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CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science (2023-24) Set 1 with Solutions

Last Updated : 13 Feb, 2024
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CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 1 with Solutions are a valuable resource for students preparing for their Class 11 Political Science examinations. These sample papers provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the exam pattern, question types, and important topics. They also offer an opportunity for self-assessment and practice.

Here is a brief introduction to CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 1:

  1. Purpose: CBSE Sample Papers are designed to help students practice and prepare for their upcoming Political Science exams. They provide a model exam paper that closely resembles the format, difficulty level, and content of the actual examination.
  2. Exam Pattern: The sample papers are structured according to the CBSE Class 11 Political Science exam pattern. They include a variety of question types, such as multiple-choice questions (MCQs), short-answer questions, and long-answer questions, as per the CBSE guidelines.
  3. Comprehensive Coverage: The sample papers cover the entire syllabus of Class 11 Political Science, ensuring that students get a thorough revision of all the important topics and concepts.
  4. Self-Assessment: After attempting the sample papers, students can use the provided solutions to evaluate their performance and identify areas where they need improvement. This helps in effective self-assessment and targeted preparation.
  5. Time Management: Practicing with sample papers also helps students improve their time management skills, as they get a feel for the actual examination’s time constraints.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 1 with Solutions

Time : 3 Hours Maximum Marks: 80

[Section – A]

1. Match the following: [1]

List Subjects
A. Union List (i) Education, Forests, Trade Unions
B. State List (ii) Defence, Atomic Energy, Foreign Affairs
C. Concurrent List (iii) Agriculture, Police, Local Govt.

(a) A-iii, B-ii, C-i
(b) A-iii, B-i, C-ii
(c) A-i, B-ii, C-iii
(d) A-ii, B-iii, C-i

Option (d) is correct.

2. In the following question. a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R). Choose the appropriate option as answer:

Assertion (A): The Indian Constitution attempted to accommodate a very diverse society.
Reason (R): It attempted to provide full and equal citizenship to groups as different as the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, many women who had not previously enjoyed equal rights, some remote communities in the Andaman and Nicohar Islands who had little contact with modern civilization, and many others. [1]
(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is incorrect, hut (R) is correct.
(d) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

Option (a) is correct.

3. The solution to dealing with movements for self-determination is: [1]

(a) Creating new states for each cultural group

(b) Ignoring the demands of cultural minorities

(c) Making existing states more democratic and equal

(d) Promoting global integration.

Option (c) is correct.

4. What did Tagore fear about the rejection of the West in favour of Indian traditions? [1]

(a) It could lead to hostility toward Christianity and judaism.

(b) It could limit India’s progress and development.

(c) It could encourage foreign influences in India.

(d) It could promote narrow nationalism and hostility to other foreign influences.

Option (d) is correct.

5. According to T.H. Marshall, what are the three kinds of rights involved in citizenship? [1]

(a) Civil, economic, and cultural rights

(b) Civil, political, and social rights

(c) Economic, social, and cultural rights

(d) Political, economic, and cultural rights.

Option (b) is correct.

6. How did the Indian Constitution attempt to accommodate the diverse society of India? [1]

(a) By promoting a single dominant culture.

(b) By providing equal rights to all citizens without forcing them to give up personal beliefs.

(c) By excluding certain communities from citizenship.

(d) By favoring specific religious or linguistic groups.

Option (b) is correct.

7. Which country provided refuge to persecuted people, including the Dalai Lama and his followers in 1959? [1]

(a) France

(b) India

(c) United States

(d) Germany

Option (b) is correct.

8. What is one of the potential benefits of the concept of global citizenship? [1]

(a) It helps to strengthen national citizenship.

(b) It emphasises isolation from global problems.

(c) It makes it easier to tackle problems extending across national boundaries through cooperative action.

(d) It discourages cooperation among people and governments of different states.

Option (c) is correct.

9. In the example of playing loud music in an apartment building, what does Mill recommend as an appropriate response from other residents? [1]

(a) Involving the police and legal punishment

(b) Social disapproval and refusing to greet the person playing loud music

(c) Ignoring the inconvenience caused by loud music

(d) Requesting the government to enforce stricter noise regulations

Option (b) is correct.

10. ……………………….. can be understood to mean both the rule of the self and rule over self. [1]

(a) Swaraj
(b) individualism
(c) Equality
(b) Ahimsa

Option (a) is correct.

11. ……………………. refers to a set of political ideas that emerged as a response to the inequalities present in, and reproduced by, the industrial capitalist economy. [1]

(a) Liberalism
(b) Socialism
(c) Justice
(d) Secularism

Option (b) is correct.

12. In the following question, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R) Choose the appropriate option as answer: [1]

Assertion (A): A democratic government is considered to be an important means of protecting the freedom of people.
Reason (R): If the government is a democratic one, the members of a state could retain sorne control over their rulers.

