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Accountancy is the process of measuring, processing and recording an organization’s financial and non-financial statements. It has a wider scope than Accounting as it is the route to the Accounting process. Accountancy is responsible for prescribing the accounting conventions, principles, and techniques to be followed by an organization during the accounting process. The nature of Accounting is dynamic and analytical and hence, requires special abilities and skills in an individual to interpret the information better and effectively. 

Accountancy

Accountancy Class XI

PART – A

Chapter 1: Introduction to Accounting

  1. Introduction to Accounting
  2. Types and Users of Accounting Information
  3. Difference between Bookkeeping and Accounting
  4. Accounting: Objectives, Characteristics, Advantages, Disadvantages and Role of Accounting
  5. Basic Accounting Terms
  6. Difference between Accounting and Accountancy

Chapter 2: Theory Base of Accounting

  1. Accounting Standards: Need, Benefits, Limitations and Applicability
  2. IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards) and GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles)
  3. Difference between Cash Basis and Accrual Basis of Accounting
  4. Basic Accounting Concepts
  5. Systems and Basis of Accounting | Single and Double Entry System

Chapter 3: Recording of Business Transactions

  1. What is an Accounting Voucher? Explain the Types of Vouchers.
  2. Introduction to Accounting Equation
  3. Accounting Equation | Increase in Assets and Capitals both and Increase in Assets and Liability both
  4. Accounting Equation | Decrease in Assets and Capital both and Decrease in Asset and Liability both
  5. Accounting Equation|Decrease in Capital and Increase in the Liability, Decrease in Liability and Increase in the Capital and Increase and Decrease in Assets
  6. Accounting Equation|Sale of Goods and Calculation of Net Worth (Owner’s Equity) Or Capital
  7. Journal Entries
  8. Rules of Journal Entry
  9. Journal Entry (Capital, Drawings, Expenses, Income & Goods)
  10. Journal Entry for Capital
  11. Journal Entry for Drawings
  12. Journal Entry for Paid Expenses
  13. Journal Entry for Income
  14. Journal Entry for Sales and Purchase of Goods
  15. Journal Entry for Cash and Credit Transactions
  16. Journal Entries | Banking Transactions (Part-1)
  17. Journal Entries | Banking Transactions (Part-2)
  18. Journal Entry for Assets
  19. Journal Entry for Depreciation
  20. Journal Entry for Discount Allowed and Received
  21. Journal Entry for Full/Final Settlement
  22. What is a Compound Journal Entry ?
  23. Opening Journal Entry
  24. Journal Entry for Bad Debts and Bad Debts Recovered
  25. Journal Entry for Loss of Insured Goods/Assets
  26. Journal Entry for Loan Taken
  27. Journal Entry for Loan Given
  28. Journal Entry for Outstanding Expenses
  29. Journal Entry for Prepaid or Unexpired or Advance Expenses
  30. Journal Entry for Accrued Income or Income Due
  31. Journal Entry for Income Received in Advance or Unearned Income
  32. Journal Entry for Income Tax
  33. Journal Entry for Life Insurance Premium & Employee’s Life Insurance Premium
  34. Journal Entry for Interest on Capital
  35. Journal Entry for Interest on Drawings
  36. Journal Entry for Use of Goods in Business
  37. Journal Entry for Expenditure on Assets (Erection or Installation)
  38. Journal Entry for Expenses on Purchase of Goods
  39. Journal Entries under GST (Goods and Services Tax)
  40. Cash Book: Meaning, Types. and Example
  41. Purchases Book: Meaning, Format, and Example
  42. Sales Book: Meaning, Format and Example
  43. Purchase Return Book: Meaning, Format, and Example
  44. Sales Return Book: Meaning, Format, and Example
  45. Journal Proper: Meaning, Format and Examples
  46. What is Ledger in Accounting – Meaning, Format, Example and Balancing of Accounts

