2048 Game in Python

In this article we will look python code and logic to design a 2048 game you have played very often in your smartphone. If you are not familiar with the game, it is highly recommended to first play the game so that you can understand the basic functioning of it.

How to play 2048 :

1. There is a 4*4 grid which can be filled with any number. Initially two random cells are filled with 2 in it. Rest cells are empty.

2. we have to press any one of four keys to move up, down, left, or right. When we press any key, the elements of the cell move in that direction such that if any two identical numbers are contained in that particular row (in case of moving left or right) or column (in case of moving up and down) they get add up and extreme cell in that direction fill itself with that number and rest cells goes empty again.



3. After this grid compression any random empty cell gets itself filled with 2.

4. Following the above process we have to double the elements by adding up and make 2048 in any of the cell. If we are able to do that we wins.

5. But if during the game there is no empty cell left to be filled with a new 2, then the game goes over.

In above process you can see the snapshots from graphical user interface of 2048 game. But all the logic lies in the main code. So to solely understand the logic behind it we can assume the above grid to be a 4*4 matrix ( a list with four rows and four columns). You can see below the way to take input and output without GUI for the above game.



Example :

Commands are as follows : 
'W' or 'w' : Move Up
'S' or 's' : Move Down
'A' or 'a' : Move Left
'D' or 'd' : Move Right
[0, 0, 0, 0]
[0, 0, 0, 0]
[0, 0, 0, 0]
[0, 0, 2, 0]
Press the command : a
GAME NOT OVER
[0, 0, 0, 2]
[0, 0, 0, 0]
[0, 0, 0, 0]
[2, 0, 0, 0]
Press the command : s
GAME NOT OVER
[0, 0, 0, 0]
[0, 0, 0, 0]
[0, 0, 2, 0]
[2, 0, 0, 2]
Press the command : d
GAME NOT OVER
[0, 0, 0, 0]
[0, 0, 0, 0]
[2, 0, 0, 2]
[0, 0, 0, 4]
Press the command : a
GAME NOT OVER
[0, 2, 0, 0]
[0, 0, 0, 0]
[4, 0, 0, 0]
[4, 0, 0, 0]
Press the command : s
GAME NOT OVER
[0, 0, 0, 0]
[0, 0, 0, 0]
[0, 0, 0, 0]
[8, 2, 0, 2]
.
.
.
And the series of input output will go on till we lose or win!

Programming Approach :

  1. We will design each logic function such as we are performing a left swipe then we will use it for right swipe by reversing matrix and performing left swipe.
  2. Moving up can be done by taking transpose then moving left.
  3. Moving down can be done by taking transpose the moving right.
  4. All the logic in the program are explained in detail in the comments. Highly recommended to go through all the comments.

We have two python files below, one is 2048.py which contains main driver code and the other is logic.py which contains all functions used. logic.py should be imported in 2048.py to use these functions. just place both the files in the same folder then run 2048.py will work perfectly.

logic.py

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# logic.py to be 
# imported in the 2048.py file
  
# importing random package
# for methods to generate random
# numbers.
import random
  
# function to initialize game / grid
# at the start
def start_game():
  
    # declaring an empty list then
    # appending 4 list each with four
    # elements as 0.
    mat =[]
    for i in range(4):
        mat.append([0] * 4)
  
    # printing controls for user
    print("Commands are as follows : ")
    print("'W' or 'w' : Move Up")
    print("'S' or 's' : Move Down")
    print("'A' or 'a' : Move Left")
    print("'D' or 'd' : Move Right")
  
    # calling the function to add
    # a new 2 in grid after every step
    add_new_2(mat)
    return mat
  
# function to add a new 2 in
# grid at any random empty cell
def add_new_2(mat):
  
   # choosing a random index for
   # row and column.
    r = random.randint(0, 3)
    c = random.randint(0, 3)
  
    # while loop will break as the
    # random cell chosen will be empty
    # (or contains zero)
    while(mat[r] != 0):
        r = random.randint(0, 3)
        c = random.randint(0, 3)
  
    # we will place a 2 at that empty
    # random cell.
    mat[r] = 2
  
# function to get the current
# state of game
def get_current_state(mat):
  
    # if any cell contains
    # 2048 we have won
    for i in range(4):
        for j in range(4):
            if(mat[i][j]== 2048):
                return 'WON'
  
    # if we are still left with
    # atleast one empty cell
    # game is not yet over
    for i in range(4):
        for j in range(4):
            if(mat[i][j]== 0):
                return 'GAME NOT OVER'
  
    # or if no cell is empty now
    # but if after any move left, right,
    # up or down, if any two cells
    # gets merged and create an empty
    # cell then also game is not yet over
    for i in range(3):
        for j in range(3):
            if(mat[i][j]== mat[i + 1][j] or mat[i][j]== mat[i][j + 1]):
                return 'GAME NOT OVER'
  
    for j in range(3):
        if(mat[3][j]== mat[3][j + 1]):
            return 'GAME NOT OVER'
  
    for i in range(3):
        if(mat[i][3]== mat[i + 1][3]):
            return 'GAME NOT OVER'
  