(a) Both the Assertion and the Reason are correct, and the Reason is the correct explanation of the Assertion.
(b) Both the Assertion and the Reason are correct, but the Reason is not the correct explanation of the Assertion.
(c) The Assertion is incorrect, but the Reason is correct.
(d) The Assertion is correct, but the Reason is incorrect.

Option (b) is correct.


13. Briefly mention the limitations of the Constitution. [2]

The limitations of the Constitution of the United States include its susceptibility to interpretation and evolving societal norms, as well as its inability to address all contemporary issues due to its age and generality. Additionally, the amendment process can be slow and difficult, making it challenging to adapt to rapid societal changes.

14. State the different types of legislatures. [2]

There are two main types of legislatures:

  1. Unicameral Legislature: In a unicameral legislature, there is only one legislative chamber or house. This system is simpler and often found in smaller countries or regions.
  2. Bicameral Legislature: In a bicameral legislature, there are two separate legislative chambers or houses. This system is more common and can be found in larger countries like the United States, with a House of Representatives and a Senate, for example.

15.Write a note on natural liberty. [2]

Natural liberty, also known as the concept of individual or inherent liberty, refers to the inherent freedoms and rights that individuals possess by virtue of their existence as human beings. It is a foundational idea in political philosophy and is often associated with thinkers like John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Natural liberty encompasses the idea that individuals have certain rights and freedoms that should not be infringed upon by the government or other individuals unless necessary for the common good or the protection of the rights of others. These rights may include the freedom of thought, expression, religion, and the pursuit of happiness.

However, the concept of natural liberty also raises important philosophical and practical questions about the extent of individual freedom and the role of government in regulating and protecting these freedoms. While it is a fundamental principle in liberal democratic societies, the precise boundaries of natural liberty can vary, and debates often arise about how to balance individual freedoms with the needs of society as a whole.

16. Explain the distribution of federal powers by Indian Constitution. [2]

The Indian Constitution provides for a distribution of federal powers between the central government (the Union) and the state governments. This distribution of powers is outlined in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution, which categorizes subjects into three lists:

  1. Union List: This list contains subjects on which only the central government has the authority to make laws. These subjects include defense, foreign affairs, currency, banking, and communication among others.
  2. State List: The State List comprises subjects on which only the state governments have the authority to make laws. These subjects encompass areas such as police, public health, agriculture, and local government.
  3. Concurrent List: The Concurrent List consists of subjects on which both the central government and state governments can legislate. This list includes topics like education, criminal law, marriage, and bankruptcy.

In cases of a conflict between central and state laws on concurrent subjects, the central law generally prevails. However, the Constitution provides for certain restrictions on both central and state legislative powers to prevent encroachments on each other’s jurisdictions.

17. What are the main features of Indian Constitution? [2]

The main features of the Indian Constitution include:

  1. Lengthiest Constitution: The Indian Constitution is one of the world’s longest written constitutions, comprising a comprehensive set of laws and principles.
  2. Federal Structure: India follows a federal system of government with a division of powers between the central government and state governments, as outlined in the Seventh Schedule.
  3. Parliamentary Democracy: India has a parliamentary system of government where the President is the nominal head of state, and the Prime Minister is the real executive authority.

18.Which Article of the Indian Constitution authorises amendment of the Constitution? How can this amendment be done? [2]

Article 368 of the Indian Constitution authorizes the amendment of the Constitution. The process for amending the Constitution can be done in the following ways:

  1. Ordinary Amendment: Most provisions of the Constitution can be amended through the ordinary legislative process. A proposed amendment must be passed by both houses of Parliament (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) with a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting. Then, it must be ratified by at least half of the state legislatures.
  2. Special Majority Amendment: Some amendments require a higher threshold and are considered “special majority” amendments. These amendments pertain to certain fundamental rights and the federal structure of the country. To pass such amendments, they must be approved by a two-thirds majority in both houses of Parliament and ratified by at least half of the state legislatures.
  3. Amendment by Simple Majority: Certain provisions of the Constitution can be amended by a simple majority in both houses of Parliament. These amendments typically concern administrative and procedural matters.
  4. Amendment by Consent: In some cases, when an amendment affects the powers of the states, it requires the consent of a majority of state legislatures in addition to the two-thirds majority in Parliament.


19. State any two important socio-economic rights. [4]

  1. Right to Education (Article 21A): The Constitution of India, through the 86th Amendment Act of 2002, introduced the Right to Education as a fundamental right for children aged 6 to 14 years, ensuring free and compulsory education.
  2. Right to Work (Article 41): Article 41 of the Directive Principles of State Policy emphasizes the right to work, striving to secure adequate livelihoods and employment opportunities for all citizens.
  3. Right to Health (Implicit Right): Although not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, the right to health is an important socio-economic right that has been recognized and upheld by various Indian courts as an integral part of the right to life under Article 21.
  4. Right to Food (Implicit Right): Like the right to health, the right to food is not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution but has been recognized as a fundamental right by the Supreme Court through various judgments, ensuring access to adequate food and nutrition for all citizens.