Chapter 4: Bank Reconciliation Statement

  1. Bank Reconciliation Statement
  2. Preparation of Bank Reconciliation Statement
  3. Difference between Bank Statement and Bank Reconciliation Statement
  4. Preparation of Bank Reconciliation Statement without correcting Cash Book
  5. Bank Reconciliation Statement: Preparation of Reconciliation without correcting Cash Book-II
  6. Preparation of Bank Reconciliation Statement with Amended Cash Book
  7. Bank Reconciliation Statement: When Extracts from Cash Book and Pass Book are given

Chapter 5: Depreciation, Provisions, and Reserves

  1. Depreciation: Features, Causes, Factors and Need
  2. Methods of charging Depreciation
  3. Straight Line Method of Charging Depreciation
  4. Written Down Value Method
  5. Difference between Straight Line and Written Down Value Method of calculating Depreciation
  6. Accounting Treatment of Depreciation
  7. Depletion and Amortization: Meaning and Difference
  8. Provisions in Accounting – Meaning, Accounting Treatment, and Example
  9. Reserves in Accounting: Meaning, Accounting Treatment, Importance, and Example
  10. Difference between Provisions and Reserves
  11. Reserves and its Types
  12. Difference between Capital Reserve and Revenue Reserve

Chapter 6: Trial Balance and Rectification of Errors

  1. Trial Balance: Meaning, Objectives, Preparation, Format, and Example
  2. Types of Errors in Trial Balance
  3. Detection and Rectification of Errors in Trial Balance
  4. What is a Suspense Account?

Chapter 7: Bills of Exchange

  1. Bills of Exchange: Meaning, Features, Parties, and Advantages
  2. Promissory Note: Features and Parties
  3. Difference between Bills of Exchange and Promissory Note
  4. Important Terms in Bills of Exchange
  5. Accounting Treatment of Bills of Exchange

PART – B

Chapter 1: Financial Statements

  1. Introduction to Financial Statements
  2. Financial Statements with Adjustments
  3. Financial Statements with Adjustments (Journal Entries)
  4. Financial Statement with Adjustment with Examples-I
  5. Adjustment of Closing Stock in Final Accounts (Financial Statements)
  6. Adjustment of Outstanding Expenses in Final Accounts (Financial Statements)
  7. Adjustment of Prepaid Expenses in Final Accounts (Financial Statements)
  8. Adjustment of Accrued Income in Final Accounts (Financial Statements)
  9. Adjustment of Unearned Income in Final Accounts (Financial Statements)
  10. Financial Statement with Adjustment with Examples-II
  11. Adjustment of Interest on Capital in Final Accounts (Financial Statements)
  12. Adjustment of Interest on Drawings in Final Accounts (Financial Statements)
  13. Adjustment of Interest on Loan in Final Accounts (Financial Statements)
  14. Adjustment of Proprietor’s Salary in Final Accounts (Financial Statements)
  15. Adjustment of Interest on Deposits in Final Accounts (Financial Statements)
  16. Financial Statement with Adjustment with Examples-III
  17. Adjustment of Depreciation in Final Accounts (Financial Statements)
  18. Adjustment of Appreciation in Final Accounts (Financial Statements)
  19. Adjustment of Bad Debts in Final Accounts (Financial Statements)
  20. Adjustment of Provision for Bad and Doubtful Debts in Final Accounts (Financial Statements)
  21. Adjustment of Bad Debts Recovered in Final Accounts (Financial Statements)
  22. Financial Statement with Adjustment-Provision for Discount on Debtors, Provision for Discount on Creditors, Loss of Insured Goods & Assets, Goods given away as Charity or Free Sample, Goods used for Personal Purpose
  23. Financial Statement with Adjustment with Examples-V
  24. Adjustment of Use of Goods in Business in Final Accounts (Financial Statements)
  25. Adjustment of Manager’s Commission in Final Accounts (Financial Statements)
  26. Adjustment of Deferred Revenue Expenditure in Final Accounts (Financial Statements)
  27. Financial Statement with Adjustment-Loss of Insured Goods & Assets (All three cases)
  28. Stakeholders and their Information Requirements
  29. Capital and Revenue: Meaning and Difference
  30. Capital Expenditure | Meaning, Example and Accounting Treatment
  31. Revenue Expenditure | Meaning and Example and Accounting Treatment
  32. Capital Receipts | Meaning and Example and Accounting Treatment 
  33. Revenue Receipts | Meaning and Example and Accounting Treatment
  34. Difference between Capital Expenditure and Revenue Expenditure in Accountancy
  35. Difference between Capital Receipts and Revenue Receipts in Accountancy
  36. Trading and Profit and Loss Account: Meaning and Relevant Items
  37. Trading and Profit and Loss Account: Opening Journal Entries
  38. Operating Profit (EBIT): Meaning, Formula and Example
  39. Balance Sheet: Meaning, Format, Need and Objectives
  40. How to prepare a Balance Sheet?

