goa.

Book 3

8 Page 297

Territories/cities under British Control in1857:

  • Punjab, Sindh, Bombay, Madras Fort St. David, Masulipatam, Berar, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Avadh, Surat, Calcutta, Daccan, Patna, Benaras, Allahabad and Lucknow.
9 Page 305

Main centres of the Revolt of 1857:

  • Delhi, Meerut, Jhansi, Lucknow, Kanpur, Azamgarh, Calcutta, Benaras, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Agra, Avadh.

Important centres of the National Movement:

  • Champaran, Kheda, Ahmedabad, Benaras, Amritsar, ChauriChaura, Lahore, Bardoli, Dandi, Bombay (Quit India Resolution), Karachi.

Class 12 Informatics Practices Syllabus 2024-25

CBSE Class 12 Informatics Practices Detailed Syllabus:

Unit Name

Topics Covered

Unit 1: Data Handling using Pandas 
  • Introduction to Python libraries- Pandas, Matplotlib
  • Data structures in Pandas – Series and Data Frames.
  • Series: Creation of Series from – ndarray, dictionary, scalar value; mathematical operations; Head and Tail functions; Selection, Indexing and Slicing.
  • Data Frames: creation – from the dictionary of Series, list of dictionaries, Text/CSV files; display; iteration; Operations on rows and columns: add, select, delete, rename; Head and Tail functions; Indexing using Labels, Boolean Indexing
  • Importing/Exporting Data between CSV files and Data Frames 
  • Data Visualization
  • Purpose of plotting; drawing and saving the following types of plots using Matplotlib – line plot, bar graph, histogram
  • Customizing plots: adding label, title, and legend in plots.
Unit 2: Database Query using SQL
  • Math functions: POWER (), ROUND (), MOD ().
  • Text functions: UCASE ()/UPPER (), LCASE ()/LOWER (), MID ()/SUBSTRING ()/SUBSTR (), LENGTH (), LEFT (), RIGHT (), INSTR (), LTRIM (), RTRIM (), TRIM ().
  • Date Functions: NOW (), DATE (), MONTH (), MONTHNAME (), YEAR (), DAY (), DAYNAME ().
  • Aggregate Functions: MAX (), MIN (), AVG (), SUM (), COUNT (); using COUNT (*).
  • Querying and manipulating data using Group by, Having, and Order by.
Unit 3: Introduction to Computer Networks
  • Introduction to networks, Types of network: LAN, MAN, WAN.
  • Network Devices: modem, hub, switch, repeater, router, gateway
  • Network Topologies: Star, Bus, Tree, Mesh.
  • Introduction to Internet, URL, WWW, and its applications- Web, email, Chat, VoIP.
  • Website: Introduction, the difference between a website and a webpage, static vs dynamic web page, web server and hosting of a website.
  • Web Browsers: Introduction, commonly used browsers, browser settings, add-ons and plug-ins, cookies.
Unit 4: Societal Impacts
  • Digital footprint, net and communication etiquettes, data protection, intellectual property rights (IPR), plagiarism, licensing and copyright, free and open source software (FOSS), cybercrime and cyber laws, hacking, phishing, cyberbullying, an overview of Indian IT Act.
  • E-waste: hazards and management.
  • Awareness about health concerns related to the usage of technology.

Project Work

The aim of the class project is to create tangible and useful IT applications. The learner may identify a real-world problem by exploring the environment. e.g. Students can visit shops/business places, communities or other organizations in their localities and enquire about the functioning of the organization, and how data are generated, stored, and managed.

The learner can take data stored in CSV or database files and analyze using Python libraries and generate appropriate charts to visualize.

If an organization is maintaining data offline, then the learner should create a database using MySQL and store the data in tables. Data can be imported into Pandas for analysis and visualization.

Learners can use Python libraries of their choice to develop software for their school or any other social good.

Learners should be sensitized to avoid plagiarism and violation of copyright issues while working on projects. Teachers should take the necessary measures for this. Any resources (data, images etc.) used in the project must be suitably referenced.

The project can be done individually or in groups of 2 to 3 students. The project should be started by students at least 6 months before the submission deadline.