20. State the characteristics of class. [4]

  1. Economic Status: Social class is often defined by an individual’s or a group’s economic status, including income, wealth, and occupation. Those in higher social classes typically have greater access to financial resources and job opportunities.
  2. Education and Occupation: Education and occupation are key indicators of social class. People in higher social classes tend to have better access to quality education and are more likely to hold prestigious or professional occupations.
  3. Lifestyle and Consumption Patterns: Social class can influence an individual’s lifestyle, including housing, clothing, leisure activities, and consumption habits. People in different social classes may have distinct cultural preferences and spending behaviors.
  4. Access to Resources and Opportunities: Social class also determines access to various resources and opportunities, such as healthcare, social services, and networking connections. Higher social classes often have greater access to these advantages, which can impact life outcomes.

It’s important to note that social class is a complex and multifaceted concept that can vary across different societies and change over time. It involves a combination of economic, social, and cultural factors that shape an individual’s or group’s position in society.

21. How is a nation different from other forms of collective belonging? [4]

A nation is distinct from other forms of collective belonging in several ways:

  1. Shared Identity and Culture: A nation is typically characterized by a shared sense of identity, culture, language, history, and often a common set of values. This shared cultural heritage plays a significant role in defining the nation.
  2. Territorial Basis: Nations are usually associated with specific geographic territories. While other forms of collective belonging, such as religious or ethnic groups, can span multiple countries or regions, a nation often corresponds to a defined homeland.
  3. Political Organization: Nations often have a political dimension, with a system of governance and institutions that represent the collective interests and aspirations of its citizens. This can involve a government, constitution, and legal framework unique to that nation.
  4. Legal and Political Sovereignty: Nations typically possess a degree of legal and political sovereignty, which means they have the authority to make decisions and govern themselves within their defined borders. This distinguishes nations from other forms of collective belonging like ethnic or cultural groups, which may not necessarily have political sovereignty.
  5. Citizenship: Individuals who belong to a nation are usually considered citizens of that nation, with rights and responsibilities defined by its legal and political system. Citizenship is a formalized aspect of belonging to a nation, often involving legal rights and obligations.


What are the main elements of a state?

The main elements of a state, often referred to as the essential components of a nation-state, include the following:

  1. Territory: A state has defined geographical boundaries and a specific territory that it governs. This territory can vary in size and may encompass cities, towns, and rural areas within its borders.
  2. Population: A state consists of a resident population, which includes its citizens or legal residents. The size and composition of the population can vary widely, and the state is responsible for providing governance and services to its people.
  3. Government: A state has a system of governance that exercises authority and control over its territory and population. This typically involves a government with elected or appointed officials who make and enforce laws, administer public services, and maintain order within the state.
  4. Sovereignty: Sovereignty is the supreme authority of the state to make decisions and govern itself without interference from external entities. It includes the ability to establish laws, conduct foreign relations, and manage internal affairs independently.

22. Prove that in reality, several forms of discrimination continue to persist even in a globally acknowledged secular state of India [4]

In reality, despite India being a globally acknowledged secular state, several forms of discrimination persist. Here are a few examples that demonstrate this:

  1. Caste-Based Discrimination: The caste system, although officially abolished, continues to have a deep-rooted presence in Indian society. Discrimination based on caste, particularly against lower-caste individuals (Dalits), is still prevalent in many parts of the country. Dalits often face social exclusion, limited access to education and employment opportunities, and even violence and atrocities.
  2. Religious Discrimination: India is a religiously diverse country, but religious tensions and discrimination have been reported. Instances of religious intolerance, hate crimes, and discrimination against religious minorities have been documented. Some religious communities may face socio-economic disparities and exclusion.
  3. Gender Discrimination: Gender-based discrimination remains a significant issue in India. Despite legal safeguards, gender inequalities persist in areas like education, employment, wages, and political representation. Gender-based violence, including domestic violence and dowry-related harassment, continues to be a concern.
  4. Regional Disparities: India’s vast size and regional diversity have resulted in significant economic and development disparities among different states and regions. Some regions enjoy more economic prosperity and access to resources, while others lag behind, leading to social and economic discrimination against certain communities and areas.
  5. LGBTQ+ Discrimination: While India has made strides in recognizing LGBTQ+ rights through legal reforms, discrimination and stigmatization of LGBTQ+ individuals continue to be a reality. They often face societal prejudice, harassment, and limited access to equal opportunities.
  6. Economic Disparities: Socio-economic disparities persist, with a significant portion of the population living in poverty and lacking access to basic services such as healthcare and education. This economic inequality can lead to discrimination based on class and economic status.


