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CBSE Class 9 Social Science (2023-24) Sample Paper Set 1

Last Updated : 14 Feb, 2024
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Summative Assessment 1 (SA 1) is an essential part of the CBSE Class 9 curriculum, designed to assess students’ understanding and knowledge of various topics in Social Science. This sample paper serves as a valuable practice resource to help students prepare effectively for their SA 1 examination.

his sample paper adheres to the CBSE examination pattern and includes a well-structured question paper comprising multiple-choice questions, short-answer questions, and long-answer questions. It covers topics from different units of the Social Science syllabus, ensuring comprehensive preparation.

CBSE Class 9 Social Science Sample Paper SA 1

Summative Assessment- I


Time Allowed: 3 hours                                       Maximum Marks: 90 Marks

1. When was slavery finally abolished in French colonies? (1)

Slavery was finally abolished in French colonies on April 27, 1848.

2 . Name two of India’s southern neighbors. (1)

Two of India’s southern neighbors are Sri Lanka and the Maldives.

3. How many countries are permanent member of the United Nations Security Council? (1)

There are five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC): China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

4. Which is the most common form of democracy in today’s world?(1)

The most common form of democracy in today’s world is Representative Democracy.

5. Name the President of the Constituent Assembly. (1)

Dr. Rajendra Prasad served as the President of the Constituent Assembly of India.

6. Raw material is an example of which type of capital? (1)

Raw material is an example of Fixed Capital.

7. What is human capital? (1)

Human capital refers to the stock of knowledge, skills, and abilities that individuals possess, which can be used to create economic value. It includes education, training, and experience.

8. What stand for IMR ? (1)

IMR stands for Infant Mortality Rate.

9. Why the period from 1793to 1794 was known as ‘Reign of Terror’ in France?(3)

The period from 1793 to 1794 was known as the ‘Reign of Terror’ in France because it was a time of extreme political violence and mass executions during the French Revolution. The radical government, led by the Committee of Public Safety, used revolutionary tribunals to suppress opposition, resulting in the execution of thousands of people, including King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette.

10. What steps were taken by the provisional government to reduce growing influence of the Bolsheviks ? (3)

The provisional government in Russia took several steps to reduce the growing influence of the Bolsheviks:

a. They attempted to establish a multi-party system to dilute the power of the Bolsheviks. b. The government ordered the arrest of Bolshevik leaders. c. The Provisional Government launched military offensives against Germany to divert attention from domestic issues. d. They sought to establish a Constituent Assembly to draft a new constitution and determine the future of Russia.

Despite these efforts, the Bolsheviks gained support, and the provisional government’s authority continued to weaken, eventually leading to the October Revolution in 1917.


Write a brief note on Nazi art of Propaganda.

Nazi propaganda was a powerful tool used by the Nazi Party to shape public opinion and promote its ideology. It employed various techniques, including:

  • Visual Propaganda: The Nazis used posters, films, and artwork to convey their messages. Iconic symbols like the swastika and images of strong Aryan individuals were employed.
  • Racial Propaganda: The Nazis propagated their racist ideology, promoting Aryan supremacy and denigrating other races, particularly Jews.
  • Nationalistic Propaganda: The Nazis promoted a sense of national pride and unity, emphasizing the need to defend Germany from perceived threats.
  • Anti-Semitic Propaganda: The Nazis vilified Jews through posters and media, contributing to the dehumanization of Jewish people.

The Nazi propaganda machine played a significant role in shaping public perception and garnering support for the regime’s policies, including the Holocaust.

11. How were the Liberals different from the Radicals?

Liberals and Radicals were two distinct political groups during various historical periods, and they differed in their ideologies and goals:


  1. Moderation: Liberals generally advocated moderate political and social reforms rather than radical changes to the existing system.
  2. Constitutionalism: They believed in constitutional reforms, such as the establishment of representative government, protection of civil liberties, and the rule of law.
  3. Individual Rights: Liberals emphasized individual rights, including freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and property rights. They sought to limit the power of monarchs and aristocracies.