Accountancy Class XII

PART – A (ACCOUNTING FOR PARTNERSHIP FIRMS AND COMPANIES)

Chapter 1: Accounting for Non-for-Profit Organization

  1. Accounting for Non-for-Profit Organization: Introduction
  2. Financial Statement of Not-for-Profit Organization: Receipt and Payment Account
  3. Not-for-Profit Organisations- Features and Financial Statements
  4. Difference Between Not for Profit Organisation and Profit Earning Organisation
  5. Income and Expenditure Account of a Not for Profit Organisation
  6. Difference between Receipt and Payment Account And Income and Expenditure Account
  7. Financial Statement of Not-for-Profit Organization: Balance Sheet
  8. Accounting Treatment of Subscriptions and Expenses
  9. Accounting Treatment of Consumable Items: Stationery and Sports Material
  10. Accounting Treatment: Admission or Entrance Fees, Donation and Legacies, Grants from Government, Sale of Fixed Assets, Life Membership Fees
  11. Fund based Accounting
  12. Receipt and Payment Account for Not for Profit Organisation
  13. Income & Expenditure Account: Accounting Treatment
  14. Balance Sheet for Not for Profit Organisation
  15. Practical Questions on Balance sheet for Not for Profit Organisation
  16. Practical Questions on Receipt & Payment Account

Chapter 2: Accounting for Partnership: Basic Concepts

  1. Introduction to Accounting for Partnership
  2. Partnership Deed and Provisions of the Indian Partnership Act 1932
  3. Difference between Limited Liability Partnership and Partnership Firm
  4. Accounting Treatment for Interest on Partner’s Capital
  5. Interest on Drawing in case of Partnership
  6. Accounting Treatment of Partner’s Loan, Rent Paid to a Partner, Commission Payable to a Partner, Manager’s Commission on Net Profit
  7. Introduction to Profit and Loss Appropriation Account
  8. Difference between Profit and Loss Account And Profit and Loss Appropriation Account
  9. Capital Accounts of the Partner: Fixed Capital Method
  10. Capital Accounts of the Partner: Fluctuating Capital Method
  11. Difference between Fixed Capital Account and Fluctuating Capital Account
  12. Past Adjustments in Partnership
  13. Guarantee of Minimum Profit to a Partner

Chapter 3: Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm: Change in Profit Sharing Ratio

  1. Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm: Meaning, Reasons, Change in Profit Sharing Ratio amongst the Existing Partner and Sacrificing Partner Ratio and Gaining Partner Ratio
  2. Goodwill: Meaning, Factors Affecting Goodwill and Need for Valuation
  3. Methods of Valuation of Goodwill
  4. Average Profit Method of Calculating Goodwill
  5. Super Profit Method of Calculating Goodwill
  6. Capitalisation Method of Calculating Goodwill
  7. Accounting Treatment of Accumulated Profits and Reserves: Change in Profit Sharing Ratio
  8. Accounting Treatment of Workmen Compensation Reserve: Change in Profit Sharing Ratio
  9. Change in Profit Sharing Ratio: Accounting Treatment of Investment Fluctuation Fund
  10. Accounting Treatment of Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities: Change in Profit Sharing Ratio
  11. Accounting Treatment of Partner’s Capital Account in case of change in Profit Sharing Ratio (Fixed Capital)
  12. Accounting Treatment of Partner’s Capital Account in case of change in Profit Sharing Ratio (Fluctuating Capital)
  13. Adjustment in Existing Partner’s Capital Account in case of Change in Profit Sharing Ratio