Explain the concept of principled distance.

The concept of “principled distance” is a diplomatic strategy that refers to maintaining a balanced and pragmatic approach when dealing with other nations in international relations. It involves adhering to certain principles and values while also recognizing the importance of maintaining distance or not getting excessively involved in the internal affairs of other countries. Here’s an explanation of this concept:

  1. Principles: Principled distance begins with a commitment to upholding certain principles of diplomacy and international law. These principles can include respect for human rights, adherence to international agreements and treaties, and support for democracy and the rule of law. It implies that a nation’s foreign policy is guided by its core values and beliefs.
  2. Maintaining Distance: The “distance” aspect of this concept implies that while a country may have its principles and values, it should avoid undue interference or intervention in the internal affairs of other nations. It recognizes the sovereignty of other states and their right to self-determination. This approach helps prevent unnecessary conflicts and tensions in international relations.
  3. Pragmatism and Balance: Principled distance emphasizes the need for pragmatism and balance in foreign policy decisions. It acknowledges that not every situation requires direct involvement or intervention and that sometimes it is wiser to maintain a certain level of detachment to achieve broader foreign policy objectives.
  4. Diplomatic Engagement: While maintaining distance, nations practicing principled distance still engage in diplomatic relations, dialogue, and cooperation with other countries. They work collaboratively on issues of mutual interest and importance while respecting each other’s sovereignty.
  5. Case-by-Case Approach: Principled distance recognizes that each international situation is unique and may require a nuanced approach. It encourages a case-by-case assessment of foreign policy decisions, considering the specific circumstances and interests involved.

23. What are the advantages of Unicameral Legislature? [4]

Advantages of a Unicameral Legislature:

  1. Simplicity and Efficiency: A unicameral legislature, with only one legislative chamber or house, is simpler and more efficient in terms of legislative processes. Lawmaking can be quicker and more straightforward as there is no need for bills to pass through multiple houses, reducing the potential for legislative gridlock.
  2. Accountability: In a unicameral system, lawmakers are directly accountable to the electorate for their decisions and actions. Voters can more easily identify and hold individual representatives responsible for their votes and policy choices, fostering greater transparency in government.
  3. Cost-Effective: Maintaining a single legislative chamber is cost-effective compared to the expenses associated with bicameral systems, which require additional resources for staffing, infrastructure, and administrative functions.
  4. Reduced Likelihood of Conflicts: Unicameral legislatures tend to have fewer opportunities for conflicts between chambers, as there is no need for bicameral negotiation and compromise. This can lead to more stable and consistent policymaking.
  5. Reflecting the Will of the People: In some cases, a unicameral system can be seen as more democratic because it directly reflects the will of the people through a single elected body, without the potential for disagreements between houses to stall or dilute legislative decisions.
  6. Faster Responses to Crises: During emergencies or times of crisis, a unicameral legislature may respond more quickly to address pressing issues without the delays that can occur in bicameral systems.

It’s important to note that the advantages of a unicameral legislature depend on the specific context and goals of a country’s governance system. Some countries may find unicameralism to be a more suitable and effective approach, while others may prefer the checks and balances provided by a bicameral system. The choice between the two often depends on historical, cultural, and political factors.


24. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow: (12 MARKS)

The State Government is required to ¿ppoiflt a State Election Commissioner who would be responsible for conducting elections to the Panchavati Raj institutions. Earlier, this task was performed by the State Administration which was under the control of the State Government. Now, the office of the State Election Commissioner is autonomous like the Election Commissioner of India. However, the State Election Commissioner is an independent officer and is not linked to any nor this officer is under the control of the Election Commission of India. The State Government is also required to appoint a State Finance Commission once in five years. This Commission would examine the financial position of the local governments in the State. It would also review the distribution of revenues between the state and local governments on one hand and between rural and urban local governments on the other. This innovation ensures that allocation of funds to the rural local governments will not be a political matter.

(i) Who conducts elections for local governments? [1]
(a) The State Government
(b) The State Election Commission
(c) The Election Commissioner of India
(d) The Panchayati Raj

(i) Option (b) is correct.

(ii) Who was responsible for this task prior to the new system? [1]
(a) State Administration
(b) Central Administration
(C) Panchavati Raj
(d) None of these

Option (a) is correct.

(iii) Who examines the financial position of the local governments? [1]
(a) Election Commission of India
(b) Panchayati Raj
(c) State Finance Commission
(d) State Election Commission

Option (c) is correct.

