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R – Pie Charts
  • Last Updated : 07 Jul, 2020

A pie chart is a circular statistical graphic, which is divided into slices to illustrate numerical proportions. It depicts a special chart that uses “pie slices”, where each sector shows the relative sizes of data. A circular chart cuts in a form of radii into segments describing relative frequencies or magnitude also known as circle graph.

R uses the function pie() to create pie charts. It takes positive numbers as a vector input.


pie(x, labels, radius, main, col, clockwise)


  • x: This parameter is a vector that contains the numeric values which are used in the pie chart.
  • labels: This parameter gives the description to the slices in pie chart.
  • radius: This parameter is used to indicate the radius of the circle of the pie chart.(value between -1 and +1).
  • main: This parameter is represents title of the pie chart.
  • clockwise: This parameter contains the logical value which indicates whether the slices are drawn clockwise or in anti clockwise direction.
  • col: This parameter give colors to the pie in the graph.

Creating a simple pie chart

Approach: To create a simple pie chart:

  1. By using the above parameters, we can draw a pie chart.
  2. It can be described by giving simple labels.


# Create data for the graph.
geeks<- c(23, 56, 20, 63)
labels <- c("Mumbai", "Pune", "Chennai", "Bangalore")
# Plot the chart.
pie(geeks, labels)


Pie chart including the title and colors

Approach: To create color and title pie chart.

  1. Take all parameters which are required to make pie chart by giving a title to the chart and add labels.
  2. We can add more features by adding more parameters with more colors to the points.


# Create data for the graph.
geeks<- c(23, 56, 20, 63)
labels <- c("Mumbai", "Pune", "Chennai", "Bangalore")
# Plot the chart with title and rainbow color pallet.
pie(geeks, labels, main = "City pie chart"
              col = rainbow(length(geeks)))


Slice Percentage & Chart Legend

Approach: To create chart legend and slice percentage, we can plot by doing below methods.

  1. There are two more properties of the pie chart:
    1. slice percentage
    2. chart legend.
  2. We can show the chart in the form of percentage as well as add legends.


# Create data for the graph.
geeks <-  c(23, 56, 20, 63)
labels <-  c("Mumbai", "Pune", "Chennai", "Bangalore")
piepercent<- round(100 * geeks / sum(geeks), 1)
# Plot the chart.
pie(geeks, labels = piepercent,
    main = "City pie chart", col = rainbow(length(geeks)))
legend("topright", c("Mumbai", "Pune", "Chennai", "Bangalore"), 
                     cex = 0.5, fill = rainbow(length(geeks)))


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