Chapter 4: Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm: Admission of a Partner

  1. Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm: Admission of a Partner
  2. Computation of New Profit Sharing Ratio: Admission of a Partner
  3. Computation of Sacrificing Ratio in case of Admission of a Partner
  4. Accounting Treatment of Goodwill in case of Admission of a Partner
  5. Hidden Goodwill: Admission of a Partner
  6. Accounting Treatment of Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities in case of Admission of a Partner
  7. Accounting Treatment of Accumulated Profits and Reserves in case of Admission of a Partner
  8. Accounting Treatment of Workmen Compensation Reserve: Admission of a Partner
  9. Accounting Treatment of Investment Fluctuation Fund in case of Admission of a Partner
  10. Accounting Treatment of Partner’s Capital Account: Admission of a Partner (Fixed Capital)
  11. Accounting Treatment of Partner’s Capital Account: Admission of a Partner (Fluctuating Capital)
  12. Preparation of Revaluation Account, Capital Account and Balance Sheet
  13. Adjustment of Partner’s Capital Account: Admission of a Partner

Chapter 5: Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm: Retirement or Death of a Partner

  1. Retirement of a Partner in case of Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm
  2. Computation of New Profit Sharing Ratio: Retirement of a Partner
  3. Calculation of Gaining Ratio: Retirement of a Partner
  4. Difference between Sacrificing Ratio and Gaining Ratio
  5. Accounting Treatment of Goodwill in case of Retirement of a Partner
  6. Hidden Goodwill in case of Retirement of a Partner
  7. Accounting Treatment of Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities in case of Retirement of a Partner
  8. Accounting Treatment of Accumulated Profits and Reserves in case of Retirement of a Partner
  9. Accounting Treatment of Workmen Compensation Reserve in case of Retirement of a Partner
  10. Accounting Treatment of Investment Fluctuation Fund in case of Retirement of a Partner
  11. Accounting Treatment of Partner’s Capital Account in case of Retirement of a Partner (Fixed Capital)
  12. Accounting Treatment of Partner’s Capital Account in case of Retirement of a Partner (Fluctuating Capital)
  13. Settlement of Amount due to a Retiring Partner when Full Amount is Paid
  14. Settlement of Amount due to a Retiring Partner: Amount Paid in Instalment
  15. Settlement of Amount due to a Retiring Partner: Transferred to Loan Account
  16. Adjustment of Capital Account in case of Retirement of a Partner
  17. Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm in case of Death of a Partner
  18. Calculation of Share of Profit up to the Date of Death of a Partner
  19. Adjustment of Interest on Deceased Partner’s Capital, Deceased Partner’s Share in Goodwill and Accumulated Profits and Reserves
  20. Accounting Treatment of Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities in case of Death of a Partner
  21. Accounting Treatment of Accumulated Profits and Reserves in case of Death of a Partner
  22. Accounting Treatment of Workmen Compensation Reserve in case of Death of a Partner
  23. Accounting Treatment of Investment Fluctuation Fund in case of Death of a Partner
  24. Accounting Treatment of Partner’s Capital Account in case of Death of a Partner (Fixed Capital)
  25. Accounting Treatment of Partner’s Capital Account in case of Death of a Partner (Fluctuating Capital)
  26. Accounting Treatment of Amount Due to Deceased Partner
  27. Accounting Treatment of Joint Life Policy in case of Death of a Partner
  28. Accounting Treatment of Individual Life Policy in case of Death of a Partner