Class 12 Political Science Syllabus 2024-25

CBSE Class 12  Political Science Detailed Syllabus:

Part A: Contemporary World Politics

Unit Name

Topics Covered

Chapter 1: The End of Bipolarity (22 Periods)
  • The disintegration of the Soviet Union
  • Unipolar World, Middle East Crisis – Afghanistan
  • Gulf War
  • Democratic Politics 
  • Democratization – CIS and the 21st Century (Arab Spring).
Chapter 2: New Centres of Power (18 Periods)
  • Organizations: European Union, ASEAN, SAARC, BRICS. 
  • Nations: Russia, China, Israel, India.
Chapter 3: Contemporary South Asia (18 Periods)
  • Conflicts and efforts for Peace and Democratization in South Asia: Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives.
Chapter 4: United Nations and its Organizations (10 Periods)
  • Principle Organs, Key Agencies: UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO, ILO, Security Council and the Need for its Expansion.
Chapter 5:Security in Contemporary World (12 Periods)
  • Security: Meaning and Types; Terrorism.
Chapter 6: Environment and Natural Resources (12 Periods)
  • Environmental Movements, 
  • Global Warming 
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation of Natural Resources.
Chapter 7: Globalization (12 Periods)
  • Globalization: Meaning
  • Manifestations
  • Debates.

Part B: Politics in India Since Independence

Unit Name 

Topics Covered

Chapter 8: Challenges of Nation-Building (16 Periods)
  • Nation and Nation Building, 
  • Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel and Integration of States, 
  • Legacy of Partition: Challenge of Refugee, Resettlement, 
  • Kashmir Issue, 
  • Nehru’s Approach to Nation–Building, 
  • Political Conflicts over Language and Linguistic Organization of States.
Chapter 9: Planned Development (8 Periods)
  • Changing nature of India’s Economic Development, 
  • Planning Commission and Five-year Plans, 
  • National Development Council, NITI Aayog.
Chapter 10: India’s Foreign Policy (20 Periods)
  • Principles of Foreign Policy; 
  • India’s Changing Relations with Other Nations: US, Russia, China, Israel; 
  • India’s Relations with its Neighbours: Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Myanmar; 
  • India’s Nuclear Programme.
Chapter 11: Parties and the Party Systems in India (30 Periods)
  • Congress System, 
  • Bi-party System, 
  • Multi-party Coalition System.
Chapter 12: Democratic Resurgence (30 Periods)
  • Jai Prakash Narayan and Total Revolution, 
  • Ram Manohar Lohia and Socialism, 
  • Deendayal Upadhyaya and Integral Humanism, 
  • National Emergency, 
  • Democratic Upsurges – Participation of the Adults, Backwards and Youth.
Chapter 12: Regional Aspirations (36Periods)
  • Rise of Regional Parties, 
  • Punjab Crisis, 
  • The Kashmir issue, 
  • Movements for Autonomy.
Chapter 13: Indian Politics: Recent Trends and Developments (36 Periods)
  • Era of Coalitions: National Front, 
  • United Front, 
  • United Progressive Alliance [UPA] – I & II,
  • National Democratic Alliance [NDA] – I, II, III & IV, 
  • Issues of Development and Governance.

Class 12 Psychology Syllabus 2024-25

CBSE Class 12 Psychology detailed Syllabus 

Unit Name

Topics Covered

Chapter 1: Variations in Psychological Attributes
  • Introduction
  • Individual Differences in Human Functioning
  • Assessment of Psychological Attributes
  • Intelligence
  • Psychometric Theories of Intelligence, Information Processing Theory: Planning, Attention-arousal and Simultaneous successive Model of Intelligence, Triarchic Theory of Intelligence; Theory of Multiple Intelligences.
  • Individual Differences in Intelligence
  • Culture and Intelligence
  • Emotional Intelligence
  • Special Abilities: Aptitude: Nature and Measurement
  • Creativity
Chapter 2: Self and Personality
  • Introduction
  • Self and Personality
  • Concept of Self
  • Cognitive and Behavioural Aspects of Self
  • Culture and Self
  • Concept of Personality
  • Major Approaches to the Study of Personality
    • Type Approaches
    • Trait Approaches
    • Psychodynamic Approach and Post-Freudian Approaches
    • Behavioural Approach
    • Cultural Approach
    • Humanistic Approach
  • Assessment of Personality
    • Self-report Measures
    • Projective Techniques
    • Behavioural Analysis
Chapter 3: Meeting Life Challenges
  • Introduction
  • Nature, Types and Sources of Stress
  • Effects of Stress on Psychological Functioning and Health
    • Stress and Health
    • General Adaptation Syndrome
    • Stress and Immune System
    • Lifestyle
  • Coping with Stress
    • Stress Management Techniques
  • Promoting Positive Health and Well-being
    • Life Skills
    • Positive Health
Chapter 4: Psychological Disorders
  • Introduction
  • Concepts of Abnormality and Psychological Disorders
    • Historical Background
  • Classification of Psychological Disorders
  • Factors Underlying Abnormal Behaviour
  • Major Psychological Disorders
    • Anxiety Disorders
    • Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
    • Trauma-and Stressor-Related Disorders
    • Somatic Symptoms and Related Disorders
    • Dissociative Disorders
    • Depressive Disorder
    • Bipolar and Related Disorders
    • Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders
    • Neurodevelopmental Disorders
    • Disruptive, Impulse-Control and Conduct Disorders
    • Feeding and Eating Disorders
    • Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders
Chapter 5: Therapeutic Approaches
  • Nature and Process of Psychotherapy
    • Therapeutic relationship
  • Types of Therapies
    • Behaviour Therapy
    • Cognitive Therapy
    • Humanistic-Existential Therapy
    • Alternative Therapies
    • Factors contributing to healing in psychotherapy
    • Ethics in Psychotherapy
  • Rehabilitation of the Mentally Ill
Chapter 6: Attitude and Social Cognition
  • Introduction
  • Explaining Social Behaviour
  • Nature and Components of Attitudes
  • Attitude Formation and Change
    • Attitude Formation
    • Attitude Change
    • Attitude-Behaviour Relationship
  • Prejudice and Discrimination
  • Strategies for Handling Prejudice
Chapter 7: Social Influence and Group Processes
  • Introduction
  • Nature and Formation of Groups
  • Type of Groups
  • Influence of Group on Individual Behaviour
    • Social Loafing
    • Group Polarisation