  1. Radical Change: Radicals advocated for more revolutionary and drastic changes in the political and social order.
  2. Overthrow of Monarchy: They often sought the overthrow of monarchies and aristocracies, pushing for more radical forms of government like republics.
  3. Social Equality: Radicals placed a strong emphasis on social and economic equality, advocating for the redistribution of wealth and resources.


Enumerate the major defects of the Weimer Republic.

The Weimar Republic, established in Germany after World War I and preceding the Nazi regime, faced several major defects and challenges:

  1. Political Instability: The Weimar Republic experienced frequent changes in government, coalition governments, and weak leadership, leading to political instability.
  2. Economic Crisis: The republic faced severe economic challenges, including hyperinflation in the early 1920s and economic depression during the late 1920s and early 1930s, contributing to social unrest.
  3. Treaty of Versailles: The Treaty of Versailles, which officially ended World War I, imposed harsh reparations and territorial losses on Germany, leading to resentment and economic hardship.
  4. Social Unrest: Germany witnessed social unrest and political violence from both left-wing and right-wing extremist groups, such as the Spartacist Uprising and the Beer Hall Putsch.
  5. Ineffective Constitution: The Weimar Constitution had weaknesses, including Article 48, which allowed the president to rule by decree, contributing to the erosion of democratic norms.
  6. Rise of Extremism: Extremist parties, such as the Nazi Party and the Communist Party, gained popularity due to the republic’s weaknesses and inability to address the country’s problems.

12. The central location of India at the head of Indian Ocean is of great advantage. Explain this statement. (3)

The central location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean is of great advantage because it provides the following benefits:

  • Trade and Commerce: India’s central location allows it to serve as a strategic hub for international trade and commerce. It has access to major shipping routes, making it an ideal location for trade with both Western and Eastern countries.
  • Geopolitical Significance: India’s position in the Indian Ocean region gives it geopolitical significance. It enables India to establish diplomatic and economic ties with neighboring countries and global powers.
  • Maritime Trade: The proximity to the Indian Ocean facilitates maritime trade, allowing India to import and export goods efficiently through its major ports, such as Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata.

13. Differentiate between Bhangar soil and Khadar soil. (3)

Difference between Bhangar Soil and Khadar Soil:

  • Bhangar Soil:
    • Bhangar soil is older alluvial soil.
    • It is situated at a higher elevation compared to Khadar soil.
    • Bhangar soil is well-drained and less fertile.
    • It is characterized by a light color.
    • Bhangar soil is less suitable for agriculture without proper irrigation.
  • Khadar Soil:
    • Khadar soil is younger alluvial soil.
    • It is found at lower elevations along riverbanks.
    • Khadar soil is fertile and suitable for agriculture.
    • It is characterized by a dark color.
    • Khadar soil is regularly replenished by fresh sediments during floods, making it highly productive.

14. Why are the peninsular rivers not navigable? 3

The peninsular rivers in India are not navigable primarily due to the following reasons:

  • Rapids and Waterfalls: Many peninsular rivers, such as the Godavari, Krishna, and Cauvery, flow through rocky terrain with steep gradients. They have numerous rapids and waterfalls that make navigation difficult.
  • Narrow Channels: Peninsular rivers often have narrow and meandering channels, making it challenging for large vessels to navigate. These channels are not suitable for the transportation of goods.
  • Seasonal Flow: Some peninsular rivers have a seasonal flow, with reduced water levels during dry months. This inconsistency in water levels further hinders navigation.
  • Lack of Dredging: The peninsular rivers have not undergone extensive dredging and canalization projects to facilitate navigation, unlike some northern rivers like the Ganges.

15. What is the United Nations? Mention the role of the UN Security Council. 3

The United Nations (UN): The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 with the goal of promoting peace, security, cooperation among nations, and addressing global issues. It is composed of member states that collaborate on various global matters.