(iv) Which institution distributes and allocates funds to rural and urban local government? [1]
(a) Panchavati Ra
(b) State Government
(c) State Election Commission
(d) State Finance Commission

Option (d) is correct.

25. Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follows: [4]

You must retire from politics at vice! Your activities are having a bad influence on him. He thinks lie can get away with lying and cheating.
(i) What is depicted in the cartoon? [2]
(ii) List down some negative opinions about politicians. [2]

(i) The cartoon depicts that the politics is completely surrounded by lies and those living around politicians also develop some of such bad qualities in their daily life.
(ii) Some of the bad opinions about politicians are:

  • Politicians tell lies frequently, which as a habit; they start telling to their family and loved ones also.
  • Politicians generally want to gain power at each and every cost.
  • Politics is a dirty career and suitable only for those who have money or muscle power.

26. Read the passage and answer the questions that follows: [4]

Federalism does not consist of a set of fixed principles, which are applied, to different historical situations. Rather, federalism as a principle of government has evolved differently in different situations. American federalism – one of the first major attempts to build a federal polity – is different from German or Indian federalism. But there are also a few key ideas and concepts associated with federalism.

(i) What has led to the evolution of federalism? [1]

The evolution of federalism has been influenced by historical, political, and geographical factors. It often arises in situations where there is a need to balance regional autonomy with the benefits of a unified government. Factors such as diverse cultural and linguistic groups, territorial size, and the desire to maintain local governance while collaborating on national issues have contributed to the development of federal systems.

(ii) What were the first major attempts to build a federal polity? [1]

The first major attempts to build a federal polity can be traced back to the United States, where the U.S. Constitution of 1787 established a federal system of government. This marked one of the earliest and most influential examples of federalism.

(iii) Explain any three key ideas and concepts associated with federalism? [2]

  1. Division of Powers: Federalism involves the division of powers and responsibilities between the central or national government and subnational entities, such as states or provinces. This division is typically outlined in a constitution and specifies which level of government has authority over certain matters. For example, in the United States, the Constitution enumerates the powers of the federal government while reserving all other powers to the states.
  2. Dual Sovereignty: Federalism recognizes the existence of dual sovereignty, where both the central government and subnational entities possess their own spheres of authority and are sovereign within their respective domains. This means that each level of government has its own set of powers and can act independently in certain areas.
  3. Supremacy Clause: Many federal systems incorporate a supremacy clause in their constitutions, which establishes that the national constitution and laws passed by the central government are supreme and take precedence over conflicting state or provincial laws. This ensures the uniform application of federal laws across the entire country.


27. What is the relationship between liberty and equality? [6]

The relationship between liberty and equality is a complex and often debated topic in political philosophy and social theory. Liberty and equality are two fundamental values in democratic societies, and their relationship is characterized by a delicate balance and interdependence:

  1. Conflict: At times, there can be a tension or conflict between liberty and equality. The exercise of individual liberty, such as freedom of choice, expression, and property rights, may result in unequal outcomes because people have varying abilities, resources, and opportunities. This can lead to disparities in wealth, education, and access to basic needs, which may undermine the principle of equality.
  2. Complementarity: On the other hand, liberty and equality are often seen as complementary ideals. Liberty, when extended to all members of society, can empower individuals to pursue their interests, engage in self-expression, and participate in decision-making processes. In this sense, liberty can contribute to greater social and economic equality by removing barriers to individual advancement.
  3. Social Justice: Many argue that the relationship between liberty and equality should be framed within the context of social justice. Liberty is not an absolute concept but should be constrained to ensure that it does not infringe upon the rights and opportunities of others. Regulations and policies are often put in place to promote equality by addressing systemic discrimination, providing social safety nets, and ensuring access to education and healthcare.
  4. Democratic Values: Both liberty and equality are foundational principles of democracy. In a democratic society, individuals have the liberty to participate in the political process, express their views, and seek equal representation. Equality ensures that each citizen has an equal say and influence in the decision-making process, emphasizing the importance of equal political rights and opportunities.
  5. Balance: Achieving the right balance between liberty and equality is a continuous challenge in governance. Excessive emphasis on one at the expense of the other can lead to social unrest or injustice. Striking the right balance requires careful consideration of individual freedoms and collective well-being, which can vary depending on the cultural, social, and economic context of a society.

In conclusion, the relationship between liberty and equality is multifaceted and dynamic. While they may sometimes appear in tension, they are both essential values in democratic societies, and their successful coexistence requires thoughtful policy-making, social justice efforts, and a commitment to upholding individual liberties while promoting greater equality of opportunities and outcomes.


