# Histograms in R language

A histogram contains a rectangular area to display the statistical information which is proportional to the frequency of a variable and its width in successive numerical intervals. A graphical representation that manages a group of data points into different specified ranges. It has a special feature which shows no gaps between the bars and is similar to a vertical bar graph.

## R – Histograms

We can create** histogram in R Programming Language using hist() function.**

Syntax:hist(v, main, xlab, xlim, ylim, breaks, col, border)

Parameters:

v:This parameter contains numerical values used in histogram.main:This parameter main is the title of the chart.col:This parameter is used to set color of the bars.xlab:This parameter is the label for horizontal axis.border:This parameter is used to set border color of each bar.xlim:This parameter is used for plotting values of x-axis.ylim:This parameter is used for plotting values of y-axis.breaks:This parameter is used as width of each bar.

### Creating a simple Histogram in R

Creating a simple histogram chart by using the above parameter. This vector **v** is plot using **hist()**.

**Example:**

## R

`# Create data for the graph.` `v <- ` `c` `(19, 23, 11, 5, 16, 21, 32,` ` ` `14, 19, 27, 39)` `# Create the histogram.` `hist` `(v, xlab = ` `"No.of Articles "` `,` ` ` `col = ` `"green"` `, border = ` `"black"` `)` |

**Output:**

### Range of X and Y values

To describe the range of values we need to do the following steps:

- We can use the xlim and ylim parameter in X-axis and Y-axis.
- Take all parameters which are required to make histogram chart.

**Example**

## R

`# Create data for the graph.` `v <- ` `c` `(19, 23, 11, 5, 16, 21, 32, 14, 19, 27, 39)` `# Create the histogram.` `hist` `(v, xlab = ` `"No.of Articles"` `, col = ` `"green"` `,` ` ` `border = ` `"black"` `, xlim = ` `c` `(0, 50),` ` ` `ylim = ` `c` `(0, 5), breaks = 5) ` |

**Output:**

### Using histogram return values for labels using text()

To create a histogram return value chart.

## R

`# Creating data for the graph.` `v <- ` `c` `(19, 23, 11, 5, 16, 21, 32, 14, 19,` ` ` `27, 39, 120, 40, 70, 90)` `# Creating the histogram.` `m<-` `hist` `(v, xlab = ` `"Weight"` `, ylab =` `"Frequency"` `,` ` ` `col = ` `"darkmagenta"` `, border = ` `"pink"` `,` ` ` `breaks = 5)` `# Setting labels` `text` `(m$mids, m$counts, labels = m$counts,` ` ` `adj = ` `c` `(0.5, -0.5)) ` |

**Output:**

### Histogram using non-uniform width

Creating different width histogram charts, by using the above parameters, we created histogram using non-uniform width.

**Example**

## R

`# Creating data for the graph.` `v <- ` `c` `(19, 23, 11, 5, 16, 21, 32, 14,` ` ` `19, 27, 39, 120, 40, 70, 90)` ` ` `# Creating the histogram.` `hist` `(v, xlab = ` `"Weight"` `, ylab =` `"Frequency"` `,` ` ` `xlim = ` `c` `(50, 100),` ` ` `col = ` `"darkmagenta"` `, border = ` `"pink"` `,` ` ` `breaks = ` `c` `(5, 55, 60, 70, 75,` ` ` `80, 100, 140))` |

**Output:**