Chapter 6: Dissolution of Partnership Firm

  1. Dissolution of a Partnership Firm: Meaning, Modes of Dissolution, Modes of Settlement of accounts (Section 48)
  2. Difference between Dissolution of Firm and Dissolution of Partnership
  3. Difference between Firm’s Debt and Private Debt
  4. Dissolution of Partnership: Realisation Account
  5. Difference between Realisation Account and Revaluation Account
  6. Accounting treatment of Accumulated Profits, Reserves, and Losses in case of Dissolution of Firm
  7. Dissolution of Firm: Partner’s Capital Account
  8. Dissolution of Firm: Cash or Bank Account
  9. Dissolution of Partnership Firm: Meaning and Example
  10. Accounting Treatment of Goodwill in case of Dissolution of Firm
  11. Accounting Treatment of Joint Life Policy in case of Dissolution of a Firm
  12. Accounting Treatment of Contingent Assets and Contingent Liabilities in case of Dissolution of a firm
  13. Dissolution of Firm: Rebate on Bills Payable/Creditors and Commission or Remuneration Payable to a Partner
  14. Dissolution of Firm: Partner’s Current Account
  15. Dissolution of Firm: Taking Over of Business by a Partner
  16. Dissolution of Firm: Memorandum Balance Sheet

Chapter 7: Accounting for Share Capital

  1. Company and its Types
  2. Difference between Public Company and Private Company
  3. Types of Shares
  4. Difference between Preference Shares and Equity Shares
  5. Share Capital: Meaning, Kinds, and Presentation of Share Capital in Company’s Balance Sheet
  6. Difference between Capital Reserve and Reserve Capital
  7. Accounting for Share Capital: Issues of Shares for Cash
  8. Issue of Shares At Par: Accounting Entries
  9. Issue of Shares at Premium: Accounting Entries
  10. Issue of Share for Consideration other than Cash: Accounting for Share Capital
  11. Issue of Shares: Accounting Entries on Full Subscription with Share Application
  12. Calls in Arrear: Accounting Entries on Issue of Shares
  13. Calls in Advance: Accounting Entries on Issue of Shares
  14. Oversubscription of Shares: Accounting Treatment
  15. Oversubscription of Shares: Pro-rata Allotment
  16. Oversubscription of Shares: Pro-rata Allotment with Calls in Arrear
  17. Forfeiture of Shares: Accounting Entries on Issue of Shares
  18. Accounting Entries on Re-issue of Forfeited Shares
  19. Disclosure of Share Capital in the Balance Sheet: Accounting Entries on Issue of Shares

Chapter 8: Issue and Redemption of Debentures

  1. Issue of Debentures: Meaning, Characteristics, Purpose of Issuing Debentures and Example
  2. Types of Debentures
  3. Difference between Shares and Debentures
  4. Issue of Debentures
  5. Issue of Debentures: Accounting Treatment of Issue of Debenture and Presentation of debentures in balance sheet (with format)
  6. Issue of Debenture at Par and Premium
  7. Issue of Debentures for Consideration other than Cash
  8. Issue of Debenture as Collateral Security
  9. Interest on Debentures
  10. Redemption of Debentures
  11. Redemption of Debentures: Meaning, Sources and Rules regarding Redemption
  12. Redemption of Debentures in case of Lump-Sum
  13. Redemption of Debentures in case of Installment
  14. Redemption of Debentures in case of Purchase of Own Debentures
  15. Redemption of Debentures: Conversion into Shares or New Debentures

PART – B (FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS)

Chapter 1: Financial Statements of a Company

  1. Introduction to Financial Statement
  2. Objectives and Characteristics of Financial Statements
  3. Financial Statement of a Company: Balance Sheet
  4. Profit and Loss Account: Meaning, Format and General instructions for preparation of Profit and Loss Account