What are the different concepts of justice?[6]

There are several different concepts of justice that have been developed and debated in philosophy and political theory. Here are six key concepts of justice:

  1. Distributive Justice: Distributive justice concerns the fair allocation of resources, benefits, and burdens in a society. It focuses on how economic and social goods, such as wealth, income, education, and healthcare, should be distributed among individuals or groups. Various theories of distributive justice include utilitarianism, egalitarianism, and Rawlsian justice.
  2. Retributive Justice: Retributive justice is concerned with the punishment and treatment of those who have committed wrongdoing or crimes. It seeks to determine what punishments are appropriate and proportional to the severity of the offense. This concept of justice aims to balance the scales by ensuring that offenders suffer consequences for their actions.
  3. Restorative Justice: Restorative justice is a concept that emphasizes repairing the harm caused by criminal behavior rather than solely punishing the offender. It focuses on bringing together victims, offenders, and the community to address the consequences of the crime and promote healing and reconciliation.
  4. Corrective Justice: Corrective justice is centered on the idea of rectifying or correcting a wrong that has been done. It seeks to restore a sense of balance or fairness when one party has harmed another. Corrective justice is often invoked in the context of civil law, contract disputes, and tort cases.
  5. Procedural Justice: Procedural justice emphasizes the fairness and transparency of the legal and decision-making processes. It focuses on ensuring that the procedures used to reach judgments or allocate resources are impartial, consistent, and provide individuals with a voice and the opportunity to be heard.
  6. Commutative Justice: Commutative justice pertains to the fairness and equity in individual transactions and exchanges, particularly in economic and contractual relationships. It involves ensuring that contracts are upheld, agreements are honored, and both parties receive what they are due.

These different concepts of justice reflect varying perspectives on what constitutes a just and equitable society and how to achieve it. They are often invoked in discussions about the role of government, law, and ethics in addressing societal issues, ranging from wealth inequality and criminal justice to contract disputes and interpersonal conflicts. Each concept has its own underlying principles and theories that inform how justice should be defined, understood, and implemented in practice.

28. Explain the original and appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India. [6]

The Supreme Court of India has both original and appellate jurisdiction, which are defined in the Constitution of India. Here’s an explanation of both:

  1. Original Jurisdiction:
    • Original jurisdiction refers to the authority of a court to hear and decide a case in the first instance, without it being previously heard by another court.
    • Article 131 of the Indian Constitution grants the Supreme Court exclusive original jurisdiction in certain types of cases, primarily disputes between: a. The Government of India and one or more states. b. The Government of India and any state or states on one side and one or more states on the other. c. Two or more states.
    • This means that when there is a dispute of this nature, it can only be filed directly with the Supreme Court, and no other court in the country has jurisdiction over such cases.
    • Examples of cases falling under original jurisdiction include disputes related to the sharing of river waters, boundary disputes, and conflicts involving the central government and state governments.
  2. Appellate Jurisdiction:
    • Appellate jurisdiction refers to the authority of a court to hear and review cases that have already been heard and decided by lower courts or tribunals.
    • The Supreme Court of India has wide appellate jurisdiction, which means it can hear appeals from various lower courts and tribunals, both in civil and criminal matters.
    • Article 132 to Article 139 of the Constitution outline the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court, which includes the following: a. Appeals from High Courts: The Supreme Court can hear appeals from the decisions of High Courts in India. This is the most common type of case heard by the Supreme Court. b. Appeals from Tribunals: The Supreme Court can hear appeals from specialized tribunals, such as the National Green Tribunal, the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal, and others, depending on the nature of the case. c. Advisory Jurisdiction: The President of India can seek the Supreme Court’s opinion on important legal or constitutional matters under Article 143. While this is not strictly appellate jurisdiction, it is an important advisory function.
    • The Supreme Court also has the power of judicial review, allowing it to review the constitutionality of laws and executive actions. This falls under its appellate jurisdiction as well.

In summary, the Supreme Court of India has both original and appellate jurisdiction. Its original jurisdiction is limited to specific types of cases involving disputes between the central government and state governments. Its appellate jurisdiction is extensive, allowing it to hear appeals from lower courts, tribunals, and advisory matters.


Explain in detail the various powers or functions performed by the Prime Minister of India.

The Prime Minister of India, as the head of government, performs a wide range of powers and functions. Here is a detailed explanation of various powers and functions carried out by the Prime Minister of India:

  1. Executive Powers: a. Head of the Council of Ministers: The Prime Minister is the leader of the Council of Ministers, which is responsible for executing government policies and decisions. The Council includes various ministers who head different government departments.b. Appointment and Removal of Ministers: The Prime Minister recommends the appointment and removal of ministers to the President. This includes selecting cabinet ministers, junior ministers, and allocating portfolios.c. Decision-Making: The Prime Minister plays a crucial role in decision-making on various government matters, both domestic and foreign. They preside over cabinet meetings, set the agenda, and lead discussions.d. Coordination: The Prime Minister coordinates the functioning of different ministries and ensures the implementation of government policies and programs.
  2. Legislative Powers: a. Leader of the Lok Sabha: The Prime Minister is the leader of the majority party or coalition in the Lok Sabha (House of the People). They represent the government in the lower house of Parliament, answer questions, and present government policies.b. Influencing Legislation: The Prime Minister plays a vital role in shaping legislative proposals and government bills. They can introduce bills or recommend their introduction in Parliament.
  3. Foreign Affairs: a. Chief Diplomat: The Prime Minister represents India in international forums and negotiations. They conduct foreign policy, negotiate international agreements, and maintain diplomatic relations with other countries.b. Foreign Visits: The Prime Minister often leads official delegations on foreign visits to strengthen diplomatic ties, promote trade, and engage in international diplomacy.
  4. Defense and Security: a. Commander-in-Chief: The Prime Minister is the principal civilian authority over the armed forces of India. They have a crucial role in national defense and security policies.b. Crisis Management: During times of national security crises, the Prime Minister takes charge of decision-making and crisis management, often in consultation with the Cabinet Committee on Security.
  5. Administrative Functions: a. Appointments: The Prime Minister is involved in the appointment of key administrative and constitutional positions, such as the Chief Justice of India, Governors of states, and the heads of various autonomous bodies.b. Emergency Powers: In the event of a national emergency, the Prime Minister can advise the President on imposing and managing emergency provisions under the Constitution.
  6. Adviser to the President: a. The Prime Minister serves as the chief adviser to the President of India and provides guidance on various matters.

29. State the provision of Constitution of India that demonstrates the secular nature of Indian state. [6]

The secular nature of the Indian state is explicitly mentioned in the Preamble of the Constitution of India. The relevant provision that demonstrates this secular character is as follows:

“We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic…”

This provision, found at the beginning of the Preamble, explicitly declares India as a secular state. Here’s an explanation of what this means:

  1. Secular: The term “secular” in the Preamble signifies that India is a country where the government does not endorse or promote any particular religion. It ensures that religion and matters of faith are separate from the functions of the state.
  2. Equal Treatment of All Religions: A secular state treats all religions and religious communities equally, without showing favoritism or discrimination towards any particular religion. It upholds the principle of religious pluralism.
  3. Freedom of Religion: The secular nature of the Indian state ensures that individuals have the freedom to practice and propagate their religion of choice, as guaranteed by the Constitution. This includes the freedom to worship, follow, and preach any religion without interference from the government.
  4. Absence of Religious Discrimination: A secular state prohibits religious discrimination and ensures that individuals are not treated unfairly or denied opportunities based on their religious beliefs or background.
  5. Religious Neutrality: The government and its institutions are expected to remain neutral when it comes to religious matters. Public policies, laws, and decisions are not influenced by religious considerations.
  6. Protection of Minority Rights: Secularism also includes protecting the rights and interests of religious minorities, ensuring that they are not marginalized or disadvantaged due to their minority status.

In summary, the inclusion of the term “secular” in the Preamble of the Constitution of India serves as a clear and fundamental declaration of India’s commitment to maintaining a secular state, where religion is a matter of personal choice and is separate from the functions of the government. This constitutional provision underscores the importance of religious tolerance, equality, and pluralism in Indian society.


Explain the composition of Election Commission of India.

The Election Commission of India (ECI) is a constitutional body responsible for conducting and overseeing elections in India. It is composed of a Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and other Election Commissioners. Here’s an explanation of the composition of the Election Commission of India:

  1. Chief Election Commissioner (CEC):
    • The CEC is the head of the Election Commission and serves as its chief executive officer.
    • The CEC is appointed by the President of India, based on the advice of the Prime Minister and in consultation with the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha (the House of the People).
    • The CEC holds office for a fixed term of six years or until the age of 65, whichever is earlier, and is not eligible for reappointment or any other government service after retirement.
  2. Election Commissioners (ECs):
    • In addition to the CEC, the Election Commission can have a maximum of two Election Commissioners, although it is not mandatory to have two ECs. The actual number of ECs can vary depending on the need and circumstances.
    • Like the CEC, the Election Commissioners are also appointed by the President, following the advice of the Prime Minister and consultation with the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha.
    • They also have a fixed term of six years or until the age of 65, whichever is earlier, and are not eligible for reappointment or any other government service after retirement.
    • The presence of Election Commissioners ensures a multi-member commission, which enhances transparency, objectivity, and the democratic functioning of the ECI.
  3. Independence:
    • The Chief Election Commissioner and Election Commissioners are appointed independently and are not subject to political influence or pressure.
    • Their security of tenure, fixed terms, and ineligibility for reappointment after retirement ensure their independence in conducting free and fair elections.
  4. Decision-Making:
    • The CEC and ECs work collectively to make important decisions related to elections, including the scheduling of elections, the implementation of the Model Code of Conduct, and the monitoring of election-related activities.
    • Decisions are typically made by a majority vote among the members.
  5. Functions:
    • The Election Commission of India is responsible for conducting elections to the Lok Sabha (House of the People), Rajya Sabha (Council of States), State Legislative Assemblies, and State Legislative Councils (in states with bicameral legislatures).
    • It also registers political parties, monitors campaign expenses, enforces the Model Code of Conduct during elections, and supervises the electoral rolls and voter registration.

