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# CBSE Class 12 Physics Notes

CBSE Class 12 Physics Notes are an essential part of the study material for any student wanting to pursue a career in engineering or a related field. Physics is the subject that helps us understand our surroundings using simple and complex concepts combined. Class 12 physics introduces us to a lot of such topics that are related to our daily lives, but yet we don’t understand the concepts behind them. At GeeksforGeeks, we have developed these Class 12 Physics Notes to help students achieve academic excellence. These notes cover all 14 chapters of Class 12 Physics in detail, covering topics such as Electrostatics, Electrodynamics, Magnetism, Optics, and EM Waves, with examples, solved problems, and FAQs. ## Chapter 1: Electric Charges and Fields

The first chapter in Class 12 Physics is Electric Charges and Fields. In this chapter, electric charge is introduced once again to the students after class 9, but this time the study of charge is well-detailed and quite extensive. This chapter is the first chapter of electrostatics, i.e., the study of static charge, in which students study static charge and its various effects on other things, Coulomb’s law, and many more things, which are listed as follows:

## Chapter 2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

The second chapter of electrostatic is about Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance, which is the continuation of the first chapter and extends the foundational knowledge of electrostatics to the dimension of potential, which in very simple terms is the accumulation of charges. A list of all the other things than Potential which students study in this chapter is as follows:

## Chapter 3: Current Electricity

Current Electricity is the third chapter of Class 12 Physics, which is an extension of the previous year’s classes on the same topic. Here, all the previously studied topics are again introduced but with very detailed explanations which help clear out the doubts of the previous year’s class where understanding of the current and electricity is very simple. In his chapter, we study not only the foundational topics but the further extension of electricity and various equipment related to it and study all the following topics:

## Chapter 4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

After the study of static charge, its natural continuation should be the study of moving charge i.e., Electrodynamics. Chapter 4 of class 12 physics introduces us to the study of electrodynamics, where we study moving charges and get to know that motion of charge (electricity) creates magnetism as well. This chapter introduces us to the various topic related to moving charge and magnetic field due to charge as well, and that is as follows:

## Chapter 5: Magnetism and Matter

Chapter 5 deals with Magnetism as well but in a matter unlike chapter 4. In this chapter, we learn about the general concept of magnetism and the magnetism of matter. We also learn about the Magnetim of Earth (which is quite fascinating) and the various magnetic properties of materials. Other than this all the topics which this chapter covers are as follows:

## Chapter 6: Electromagnetic Induction

After understanding the magnetism of materials that surround us, it is only natural that we study electromagnetism (which in other words can be said synthetic magnetism as it is discovered by humans). In Chapter 6, we study the magnetism and magnetic field discovered and invented by humans. This chapter also introduces us to many scientists who have done marvelous work in the field of physics. Besides, we study the following topics:

## Chapter 7: Alternating Current

Physics Class 12 chapter seven is named Alternating Current, which clearly declares what we are going to study in this chapter. This chapter introduces students to the wonders of Alternating Current and how different electrical components; such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors, etc, deal with Alternating current. This chapter also establishes the wave representation of A.C. and its different use cases. A detailed list of all the topics which this chapter covers is as follows:

## Chapter 8: Electromagnetic Waves

The eighth chapter of Class 12 Physics is about Electromagnetic Waves, which is self-explanatory in terms of what we will study in this chapter. The chapter introduces the electromagnetic spectrum and various electromagnetic waves. It also provides a detailed explanation of the usefulness and hazardous nature of these waves. The complete list of topics covered in this chapter is as follows:

## Chapter 9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Chapter nine of Class 12 Physics is about Ray Optics and Optical Instruments, which provides a detailed description of the workings of the optical world. In this chapter, reflection, and refraction are reintroduced to students along with all the relevant formulas and their derivations. Apart from these topics, this chapter also covers the following topics in detail:

## Chapter 10: Wave Optics

The tenth chapter of Class 12 Physics also deals with optics but from the perspective of waves. We learn that light has a dual nature, which means it can behave both as a particle and a wave. This chapter focuses on the wave nature of light and reintroduces all the topics covered in optics with this new perspective. The topics covered in these notes include:

## Chapter 11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Chapter 11 takes the dual nature of light introduced in the previous chapter and applies it to matter, specifically electrons, which also behave like waves. This chapter covers the work and experiments of various scientists who proved this phenomenon. The complete list of topics covered in this chapter is as follows:

## Chapter 12: Atoms

The 12th chapter of Class 12 Physics is about Atoms, which seems out of place in the continuation of the syllabus as every topic until now has been a natural continuation of the previous ones. Nevertheless, in this chapter, we study the atomic models proposed by various brilliant minds in the academic world. The complete list of topics covered in this chapter is as follows:

## Chapter 13: Nuclei

Chapter 13 in the list of chapters of Class 12 Physics is about Nuclei, which is the perfect chapter to introduce after the study of atoms. In this chapter, several conceptual topics are introduced, which provide a strong foundational knowledge for higher studies, such as binding energy, radioactivity, and nuclear energy. The complete list of topics covered in this chapter is as follows:

## Chapter 14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices, and Simple Circuits

The fourteenth chapter of Class 12 Physics has the longest name out of all the chapters, which is “Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices, and Simple Circuits”. This chapter introduces very basic electronics to students who, if interested, can opt for electronics in their higher studies. In this chapter, semiconductors, which are the foundation of this digital age, are introduced to students for the first time. In addition to that, the following topics are also covered in the chapter:

## FAQs on CBSE Class 12 Physics Notes

### Q1: What are the chapters covered in Class 12 Physics Notes?

The chapters covered in Class 12 Physics Notes are: Electric Charges and Fields, Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance, Current Electricity, Moving Charges and Magnetism, Magnetism and Matter, Electromagnetic Induction, Alternating Current, Electromagnetic Waves, Ray Optics and Optical Instruments, Wave Optics, Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter, Atoms, Nuclei and Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices, and Simple Circuits.