Chapter 2: Analysis of Financial Statements

  1. Introduction to Financial Analysis
  2. Financial Analysis: Objective, Methods, and Process
  3. Financial Analysis: Need, Types, and Limitations
  4. Financial Analysis: Uses, Importance, Limitations
  5. Comparative Statement: Meaning, Importance and Techniques of Presenting Financial Statements
  6. Comparative Balance Sheet: Objectives, Advantages and Format of Comparative Balance Sheet
  7. Comparative Income Statement: Objectives, Advantages and Preparation and Format of Comparative Income Statement
  8. Introduction to Common Size Statement
  9. Common Size Income Statement: Objectives, Preparation, Format of Common Size Statement
  10. Common Size Balance Sheet: Meaning, Objectives and Format of Common Size Balance Sheet

Chapter 3: Accounting Ratios

  1. Ratio Analysis- Importance, Advantages and Limitations
  2. Types of Accounting Ratios
  3. Liquidity Ratio: Meaning, Types, Formula and Illustrations
  4. Current Ratio: Meaning, Significance and Examples
  5. Liquid/Quick Ratio: Meaning, Formula, Significance and Examples
  6. Solvency Ratio: Meaning, Formula, and Significance
  7. Debt Ratio
  8. Debt-Equity Ratio: Meaning, Formula, Significance and Examples
  9. Total Assets to Debt Ratio: Meaning, Formula and Examples
  10. Proprietary Ratio: Meaning, Formula, Significance and Examples
  11. Interest Coverage Ratio
  12. Activity Ratio: Meaning, Formula and Significance
  13. Turnover Ratio
  14. Activity Ratio – II
  15. Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio
  16. Trade Payable Turnover Ratio: Meaning, Formula, Significance and Examples
  17. Working Capital Turnover Ratio: Meaning, Formula, Significance and Examples
  18. Profitability Ratio or Income Ratio
  19. Overall Profitability Ratio: Meaning, Formula, Significance, and Examples
  20. Gross Profit Ratio: Meaning, Formula, Significance and Examples
  21. Operating Ratio
  22. Operating Profit Ratio: Meaning, Formula, Significance and Examples
  23. Net Profit Ratio
  24. Return on Investment (ROI): Meaning, Formula, Significance and Illustrations
  25. Ratio Analysis Formula

Chapter 4: Cash Flow Statement

  1. What is a Cash Flow Statement?
  2. Cash Flow Statement: Objectives, Importance and Limitations
  3. Cash Flow Statement – Part II
  4. Classification of Business Activities in Cash Flow: Operating, Investing and Financing Activities
  5. Cash Flow from Operating Activities
  6. Treatment of Special Items in Cash Flow Statement
  7. Treatment of Special Items in Cash Flow Statement-II
  8. Examples of Cash Flow from Operating Activities
  9. Cash Flow from Investing Activities
  10. Cash Flow from Financing Activities
  11. Cash Flow Statement: Two Examples

PART – B (COMPUTERISED ACCOUNTING)

Chapter 1: Overview of Computerised Accounting System

  1. Sourcing of Accounting Software
  2. Computerised Accounting System
  3. Computerized Accounting System – Meaning, Features, Advantages and Disadvantages
  4. Difference between Manual and Computerised Accounting
  5. Difference between Management Information System (MIS) and Accounting Information System (AIS)
  6. Evolution and Features of Computerised Accounting
  7. Computer and its Components
  8. Computer System in Accounting

Chapter 2: Accounting Application of Electronic Spreadsheet

  1. Concept of Electronic Spreadsheet
  2. Features offered by Electronic Spreadsheet
  3. Application in generating accounting information: Bank Reconciliation Statement, Asset Accounting, Loan Repayment of Loan Schedule, and Ratio Analysis
  4. Data Representation: Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams

Chapter 3: Using Computerised Accounting System

  1. Steps in the installation of CAS, codification and Hierarchy of account heads, creation of accounts
  2. Data: Entry, Validation and Verification
  3. Adjusting Entries, Preparation of Balance Sheet, Profit and Loss Account with Opening and Closing Entries
  4. Need and Security features of the system

CBSE Class 12 Previous Year Papers (2020)



Last Updated : 09 Aug, 2023
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