Role of the UN Security Council:

  • The UN Security Council is responsible for maintaining international peace and security.
  • It has five permanent members (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) with veto power and ten non-permanent members.
  • The Security Council can impose sanctions, authorize military interventions, and establish peacekeeping missions.
  • It plays a critical role in resolving conflicts, such as mediating peace agreements and coordinating international responses to crises.
  • The Security Council helps prevent conflicts by addressing emerging threats and overseeing disarmament efforts.

16. How is the dignity of citizens enhanced in democracy? 3

The dignity of citizens is enhanced in a democracy through the following means:

  • Equality: Democracy upholds the principle of equality, ensuring that all citizens are equal before the law and have equal rights and opportunities, regardless of their background or social status.
  • Freedom: Citizens in a democracy enjoy fundamental freedoms such as freedom of speech, expression, and assembly. This enables them to voice their opinions and concerns without fear of persecution.
  • Participation: In a democracy, citizens have the right to participate in the decision-making process through voting in elections. Their voices are heard, and they have a say in choosing their representatives.

17. Why is the Preamble of the constitution very important? 3

The Preamble of the constitution is very important because:

  • Statement of Purpose: It serves as a concise statement of the objectives and purposes of the constitution. It outlines the ideals and values that the constitution aims to uphold.
  • Source of Authority: The Preamble declares that the authority of the constitution emanates from the people of India. It establishes the foundation of democratic governance.
  • Guiding Principles: It outlines key guiding principles, including justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity, which serve as the fundamental values that shape the constitution’s provisions.

18. State the ways by which one can grow more from same piece of land? 3

Ways to grow more from the same piece of land include:

  • Improved Farming Techniques: Implementing modern and efficient farming techniques, such as precision agriculture, organic farming, and crop rotation, can increase yields.
  • Use of Technology: Utilizing technology, such as genetically modified crops, irrigation systems, and mechanized farming equipment, can enhance agricultural productivity.
  • Soil Management: Proper soil testing, nutrient management, and soil conservation practices help maintain soil fertility and increase crop yields.

19. Why is human resource more superior than land and capital? Explain by giving examples.3

Human resource is more superior than land and capital because:

  • Innovation: Human resource, through knowledge and innovation, can maximize the utilization of land and capital. It can lead to the development of new technologies and techniques for efficient resource use.
  • Adaptability: Humans can adapt to changing circumstances and challenges, finding creative solutions to problems and utilizing resources more effectively.
  • Education and Skill: Education and skill development enhance the productivity of the workforce, making them capable of utilizing land and capital efficiently.
  • Entrepreneurship: Human resource includes entrepreneurs who can identify opportunities and mobilize capital and land resources for productive ventures.

20. Health is an indispensable basis for realizing one’s well-being. Explain. 3

Health is indeed an indispensable basis for realizing one’s overall well-being. It plays a fundamental role in shaping an individual’s quality of life and their ability to lead a fulfilling and productive existence. Here’s an explanation of why health is essential for well-being:

  1. Physical Well-being: Good health is synonymous with physical well-being. It means that the body is functioning optimally, free from illnesses, diseases, and physical discomfort. When an individual enjoys good physical health, they can perform daily activities with ease, whether it’s working, exercising, or engaging in leisure activities. This contributes significantly to their overall well-being as it allows them to lead an active and independent life.
  2. Mental Well-being: Health extends beyond the physical aspect and includes mental well-being. Mental health is crucial for emotional stability, cognitive function, and resilience to stress. When a person is mentally healthy, they can effectively manage life’s challenges, maintain healthy relationships, and experience emotional balance. Mental well-being is a critical component of overall well-being as it directly impacts an individual’s happiness and satisfaction with life.
  3. Productivity and Fulfillment: Health is intrinsically tied to an individual’s ability to be productive and pursue their goals and aspirations. When someone is in good health, they are more likely to excel in their career, education, and personal pursuits. They can harness their physical and mental faculties to achieve their objectives, which contributes to a sense of accomplishment and fulfillment, a key element of well-being.
  4. Social Interactions: Good health also enhances social interactions and relationships. When individuals are healthy, they can actively participate in social activities, spend quality time with friends and family, and maintain strong social bonds. Positive social interactions are essential for a sense of belonging and emotional well-being.
  5. Preventative and Holistic Perspective: Health is not only about the absence of illness but also about adopting a preventative and holistic approach to well-being. Engaging in healthy lifestyle choices, such as regular exercise, balanced nutrition, and stress management, can help prevent health issues and promote longevity, further contributing to overall well-being.

