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Class 11 NCERT Solutions – Chapter 1 Sets – Exercise 1.4
  • Last Updated : 15 Dec, 2020

Question 1. Find the union of each of the following pairs of sets:

(i) X = {1, 3, 5} Y = {1, 2, 3}

(ii) A = {a, e, i, o, u} B = {a, b, c}

(iii) A = {x: x is a natural number and multiple of 3}

B = {x: x is a natural number less than 6}

(iv) A = {x: x is a natural number and 1 < x ≤ 6}

B = {x: x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10}

(v) A = {1, 2, 3}, B = Φ

Solution:

(i) X = {1, 3, 5} Y = {1, 2, 3}

So, the union of the pairs of set can be written as

X ∪ Y= {1, 2, 3, 5}

(ii) A = {a, e, i, o, u} B = {a, b, c}



So, the union of the pairs of set can be written as

A∪ B = {a, b, c, e, i, o, u}

(iii) A = {x: x is a natural number and multiple of 3} = {3, 6, 9 …}

B = {x: x is a natural number less than 6} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

So, the union of the pairs of set can be written as

A ∪ B = {1, 2, 4, 5, 3, 6, 9, 12 …}

Hence, A ∪ B = {x: x = 1, 2, 4, 5 or a multiple of 3}

(iv) A = {x: x is a natural number and 1 < x ≤ 6} = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}



B = {x: x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10} = {7, 8, 9}

So, the union of the pairs of set can be written as

A∪ B = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

Hence, A∪ B = {x: x ∈ N and 1 < x < 10}

(v) A = {1, 2, 3}, B = Φ

So, the union of the pairs of set can be written as

A∪ B = {1, 2, 3}

Question 2. Let A = {a, b}, B = {a, b, c}. Is A ⊂ B? What is A ∪ B?

Solution:

It is given that

A = {a, b} and B = {a, b, c}

Yes, A ⊂ B

So, the union of the pairs of set can be written as

A∪ B = {a, b, c} = B

Question 3. If A and B are two sets such that A ⊂ B, then what is A ∪ B?

Solution:

If A and B are two sets such that A ⊂ B, then A ∪ B = B.

Question 4. If A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {3, 4, 5, 6}, C = {5, 6, 7, 8} and D = {7, 8, 9, 10}; find

(i) A ∪ B

(ii) A ∪ C

(iii) B ∪ C

(iv) B ∪ D

(v) A ∪ B ∪ C

(vi) A ∪ B ∪ D

(vii) B ∪ C ∪ D

Solution:

It is given that

A = {1, 2, 3, 4], B = {3, 4, 5, 6}, C = {5, 6, 7, 8} and D = {7, 8, 9, 10}

(i) A ∪ B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

(ii) A ∪ C = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

(iii) B ∪ C = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

(iv) B ∪ D = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}

(v) A ∪ B ∪ C = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

(vi) A ∪ B ∪ D = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}

(vii) B ∪ C ∪ D = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}

Question 5. Find the intersection of each pair of sets:

(i) X = {1, 3, 5} Y = {1, 2, 3}

(ii) A = {a, e, i, o, u} B = {a, b, c}

(iii) A = {x: x is a natural number and multiple of 3}

B = {x: x is a natural number less than 6}

(iv) A = {x: x is a natural number and 1 < x ≤ 6}

B = {x: x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10}

(v) A = {1, 2, 3}, B = Φ

Solution:

(i) X = {1, 3, 5}, Y = {1, 2, 3}

So, the intersection of the given set can be written as

X ∩ Y = {1, 3}

(ii) A = {a, e, i, o, u}, B = {a, b, c}

So, the intersection of the given set can be written as

A ∩ B = {a}

(iii) A = {x: x is a natural number and multiple of 3} = (3, 6, 9 …}

B = {x: x is a natural number less than 6} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

So, the intersection of the given set can be written as

A ∩ B = {3}

(iv) A = {x: x is a natural number and 1 < x ≤ 6} = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

B = {x: x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10} = {7, 8, 9}

So, the intersection of the given set can be written as

A ∩ B = Φ

(v) A = {1, 2, 3}, B = Φ

So, the intersection of the given set can be written as

A ∩ B = Φ

Question 6. If A = {3, 5, 7, 9, 11}, B = {7, 9, 11, 13}, C = {11, 13, 15} and D = {15, 17}; find

(i) A ∩ B

(ii) B ∩ C

(iii) A ∩ C ∩ D

(iv) A ∩ C

(v) B ∩ D

(vi) A ∩ (B ∪ C)

(vii) A ∩ D

(viii) A ∩ (B ∪ D)

(ix) (A ∩ B) ∩ (B ∪ C)

(x) (A ∪ D) ∩ (B ∪ C)

Solution:

(i) A ∩ B = {7, 9, 11}

(ii) B ∩ C = {11, 13}

(iii) A ∩ C ∩ D = {A ∩ C} ∩ D

= {11} ∩ {15, 17}

= Φ

(iv) A ∩ C = {11}

(v) B ∩ D = Φ

(vi) A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C)

