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HTML | Tables
  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 29 Oct, 2020

A table is an arrangement of data in rows and columns, or possibly in a more complex structure. Tables are widely used in communication, research, and data analysis.

  • Tables are useful for various tasks such as presenting text information and numerical data.
  • Tables can be used to compare two or more items in tabular form layout.
  • Tables are used to create databases.

Defining Tables in HTML
An HTML table is defined with the “table” tag. Each table row is defined with the “tr” tag. A table header is defined with the “th” tag. By default, table headings are bold and centered. A table data/cell is defined with the “td” tag.

Example:




<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  
<body>
  
    <table style="width:100%">
        <tr>
            <th>Firstname</th>
            <th>Lastname</th>
            <th>Age</th>
        </tr>
        <tr>
            <td>Priya</td>
            <td>Sharma</td>
            <td>24</td>
        </tr>
        <tr>
            <td>Arun</td>
            <td>Singh</td>
            <td>32</td>
        </tr>
        <tr>
            <td>Sam</td>
            <td>Watson</td>
            <td>41</td>
        </tr>
    </table>
  
</body>
  
</html>


Output:

Important Table options in HTML:



  1. Adding a border to a HTML Table: A border is set using the CSS border property. If you do not specify a border for the table, it will be displayed without borders.

    Example:




    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>
      
    <head>
        <style>
            table, th, td {
                border: 1px solid black;
            }
        </style>
    </head>
      
    <body>
        <table style="width:100%">
            <tr>
                <th>Firstname</th>
                <th>Lastname</th>
                <th>Age</th>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Priya</td>
                <td>Sharma</td>
                <td>24</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Arun</td>
                <td>Singh</td>
                <td>32</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Sam</td>
                <td>Watson</td>
                <td>41</td>
            </tr>
        </table>
    </body>
      
    </html>

    
    

    Output :

  2. Adding Collapsed Borders in a HTML Table: For borders to collapse into one border, add the CSS border-collapse property.

    Example:




    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>
      
    <head>
        <style>
            table, th, td {
                border: 1px solid black;
                border-collapse: collapse;
            }
        </style>
    </head>
      
    <body>
      
        <table style="width:100%">
            <tr>
                <th>Firstname</th>
                <th>Lastname</th>
                <th>Age</th>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Priya</td>
                <td>Sharma</td>
                <td>24</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Arun</td>
                <td>Singh</td>
                <td>32</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Sam</td>
                <td>Watson</td>
                <td>41</td>
            </tr>
        </table>
    </body>
      
    </html>

    
    

    Output:

  3. Adding Cell Padding in a HTML Table: Cell padding specifies the space between the cell content and its borders.If we do not specify a padding, the table cells will be displayed without padding.

    Example:




    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>
      
    <head>
        <style>
            table, th, td {
                border: 1px solid black;
                border-collapse: collapse;
            }
              
            th, td {
                padding: 20px;
            }
        </style>
    </head>
      
    <body>
      
        <table style="width:100%">
            <tr>
                <th>Firstname</th>
                <th>Lastname</th>
                <th>Age</th>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Priya</td>
                <td>Sharma</td>
                <td>24</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Arun</td>
                <td>Singh</td>
                <td>32</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Sam</td>
                <td>Watson</td>
                <td>41</td>
            </tr>
        </table>
    </body>
      
    </html>

    
    

    Output:

  4. Adding Left Align Headings in a HTML Table : By default the table headings are bold and centered. To left-align the table headings,we must use the CSS text-align property.

    Example:






    <html>
      
    <head>
        <style>
            table, th, td {
                border: 1px solid black;
                border-collapse: collapse;
            }
              
            th, td {
                padding: 20px;
            }
              
            th {
                text-align: left;
            }
        </style>
    </head>
      
    <body>
      
        <table style="width:100%">
            <tr>
                <th>Firstname</th>
                <th>Lastname</th>
                <th>Age</th>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Priya</td>
                <td>Sharma</td>
                <td>24</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Arun</td>
                <td>Singh</td>
                <td>32</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Sam</td>
                <td>Watson</td>
                <td>41</td>
            </tr>
        </table>
    </body>
      
    </html>

    
    

    Output:

  5. Adding Border Spacing in a HTML Table: Border spacing specifies the space between the cells. To set the border spacing for a table,we must use the CSS border-spacing property.