21. Describe the impact of the French Revolution on France and the world. 5

The French Revolution had a profound impact on both France and the world:

In France:

  1. End of Absolute Monarchy: The revolution led to the abolition of the absolute monarchy and the execution of King Louis XVI, establishing a republic.
  2. Reign of Terror: The revolutionary period witnessed the Reign of Terror, characterized by political violence and mass executions. Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety ruled during this tumultuous phase.
  3. Napoleon Bonaparte: The revolution paved the way for Napoleon Bonaparte, who rose to power as a military general. He later established himself as Emperor, initiating the Napoleonic era.
  4. Social and Legal Reforms: The revolution introduced important social and legal reforms, including the abolition of feudal privileges, the Napoleonic Code, and religious tolerance.

In the World:

  1. Spread of Revolutionary Ideas: The French Revolution inspired similar movements for liberty, equality, and fraternity worldwide, including the Haitian Revolution, Latin American independence movements, and the European Revolutions of 1848.
  2. Transformation of Warfare: The revolutionary and Napoleonic wars reshaped the nature of warfare, introducing conscription and nationalist sentiments.
  3. Legacy of Nationalism: The concept of nationalism gained momentum as a result of the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, contributing to the unification of Italy and Germany in the 19th century.
  4. Ideas of Democracy: The French Revolution popularized democratic ideals, such as the sovereignty of the people and the separation of powers, which influenced the development of modern democratic systems.

22. What were the political conditions in Russia when the revolution occurred? 5 Describe briefly.

The Russian Revolution of 1917 occurred in a backdrop of political turmoil:

  1. Tsarist Autocracy: Russia was under the autocratic rule of Tsar Nicholas II, who held absolute power. The country was characterized by political repression, censorship, and economic inequality.
  2. Ineffectual Leadership: The tsar’s leadership during World War I was marked by military failures, food shortages, and economic instability. His inability to address these crises eroded his authority.
  3. Social Discontent: The Russian society was plagued by widespread poverty, landlessness among peasants, and discontent among workers. Strikes and protests were common.
  4. Bolshevik Rise: The Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, capitalized on the dissatisfaction among the masses and seized power in the October Revolution of 1917, leading to the downfall of the Provisional Government.
  5. End of the Romanov Dynasty: The Russian Revolution resulted in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the end of the Romanov dynasty, leading to the establishment of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and later the Soviet Union.


What was Hitler’s world view? Write in brief.

Adolf Hitler’s world view was shaped by his ideology of Nazism, a radical and totalitarian form of nationalism. Here is a brief overview of Hitler’s world view:

  1. Aryan Supremacy: Hitler believed in the concept of Aryan supremacy, which held that the Aryan race (whom he considered to be of Germanic and Nordic origin) was superior to all other races. He viewed the Aryan race as the master race destined to dominate the world.
  2. Anti-Semitism: Hitler’s world view was deeply anti-Semitic. He blamed Jews for many of the world’s problems and believed in a global Jewish conspiracy to undermine the Aryan race. He propagated hatred against Jews and implemented policies leading to the Holocaust, the systematic genocide of millions of Jews.
  3. Expansionist Imperialism: Hitler sought to expand the territory and influence of Nazi Germany through aggressive expansionism. He aimed to establish a Greater Germanic Empire, which included territories in Eastern Europe, Russia, and other regions, and to eliminate neighboring countries that he considered inferior.
  4. Totalitarianism: Hitler’s world view included the establishment of a totalitarian state where the Nazi Party and the state merged into one, and he held absolute power. Dissent and opposition were not tolerated, and propaganda was used to manipulate public opinion and control the masses.
  5. Rejection of Democracy: Hitler rejected democracy as weak and ineffective. He believed that strong, authoritarian rule was necessary for the success of his vision and the dominance of the Aryan race.