= {7, 9, 11} ∪ {11}

= {7, 9, 11}

(vii) A ∩ D = Φ

(viii) A ∩ (B ∪ D) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ D)

= {7, 9, 11} ∪ Φ  

= {7, 9, 11}

(ix) (A ∩ B) ∩ (B ∪ C) = {7, 9, 11} ∩ {7, 9, 11, 13, 15}

= {7, 9, 11}

(x) (A ∪ D) ∩ (B ∪ C) = {3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 17) ∩ {7, 9, 11, 13, 15}

= {7, 9, 11, 15}

Question 7. If A = {x: x is a natural number}, B = {x: x is an even natural number}, C = {x: x is an odd natural number} and D = {x: x is a prime number}, find

(i) A ∩ B

(ii) A ∩ C

(iii) A ∩ D

(iv) B ∩ C

(v) B ∩ D

(vi) C ∩ D

Solution:

It can be written as

A = {x: x is a natural number} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5 …}

B ={x: x is an even natural number} = {2, 4, 6, 8 …}

C = {x: x is an odd natural number} = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9 …}

D = {x: x is a prime number} = {2, 3, 5, 7 …}

(i) A ∩B = {x: x is a even natural number} = B

(ii) A ∩ C = {x: x is an odd natural number} = C

(iii) A ∩ D = {x: x is a prime number} = D

(iv) B ∩ C = Φ

(v) B ∩ D = {2}

(vi) C ∩ D = {x: x is odd prime number}

Question 8. Which of the following pairs of sets are disjoint

(i) {1, 2, 3, 4} and {x: x is a natural number and 4 ≤ x ≤ 6}

(ii) {a, e, i, o, u} and {c, d, e, f}

(iii) {x: x is an even integer} and {x: x is an odd integer}

Solution:

(i) {1, 2, 3, 4}

{x: x is a natural number and 4 ≤ x ≤ 6} = {4, 5, 6}

So, we get

{1, 2, 3, 4} ∩ {4, 5, 6} = {4}

Hence, this pair of sets is not disjoint.

(ii) {a, e, i, o, u} ∩ (c, d, e, f} = {e}

Hence, {a, e, i, o, u} and (c, d, e, f} are not disjoint.

(iii) {x: x is an even integer} ∩ {x: x is an odd integer} = Φ

Hence, this pair of sets is disjoint.

Question 9. If A = {3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21}, B = {4, 8, 12, 16, 20}, C = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16}, D = {5, 10, 15, 20}; find

(i) A – B

(ii) A – C

(iii) A – D

(iv) B – A

(v) C – A

(vi) D – A

(vii) B – C

(viii) B – D

(ix) C – B

(x) D – B

(xi) C – D

(xii) D – C

Solution:

(i) A – B = {3, 6, 9, 15, 18, 21}

(ii) A – C = {3, 9, 15, 18, 21}

(iii) A – D = {3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 21}

(iv) B – A = {4, 8, 16, 20}

(v) C – A = {2, 4, 8, 10, 14, 16}

(vi) D – A = {5, 10, 20}

(vii) B – C = {20}

(viii) B – D = {4, 8, 12, 16}

(ix) C – B = {2, 6, 10, 14}

(x) D – B = {5, 10, 15}

(xi) C – D = {2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 14, 16}

(xii) D – C = {5, 15, 20}

Question 10. If X = {a, b, c, d} and Y = {f, b, d, g}, find

(i) X – Y

(ii) Y – X

(iii) X ∩ Y

Solution:

(i) X – Y = {a, c}

(ii) Y – X = {f, g}

(iii) X ∩ Y = {b, d}

Question 11. If R is the set of real numbers and Q is the set of rational numbers, then what is R – Q?

Solution:

We know that

R – Set of real numbers

Q – Set of rational numbers

Hence, R – Q is a set of irrational numbers.

Question 12. State whether each of the following statement is true or false. Justify your answer.

(i) {2, 3, 4, 5} and {3, 6} are disjoint sets.

(ii) {a, e, i, o, u } and {a, b, c, d} are disjoint sets.

(iii) {2, 6, 10, 14} and {3, 7, 11, 15} are disjoint sets.

(iv) {2, 6, 10} and {3, 7, 11} are disjoint sets.

Solution:

(i) False

If 3 ∈ {2, 3, 4, 5}, 3 ∈ {3, 6}

So, we get {2, 3, 4, 5} ∩ {3, 6} = {3}

(ii) False

If a ∈ {a, e, i, o, u}, a ∈ {a, b, c, d}

So, we get {a, e, i, o, u} ∩ {a, b, c, d} = {a}

(iii) True

Here {2, 6, 10, 14} ∩ {3, 7, 11, 15} = Φ

(iv) True

Here {2, 6, 10} ∩ {3, 7, 11} = Φ

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