Each variable in R has an associated data type. Each data type requires different amounts of memory and has some specific operations which can be performed over it.
R has the following basic data types and the following table shows the data type and the values that each data type can take.
|Basic Data Types||Values|
|Numeric||Set of all real numbers|
|Integer||Set of all integers, Z|
|Logical||TRUE and FALSE|
|Complex||Set of complex numbers|
|Character||“a”, “b”, “c”, …, “@”, “#”, “$”, …., “1”, “2”, …etc|
Decimal values are called numerics in R. It is the default data type for numbers in R. If you assign a decimal value to a variable x as follows, x will be of numeric type.
 "numeric"  "double"
Even if an integer is assigned to a variable y, it is still being saved as a numeric value.
 "numeric"  "double"
When R stores a number in a variable, it converts the number into a “double” value or a decimal type with at least two decimal places. This means that a value such as “5” here, is stored as 5.00 with a type of double and a class of numeric.
And also y is not an integer here can be confirmed with the
R supports integer data types which are the set of all integers. You can create as well as convert a value into an integer type using the
as.integer() function. You can also use the capital ‘L’ notation as a suffix to denote that a particular value is of the integer data type.
 "integer"  "integer"  "integer"  "integer"
R has logical data types that take either a value of true or false. A logical value is often created via a comparison between variables.
 TRUE  "logical"  "logical"
R supports complex data types which are set of all the complex numbers. The complex data type is to store numbers with an imaginary component.
 "complex"  "complex"
R supports character data types where you have all the alphabets and special characters. It stores character values or strings. Strings in R can contain alphabets, numbers, and symbols. The easiest way to denote that a value is of character type in R is to wrap the value inside single or double inverted commas.
 "character"  "character"
There are several tasks that can be done using data types. Let’s understand each task with its action and the syntax for doing the task along with an R code to illustrate the task.
Find data type of an object
To find the data type of an object you have to use
class() function. The syntax for doing that is you need to pass the object as an argument to the function class() to find the data type of an object.
 "logical"  "integer"  "numeric"  "complex"  "character"
To do that, you need to use the prefix “is.” before the data type as a command. The syntax for that is,
is.data_type() of the object you have to verify.
 TRUE  TRUE  TRUE  TRUE  TRUE  FALSE  FALSE
Coerce or convert the data type of an object to another
This task is interesting where you can change or convert the data type of one object to another. To perform this action you have to use the prefix “as.” before the data type as the command. The syntax for doing that is
as.data_type() of the object which you want to coerce.
Note: All the coercions are not possible and if attempted will be returning an “NA” value.
 1  3+0i  TRUE  "1+2i"  NA Warning message: In print(as.numeric("12-04-2020")) : NAs introduced by coercion
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