In summary, the Election Commission of India consists of a Chief Election Commissioner and, optionally, two Election Commissioners. The composition is designed to ensure the independence and impartiality of the commission in carrying out its vital role in overseeing and conducting elections in India.

30. What is the need of a constitution? [6]

The need for a constitution in any country is fundamental, as it serves several crucial purposes in shaping the governance and legal framework of a nation. Here is a 6-mark answer outlining the key needs for a constitution:

  1. Legal Framework: A constitution provides the foundational legal framework upon which a country’s laws, regulations, and governance structure are built. It establishes the rules and principles that guide the functioning of the government and society as a whole.
  2. Limitation on Government Power: One of the primary needs for a constitution is to limit the powers of the government. It defines the scope of governmental authority and establishes a system of checks and balances to prevent the concentration of power and potential abuse by those in authority.
  3. Protection of Rights: Constitutions typically include a bill of rights or fundamental rights that protect the individual liberties and freedoms of citizens. These rights include freedom of speech, religion, assembly, and the right to a fair trial. A constitution ensures that these rights are enshrined and protected by law.
  4. Rule of Law: A constitution upholds the principle of the rule of law, meaning that all individuals, including government officials, are subject to the law and accountable for their actions. It ensures that no one is above the law, contributing to a just and orderly society.
  5. Stability and Continuity: A constitution provides stability and continuity to a nation’s legal and political system. It sets out the fundamental principles and rules that persist beyond changes in government leadership or political parties, ensuring a consistent and predictable legal environment.
  6. Governance Structure: A constitution outlines the structure of the government, defining the roles and responsibilities of various branches and institutions. It establishes the form of government (e.g., democracy, monarchy, republic), the powers of elected officials, and the mechanisms for decision-making.
  7. Resolution of Conflicts: In diverse societies with varying interests and perspectives, a constitution serves as a mechanism for peacefully resolving conflicts. It provides a common set of rules and procedures for addressing disputes and differences of opinion.


Why is the Right to Constitutional Remedies the most important Fundamental Right? Summarise its provisions and give arguments to show why it is most important.

The Right to Constitutional Remedies, enshrined in Article 32 of the Indian Constitution, is often regarded as the most important Fundamental Right due to its pivotal role in upholding and enforcing all other rights and ensuring justice. Here’s a summary of its provisions and arguments supporting its significance:

Provisions of the Right to Constitutional Remedies (Article 32):

  1. Article 32 grants every citizen the right to move the Supreme Court of India directly for the enforcement of their Fundamental Rights.
  2. It empowers the Supreme Court to issue writs, including habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto, and certiorari, for the protection of these rights.
  3. Article 32 is considered a fundamental guarantee that ensures that individuals can seek legal remedies directly from the highest court when their Fundamental Rights are violated.

Arguments for Its Importance:

  1. Guardian of Fundamental Rights: The Right to Constitutional Remedies serves as the guardian of all other Fundamental Rights. It allows citizens to approach the Supreme Court for protection when their rights are violated by the state or any other entity. Without this right, other rights would be rendered ineffective and meaningless.
  2. Enforcement Mechanism: It provides an effective mechanism for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights. The Supreme Court can issue writs to government authorities, instructing them to take specific actions or refrain from unconstitutional actions. This ensures that the government remains accountable and acts within the boundaries of the Constitution.
  3. Safeguard Against Arbitrary Actions: This right acts as a check against arbitrary actions by the state or its agencies. It prevents the government from overstepping its authority and violating the rights of individuals or minority groups.
  4. Access to Justice: Article 32 ensures that individuals have direct access to the Supreme Court, bypassing lower courts if needed. This is particularly important for marginalized or vulnerable groups who may face delays or bias in lower courts. It provides a swift and direct path to justice.
  5. Upholding Democracy: It strengthens the principles of democracy and the rule of law by ensuring that the Constitution and Fundamental Rights are upheld. The judiciary’s ability to review and correct government actions is essential for maintaining a democratic and just society.
  6. Judicial Review: The Right to Constitutional Remedies reinforces the principle of judicial review, allowing the judiciary to review the constitutionality of laws, executive orders, and government actions. This ensures that laws and actions are in line with the Constitution and do not infringe upon citizens’ rights.

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