    # else we have lost the game
    return 'LOST'
  
# all the functions defined below
# are for left swap initially.
  
# function to compress the grid
# after every step before and
# after merging cells.
def compress(mat):
  
    # bool variable to determine
    # any change happened or not
    changed = False
  
    # empty grid 
    new_mat = []
  
    # with all cells empty
    for i in range(4):
        new_mat.append([0] * 4)
          
    # here we will shift entries
    # of each cell to it's extreme
    # left row by row
    # loop to traverse rows
    for i in range(4):
        pos = 0
  
        # loop to traverse each column
        # in respective row
        for j in range(4):
            if(mat[i][j] != 0):
                  
                # if cell is non empty then
                # we will shift it's number to
                # previous empty cell in that row
                # denoted by pos variable
                new_mat[i][pos] = mat[i][j]
                  
                if(j != pos):
                    changed = True
                pos += 1
  
    # returning new compressed matrix
    # and the flag variable.
    return new_mat, changed
  
# function to merge the cells
# in matrix after compressing
def merge(mat):
      
    changed = False
      
    for i in range(4):
        for j in range(3):
  
            # if current cell has same value as
            # next cell in the row and they
            # are non empty then
            if(mat[i][j] == mat[i][j + 1] and mat[i][j] != 0):
  
                # double current cell value and
                # empty the next cell
                mat[i][j] = mat[i][j] * 2
                mat[i][j + 1] = 0
  
                # make bool variable True indicating
                # the new grid after merging is
                # different.
                changed = True
  
    return mat, changed
  
# function to reverse the matrix
# maens reversing the content of
# each row (reversing the sequence)
def reverse(mat):
    new_mat =[]
    for i in range(4):
        new_mat.append([])
        for j in range(4):
            new_mat[i].append(mat[i][3 - j])
    return new_mat
  
# function to get the transpose
# of matrix means inerchanging
# rows and column
def transpose(mat):
    new_mat = []
    for i in range(4):
        new_mat.append([])
        for j in range(4):
            new_mat[i].append(mat[j][i])
    return new_mat
  
# function to update the matrix
# if we move / swipe left
def move_left(grid):
  
    # first compress the grid
    new_grid, changed1 = compress(grid)
  
    # then merge the cells.
    new_grid, changed2 = merge(new_grid)
      
    changed = changed1 or changed2
  
    # again compress after merging.
    new_grid, temp = compress(new_grid)
  
    # return new matrix and bool changed
    # telling whether the grid is same
    # or different
    return new_grid, changed
  
# function to update the matrix
# if we move / swipe right
def move_right(grid):
  
    # to move right we just reverse
    # the matrix 
    new_grid = reverse(grid)
  
    # then move left
    new_grid, changed = move_left(new_grid)
  
    # then again reverse matrix will
    # give us desired result
    new_grid = reverse(new_grid)
    return new_grid, changed
  
# function to update the matrix
# if we move / swipe up
def move_up(grid):
  
    # to move up we just take
    # transpose of matrix
    new_grid = transpose(grid)
  
    # then move left (calling all
    # included functions) then
    new_grid, changed = move_left(new_grid)
  
    # again take transpose will give
    # desired results
    new_grid = transpose(new_grid)
    return new_grid, changed
  
# function to update the matrix
# if we move / swipe down
def move_down(grid):
  
    # to move down we take transpose
    new_grid = transpose(grid)
  
    # move right and then again
    new_grid, changed = move_right(new_grid)
  
    # take transpose will give desired
    # results.
    new_grid = transpose(new_grid)
    return new_grid, changed
  
# this file only contains all the logic
# functions to be called in main function
# present in the other file

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2048.py

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# 2048.py
  
# importing the logic.py file
# where we have written all the
# logic functions used.
import logic
  
# Driver code
if __name__ == '__main__':
      
# calling start_game function
# to initialze the matrix
    mat = logic.start_game()
  
while(True):
  
    # taking the user input
    # for next step
    x = input("Press the command : ")
  
    # we have to move up
    if(x == 'W' or x == 'w'):
  
        # call the move_up funtion
        mat, flag = logic.move_up(mat)
  
        # get the current state and print it
        status = logic.get_current_state(mat)
        print(status)
  
        # if game not ove then continue
        # and add a new two
        if(status == 'GAME NOT OVER'):
            logic.add_new_2(mat)
  
        # else break the loop 
        else:
            break
  
    # the above process will be followed
    # in case of each type of move
    # below
  
    # to move down
    elif(x == 'S' or x == 's'):
        mat, flag = logic.move_down(mat)
        status = logic.get_current_state(mat)
        print(status)
        if(status == 'GAME NOT OVER'):
            logic.add_new_2(mat)
        else:
            break
  
    # to move left
    elif(x == 'A' or x == 'a'):
        mat, flag = logic.move_left(mat)
        status = logic.get_current_state(mat)
        print(status)
        if(status == 'GAME NOT OVER'):
            logic.add_new_2(mat)
        else:
            break
  
    # to move right
    elif(x == 'D' or x == 'd'):
        mat, flag = logic.move_right(mat)
        status = logic.get_current_state(mat)
        print(status)
        if(status == 'GAME NOT OVER'):
            logic.add_new_2(mat)
        else:
            break
    else:
        print("Invalid Key Pressed")
  
    # print the matrix after each
    # move.
    print(mat)

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Output :

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