23. How was the mountain systems of Himalayas formed? 5

The Himalayan mountain system, one of the youngest and tallest mountain ranges in the world, was formed due to the collision of the Indian Plate with the Eurasian Plate. Here’s a brief explanation:

Around 50 million years ago, the Indian Plate, which was once a separate landmass, started moving northward towards the Eurasian Plate. As the Indian Plate continued to push north, it encountered resistance from the Eurasian Plate. The immense geological pressure caused by this collision led to the following processes:

  • Uplift: The collision forced the land to uplift, resulting in the formation of the Himalayan mountain range.
  • Folded Mountains: The extreme pressure caused the Earth’s crust to buckle and fold, giving rise to the folded mountain structure characteristic of the Himalayas.
  • Continued Tectonic Activity: The collision between the plates is ongoing, leading to ongoing tectonic activity in the region. This activity includes earthquakes and the gradual upward movement of the mountains.

The Himalayas are still evolving geologically, and their formation is a result of the complex interactions between the Indian and Eurasian Plates

24. Why are rivers important for the country’s economy? 5

Rivers are vital for a country’s economy due to several reasons:

  1. Irrigation: Rivers provide a source of water for irrigation, allowing agriculture to flourish. Irrigated land yields higher agricultural productivity, leading to increased food production.
  2. Transportation: Rivers serve as natural transportation corridors, facilitating the movement of goods and people. This reduces transportation costs and boosts trade and commerce.
  3. Hydropower: Rivers can be harnessed for hydropower generation, providing a clean and renewable source of energy.
  4. Industrial Use: Industries often rely on rivers for water supply, cooling, and transportation of raw materials and finished products.
  5. Biodiversity: Healthy river ecosystems support a diverse range of species, contributing to biodiversity and the sustainability of ecosystems.

25. Why is democracy considered better than any other form of government? 5

Democracy is considered better than other forms of government for several reasons:

  1. Representation: Democracy allows citizens to elect representatives who make decisions on their behalf, ensuring that government actions reflect the will of the people.
  2. Protection of Rights: Democracies uphold fundamental rights and liberties, safeguarding individual freedoms and preventing authoritarian abuses of power.
  3. Accountability: In democratic systems, governments are accountable to the electorate, and regular elections provide citizens with the opportunity to hold leaders accountable for their actions.
  4. Peaceful Transition: Democracy provides a peaceful and orderly means for the transfer of power, reducing the likelihood of political violence and instability.
  5. Inclusivity: Democracies are inclusive, giving a voice to diverse groups and promoting equality among citizens.

26. What are the guiding values of the Indian Constitution? Explain. 5

The Indian Constitution is guided by several core values, including:

  1. Justice: The Constitution seeks to ensure social, economic, and political justice for all citizens by promoting fairness, equality, and the protection of rights.
  2. Liberty: It upholds individual liberties, including freedom of speech, expression, and religion, promoting personal freedoms and autonomy.
  3. Equality: The Constitution aims to eliminate discrimination based on caste, gender, religion, or other factors, fostering equal opportunities and treatment.
  4. Fraternity: The Constitution encourages a sense of brotherhood and unity among citizens.

27. Explain the four requirements of the production of goods and services. What are the items that come under physical capital? 5

Four Requirements of the Production of Goods and Services:

  1. Land: Land encompasses natural resources and physical space essential for production. It includes elements like soil, water, minerals, forests, and geographical locations. Land provides the raw materials and the physical area where production activities occur. For example, in agriculture, land is vital for cultivation, while in manufacturing, land is used for building factories and warehouses.
  2. Labor: Labor represents the human effort and skills involved in the production process. It encompasses both physical and mental work contributed by individuals. Labor is a pivotal factor influencing the efficiency and productivity of production. Skilled and motivated workers significantly impact the quality and quantity of goods and services produced.
  3. Capital: Capital includes the financial, physical, and human resources used to facilitate production. It can be categorized into two primary types:
    • Physical Capital: Physical capital comprises tangible assets and tools used in production. These assets encompass machinery, equipment, buildings, vehicles, and infrastructure. Physical capital enhances production efficiency by reducing the need for manual labor and improving the quality and speed of production processes.
    • Human Capital: Human capital encompasses the skills, knowledge, and expertise of the workforce. It includes education, training, experience, and health. Human capital contributes to overall productivity by enabling workers to perform tasks effectively and innovatively.
  4. Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurship involves the ability to organize and manage the other factors of production (land, labor, and capital) to create goods and services. Entrepreneurs play a pivotal role in identifying opportunities, making strategic decisions, taking risks, and innovating in the production process. They are responsible for bringing together various resources and coordinating them to achieve productive outcomes.

Items that come under Physical Capital (Tangible Assets):

Physical capital constitutes a wide range of tangible assets used in various industries to facilitate production. Here are examples of items falling under physical capital:

  1. Machinery and Equipment: Industrial machines, tools, assembly lines, and processing equipment utilized in manufacturing and production processes.
  2. Buildings and Infrastructure: Factories, warehouses, offices, and transportation facilities that provide the necessary space and facilities for production.
  3. Vehicles: Commercial vehicles such as trucks, vans, and delivery vehicles used for transportation and logistics in production and distribution.
  4. Computers and Technology: Computers, servers, software, and communication technology employed in modern production processes for automation and efficiency.
  5. Research and Development (R&D) Facilities: Laboratories, testing equipment, and facilities dedicated to research and development activities, particularly in industries focused on innovation and product development.
  6. Tools and Instruments: Handheld tools, precision instruments, and specialized equipment used in various trades and industries.

28. What are the two types of unemployment found in rural areas? How does Unemployment affect the overall growth of an economy? Explain by giving four points. (4+1=5)

Types of Unemployment in Rural Areas:

  1. Seasonal Unemployment: Seasonal unemployment occurs when individuals are jobless during specific periods of the year due to the seasonal nature of agricultural and non-agricultural activities. In rural areas, it is primarily linked to agriculture. Farmers and agricultural laborers often face unemployment during non-cropping seasons when there is no farm work available.
  2. Underemployment: Underemployment refers to a situation where individuals are employed in jobs that are inadequate in terms of their skills or the number of hours they are willing to work. It often manifests as individuals being employed for only a part of the year or being engaged in low-paying, low-productivity jobs that do not fully utilize their skills and potential.

Impact of Unemployment on the Overall Growth of an Economy (4 Points):

Unemployment has several adverse effects on the overall growth of an economy:

  1. Reduced Productivity: Unemployment, whether seasonal or due to underemployment, leads to underutilization of labor resources. This results in reduced overall productivity as there is untapped potential in the workforce. When people are not fully employed or engaged in productive work, the economy cannot operate at its maximum capacity.
  2. Poverty and Income Inequality: Unemployment contributes to poverty and income inequality. When individuals are unable to find stable employment, they struggle to meet their basic needs and improve their standard of living. This leads to an unequal distribution of income within society, which can hinder economic growth.
  3. Lower Consumer Spending: Unemployed individuals have limited purchasing power, which reduces overall consumer spending. Lower consumer spending, in turn, affects demand for goods and services, leading to decreased production and business revenues. This can result in a slowdown in economic growth.

29. Three features A, B and C are shown in the given outline political map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked in the map. (1+1+1=3)

A. Highest peak in Western Ghat B. The Indian Desert C. Lakshadweep Island.

For the political map of India: A. Highest peak in Western Ghats: Anamudi B. The Indian Desert: Thar Desert C. Lakshadweep Island: Lakshadweep Islands

30. Three items A,B and C are shown in the given outline map of France. Identify these items with the help of following information and write their correct names on the line marked on the map. (1+1+1=3)

1. A port of France related to Slave trade. 2. The city where Bastille prison was located. 3. Sea located on the south of France.

  1. A port of France related to Slave trade: Nantes
  2. The city where Bastille prison was located: Paris
  3. Sea located on the south of France: Mediterranean Sea

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