    Example:




    <html>
      
    <head>
        <style>
            table, th, td {
                border: 1px solid black;
            }
              
            table {
                border-spacing: 5px;
            }
        </style>
    </head>
      
    <body>
      
        <table style="width:100%">
            <tr>
                <th>Firstname</th>
                <th>Lastname</th>
                <th>Age</th>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Priya</td>
                <td>Sharma</td>
                <td>24</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Arun</td>
                <td>Singh</td>
                <td>32</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Sam</td>
                <td>Watson</td>
                <td>41</td>
            </tr>
        </table>
    </body>
      
    </html>

    
    

    Output:

  6. Adding Cells that Span Many Columns in HTMl Tables : To make a cell span more than one column, we must use the colspan attribute.
    Example:




    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>
      
    <head>
        <style>
            table, th, td {
                border: 1px solid black;
                border-collapse: collapse;
            }
              
            th, td {
                padding: 5px;
                text-align: left;
            }
        </style>
    </head>
      
    <body>
      
        <h2>Cell that spans two columns:</h2>
        <table style="width:100%">
            <tr>
                <th>Name</th>
                <th colspan="2">Telephone</th>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Vikas Rawat</td>
                <td>9125577854</td>
                <td>8565557785</td>
            </tr>
        </table>
    </body>
      
    </html>

    
    

    Output:

  7. Adding Cells that Span Many Rows in HTML Tables: To make a cell span more than one row,we must use the rowspan attribute:
    Example:




    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>
      
    <head>
        <style>
            table, th, td {
                border: 1px solid black;
                border-collapse: collapse;
            }
              
            th, td {
                padding: 5px;
                text-align: left;
            }
        </style>
    </head>
      
    <body>
      
        <h2>Cell that spans two rows:</h2>
        <table style="width:100%">
            <tr>
                <th>Name:</th>
                <td>Vikas Rawat</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <th rowspan="2">Telephone:</th>
                <td>9125577854</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>8565557785</td>
            </tr>
        </table>
    </body>
      
    </html>

    
    

    Output:

  8. Adding a Caption in a HTML Table: To add a caption to a table, we must use the “caption” tag.

    Example:




    <html>
      
    <head>
        <style>
            table, th, td {
                border: 1px solid black;
                border-collapse: collapse;
            }
              
            th, td {
                padding: 20px;
            }
              
            th {
                text-align: left;
            }
        </style>
    </head>
      
    <body>
      
        <table style="width:100%">
            <caption>DETAILS</caption>
            <tr>
                <th>Firstname</th>
                <th>Lastname</th>
                <th>Age</th>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Priya</td>
                <td>Sharma</td>
                <td>24</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Arun</td>
                <td>Singh</td>
                <td>32</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Sam</td>
                <td>Watson</td>
                <td>41</td>
            </tr>
        </table>
    </body>
      
    </html>

    
    

    Output:

  9. Adding a Background Colour To a Table in HTML: A color can be added as a background in HTML table using the “background-color” option.

    Example:




    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>
      
    <head>
        <style>
            table, th, td {
                border: 1px solid black;
                border-collapse: collapse;
            }
              
            th, td {
                padding: 5px;
                text-align: left;
            }
              
            table#t01 {
                width: 100%;
                background-color: #f2f2d1;
            }
        </style>
    </head>
      
    <body>
      
        <table style="width:100%">
            <tr>
                <th>Firstname</th>
                <th>Lastname</th>
                <th>Age</th>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Priya</td>
                <td>Sharma</td>
                <td>24</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Arun</td>
                <td>Singh</td>
                <td>32</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Sam</td>
                <td>Watson</td>
                <td>41</td>
            </tr>
        </table>
      
        <br />
        <br />
      
        <table id="t01">
            <tr>
                <th>Firstname</th>
                <th>Lastname</th>
                <th>Age</th>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Priya</td>
                <td>Sharma</td>
                <td>24</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Arun</td>
                <td>Singh</td>
                <td>32</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Sam</td>
                <td>Watson</td>
                <td>41</td>
      
            </tr>
        </table>
    </body>
      
    </html>

    
    

    Output:

  10. Creating Nested Tables in HTML: Nesting tables simply means making a Table inside another Table. Nesting tables can lead to complex tables layouts, which are visually interesting and have the potential of introducing errors.
    Example:




    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>
      
    <body>
        <table border=5 bordercolor=black>
            <tr>
                <td>
                    Fisrt Column of Outer Table
                </td>
                  
                <td>
                    <table border=5 bordercolor=grey>
                        <tr>
                            <td>
                                First row of Inner Table
                            </td>
                        </tr>
                        <tr>
                            <td>
                                Second row of Inner Table
                            </td>
                        </tr>
                    </table>
                </td>
            </tr>
        </table>
    </body>
      
    </html>

    
    

    Output:

This article is contributed by Shubrodeep Banerjee. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above.

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