CBSE Class 12 Sociology Syllabus 2024-25

CBSE Class 12 Sociology Detailed Syllabus


Unit Name

Topics Covered

Unit 1: Introducing Indian Society (0 Periods)
  • Colonialism, Nationalism, Class and Community (Non-evaluative)
Unit 2: The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society (10 Periods)
  • Theories and Concepts in Demography
  • Rural-Urban Linkages and Divisions
  • Population Policy in India
Unit 3: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change (12 Periods)
  • Caste and the Caste System
  • Tribal Communities
  • Family and Kinship
Unit 5: Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion (18 Periods)
  • Social Inequality and Social Exclusion
  • Systems Justifying and Perpetuating Inequality – Caste, Tribe, the Other Backward Classes
  • Adivasi Struggles
  • The Struggle for Women’s Equality and Rights
  • The Struggles of the Differently Abled
Unit 6: The Challenges of Cultural Diversity (22 Periods)
  • Cultural communities and the nation-state
  • Regionalism in the Indian Context
  • The Nation-state and religion-related issues and identities
  • Communalism, secularism and the nation-state
  • State and Civil Society
Unit 7 Suggestions for Project Work (10 Periods)


Unit Name

Topics Covered

Unit 8: Structural Change (8 Periods)
  • Understanding Colonialism, Industrialization, Urbanization
Unit 9: Cultural Change (12 Periods)
  • Social Reform Movements
  • Different Kinds of Social Change: Sanskritisation, Westernization, Modernization, Secularization
Unit 11: Change and Development in Rural Society (10 Periods)
  • Agrarian Structure: Caste & Class in Rural India
  • Land Reforms, Green Revolution and Emerging Agrarian Society
  • Green Revolution and its social consequences
  • Transformation in Rural Society
  • Circulation of labour
  • Globalization, Liberalization and Rural Society
Unit 12: Change and Development in Industrial Society (12 Periods)
  • From Planned Industrialization to LiberalizationC
  • How people find Jobs
  • Work Processes: How work is carried out, working conditions, home-based work, Strikes and Unions
Unit 15: Social Movements (18 Periods)
  • Concept of Social Movements
  • Theories and Classification of Social Movements
  • Environmental Movements
  • Class-Based Movements: Workers, Peasants
  • Caste-Based Movements: Dalit Movement, Backward Class/Castes, Trends in Upper Caste Responses
  • Tribal Movements
  • Women’s Movements in Independent India

CBSE Class 12 Syllabus 2024-2025 – FAQs

Where can I download the CBSE Class 12 Syllabus for free?

You can download the CBSE Class 12 Syllabus from the official website of the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) or from other educational websites.

Is class 12 maths the same as commerce and science?

No, the CBSE Class 12 Syllabus differs according to the stream the student has opted for, such as Science, Commerce, or Humanities.

What are the main subjects in CBSE Class 12?

The CBSE Class 12 Syllabus covers major subjects such as Mathematics, Physics, Accounts, Social Science, Languages, and Skill-Based subjects.

Has CBSE released syllabus for Class 12 2024?

Yes, CBSE has released syllabus fro Class 12 2024, students can check here.

How to check class 12 CBSE syllabus?

Students can visit the official website of CBSE or can check here.

Is CBSE 12th syllabus reduced?

Yes, CBSE Class 12 Syllabus has reduced, students can check the updated CBSE Class 12 Syllabus here.

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