R Vectors

R vectors are the same as the arrays in C language which are used to hold multiple data values of the same type. One major key point is that in R the indexing of the vector will start from ‘1’ and not from ‘0’. We can create numeric vectors and character vectors as well.

R – Vector

Types of R vectors

Vectors are of different types which are used in R. Following are some of the types of vectors:

Numeric vectors: Numeric vectors are those which contain numeric values such as integer, float, etc.

R

 `# R program to create numeric Vectors`   `# creation of vectors using c() function.` `v1<- ``c``(4, 5, 6, 7)`   `# display type of vector` `typeof``(v1)`   `# by using 'L' we can specify that we want integer values.` `v2<- ``c``(1L, 4L, 2L, 5L) `   `# display type of vector` `typeof``(v2)`

Output:

```[1] "double"
[1] "integer"```

Character vectors: Character vectors in R contain alphanumeric values and special characters.

R

 `# R program to create Character Vectors`   `# by default numeric values ` `# are converted into characters` `v1<- ``c``(``'geeks'``, ``'2'``, ``'hello'``, 57) `   `# Displaying type of vector` `typeof``(v1)`

Output:

`[1] "character"`

Logical vectors: Logical vectors in R contain Boolean values such as TRUE, FALSE and NA for Null values.

R

 `# R program to create Logical Vectors`   `# Creating logical vector` `# using c() function` `v1<- ``c``(``TRUE``, ``FALSE``, ``TRUE``, ``NA``)`   `# Displaying type of vector` `typeof``(v1)`

Output:

`[1] "logical"`

Creating a vector

There are different ways of creating R vectors. Generally, we use ‘c’ to combine different elements together.

R

 `# R program to create Vectors`   `# we can use the c function` `# to combine the values as a vector.` `# By default the type will be double` `X<- ``c``(61, 4, 21, 67, 89, 2)` `cat``(``'using c function'``, X, ``'\n'``)`   `# seq() function for creating` `# a sequence of continuous values.` `# length.out defines the length of vector.` `Y<- ``seq``(1, 10, length.out = 5) ` `cat``(``'using seq() function'``, Y, ``'\n'``) `   `# use':' to create a vector ` `# of continuous values.` `Z<- 2:7` `cat``(``'using colon'``, Z)`

Output:

```using c function 61 4 21 67 89 2
using seq() function 1 3.25 5.5 7.75 10
using colon 2 3 4 5 6 7```

R

 `# Create a numeric vector` `x <- ``c``(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)`   `# Find the length of the vector` `length``(x)` `# Create a character vector` `y <- ``c``(``"apple"``, ``"banana"``, ``"cherry"``)`   `# Find the length of the vector` `length``(y)` `# Create a logical vector` `z <- ``c``(``TRUE``, ``FALSE``, ``TRUE``, ``TRUE``)`   `# Find the length of the vector` `length``(z)`

Output:

```> length(x)
[1] 5

> length(y)
[1] 3

> length(z)
[1] 4```

Accessing R vector elements

Accessing elements in a vector is the process of performing operation on an individual element of a vector. There are many ways through which we can access the elements of the vector. The most common is using the ‘[]’, symbol.

Note: Vectors in R are 1 based indexing unlike the normal C, python, etc format.

R

 `# R program to access elements of a Vector`   `# accessing elements with an index number.` `X<- ``c``(2, 5, 18, 1, 12)` `cat``(``'Using Subscript operator'``, X[2], ``'\n'``)`   `# by passing a range of values` `# inside the vector index.` `Y<- ``c``(4, 8, 2, 1, 17)` `cat``(``'Using combine() function'``, Y[``c``(4, 1)], ``'\n'``)`

Output:

```Using Subscript operator 5
Using combine() function 1 4 ```

Modifying a R vector

Modification of a Vector is the process of applying some operation on an individual element of a vector to change its value in the vector. There are different ways through which we can modify a vector:

R

 `# R program to modify elements of a Vector`   `# Creating a vector` `X<- ``c``(2, 7, 9, 7, 8, 2)`   `# modify a specific element` `X[3] <- 1` `X[2] <-9` `cat``(``'subscript operator'``, X, ``'\n'``)`   `# Modify using different logics.` `X[1:5]<- 0` `cat``(``'Logical indexing'``, X, ``'\n'``)`   `# Modify by specifying ` `# the position or elements.` `X<- X[``c``(3, 2, 1)]` `cat``(``'combine() function'``, X)`

Output:

```subscript operator 2 9 1 7 8 2
Logical indexing 0 0 0 0 0 2
combine() function 0 0 0```

Deleting a R vector

Deletion of a Vector is the process of deleting all of the elements of the vector. This can be done by assigning it to a NULL value.

R

 `# R program to delete a Vector`   `# Creating a Vector` `M<- ``c``(8, 10, 2, 5)`   `# set NULL to the vector` `M<- ``NULL` `cat``(``'Output vector'``, M)`

Output:

`Output vector NULL`

Sorting elements of a R Vector

sort() function is used with the help of which we can sort the values in ascending or descending order.

R

 `# R program to sort elements of a Vector`   `# Creation of Vector` `X<- ``c``(8, 2, 7, 1, 11, 2)`   `# Sort in ascending order` `A<- ``sort``(X)` `cat``(``'ascending order'``, A, ``'\n'``)`   `# sort in descending order ` `# by setting decreasing as TRUE` `B<- ``sort``(X, decreasing = ``TRUE``)` `cat``(``'descending order'``, B)`

Output:

```ascending order 1  2  2  7  8 11
descending order 11  8  7  2  2  1```

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