Tic Tac Toe GUI In Python using PyGame

This article will guide you and give you a basic idea of designing a game Tic Tac Toe using pygame library of Python. Pygame is a cross-platform set of Python modules designed for writing video games. It includes computer graphics and sound libraries designed to be used with the Python programming language.

Let’s break the task in five parts:

  1. Importing the required libraries and setting up the required global variables.
  2. Designing the game display function, that will set a platform for other components to be displayed on the screen.
  3. Main algorithm of win and draw
  4. Getting the user input and displaying the “X” or “O” at the proper position where the user has clicked his mouse.
  5. Running an infinite loop, and including the defined methods in it.

Note: The required PNG files can be downloaded below –

modified_cover.png

X_modified.png

o_modified.png

Importing the required libraries and setting up the required global variables

We are going to use the pygame, time, and the sys library of Python. time library is used to keep track of time and sleep() method that we are going to use inside our code. Have a look at the code below.

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# importing the required libraries
import pygame as pg
import sys
import time
from pygame.locals import *
   
# declaring the global variables
  
# for storing the 'x' or 'o' 
# value as character
XO = 'x'
  
# storing the winner's value at
# any instant of code
winner = None
  
# to check if the game is a draw
draw = None
  
# to set width of the game window
width = 400
  
# to set height of the game window
height = 400
  
# to set background color of the 
# game window
white = (255, 255, 255)
  
# color of the straightlines on that 
# white game board, dividing board 
# into 9 parts
line_color = (0, 0, 0)
   
# setting up a 3 * 3 board in canvas
board = [[None]*3, [None]*3, [None]*3]

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Designing the game display

This is the trickier part, that makes the utmost importance in game development. We can use the display.set_mode() method to set up our display window. This takes three arguments, first one being a tuple having (width, height) of the display that we want it to be, the other two arguments are depth and fps respectively.display.set_caption(), sets a caption on the name tag of our display. pg.image.load() is an useful method to load the background images to customize the display. This method takes the file name as an argument along with the extension. There is a small problem with image.load(), it loads the image as a Python object in its native size, which may not be optimized along with the display. So we use another method in pygame known as pg.transform.scale(). This method takes two arguments, one being the name of the image object and the other is a tuple having (width, height), that we want our image to scale to.



Finally we head to the first function, game_initiating_window(). On the very first line there is a screen.blit() function. The screen is the Python function and blit is the method that enables pygame to display something over another thing. Here out image object has been displayed over the screen, which was set white initially. pg.display.update() is another important function in game development. It updates the display of our window when called. Pygame also enables us to draw geometric objects like line, circle, etc. In this project we have used pg.draw.line() method that takes five arguments, namely – (display, line color, starting point, ending point, width). This involves a little bit of coordinate geometry to draw the lines properly.

This is not sufficient. At each update of the display we need to know the game status, Weather it is win or lose.draw_status() helps us in displaying another 100pc window at the bottom of the main window, that updates the status at each click of the user.

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# initializing the pygame window
pg.init()
  
# setting fps manually
fps = 30
  
# this is used to track time
CLOCK = pg.time.Clock()
  
# this method is used to build the
# infrastructure of the display
screen = pg.display.set_mode((width, height + 100), 0, 32)
  
# setting up a nametag for the 
# game window
pg.display.set_caption("My Tic Tac Toe")
   
# loading the images as python object
initiating_window = pg.image.load("modified_cover.png")
x_img = pg.image.load("X_modified.png")
y_img = pg.image.load("o_modified.png")
   
# resizing images
initiating_window = pg.transform.scale(initiating_window, (width, height + 100))
x_img = pg.transform.scale(x_img, (80, 80))
o_img = pg.transform.scale(y_img, (80, 80))
   
def game_initiating_window():
      
    # displaying over the screen
    screen.blit(initiating_window, (0, 0))
      
    # updating the display
    pg.display.update()
    time.sleep(3)                    
    screen.fill(white)
   
    # drawing vertical lines
    pg.draw.line(screen, line_color, (width / 3, 0), (width / 3, height), 7)
    pg.draw.line(screen, line_color, (width / 3 * 2, 0), (width / 3 * 2, height), 7)
   
    # drawing horizontal lines
    pg.draw.line(screen, line_color, (0, height / 3), (width, height / 3), 7)
    pg.draw.line(screen, line_color, (0, height / 3 * 2), (width, height / 3 * 2), 7)
    draw_status()
   
def draw_status():
      
    # getting the global variable draw
    # into action
    global draw
      
    if winner is None:
        message = XO.upper() + "'s Turn"
    else:
        message = winner.upper() + " won !"
    if draw:
        message = "Game Draw !"
   
    # setting a font object
    font = pg.font.Font(None, 30)
      
    # setting the font properties like 
    # color and width of the text
    text = font.render(message, 1, (255, 255, 255))
   
    # copy the rendered message onto the board
    # creating a small block at the bottom of the main display
    screen.fill ((0, 0, 0), (0, 400, 500, 100))
    text_rect = text.get_rect(center =(width / 2, 500-50))
    screen.blit(text, text_rect)
    pg.display.update()

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Main algorithm

The main algorithm has a straight forward approach. A user can win row-wise, column-wise, and diagonally. So by using a multidimensional array, we can set up the conditions easily.

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def check_win():
    global board, winner, draw
   
    # checking for winning rows
    for row in range(0, 3):
        if((board[row][0] == board[row][1] == board[row][2]) and (board [row][0] is not None)):
            winner = board[row][0]
            pg.draw.line(screen, (250, 0, 0),
                         (0, (row + 1)*height / 3 -height / 6),
                         (width, (row + 1)*height / 3 - height / 6 ),
                         4)
            break
   
    # checking for winning columns
    for col in range(0, 3):
        if((board[0][col] == board[1][col] == board[2][col]) and (board[0][col] is not None)):
            winner = board[0][col]
            pg.draw.line (screen, (250, 0, 0), ((col + 1)* width / 3 - width / 6, 0), \
                          ((col + 1)* width / 3 - width / 6, height), 4)
            break
   
    # check for diagonal winners
    if (board[0][0] == board[1][1] == board[2][2]) and (board[0][0] is not None):
          
        # game won diagonally left to right
        winner = board[0][0]
        pg.draw.line (screen, (250, 70, 70), (50, 50), (350, 350), 4)
          
    if (board[0][2] == board[1][1] == board[2][0]) and (board[0][2] is not None):
          
        # game won diagonally right to left
        winner = board[0][2]
        pg.draw.line (screen, (250, 70, 70), (350, 50), (50, 350), 4)
   
    if(all([all(row) for row in board]) and winner is None ):
        draw = True
  
    draw_status()

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Getting the user input and displaying the “X” or “O”

This part deals with a visualization of the board and a little bit of coordinate geometry. drawXO() takes two arguments row and col. First of all, we have to set up the correct geometrical position to put the image of X and image of O that we have stored as two python objects “x_img” and “y_img” respectively. Have a look at the code for a proper understanding.

user_click() is a function we have designed to get the input from a user mouse click. Imagine, you have clicked on one of the nine parts (boxes divided by the lines we have drawn horizontally and vertically), this function will define the coordinate of the position where you have clicked.pg.mouse.get_pos() gets the x-coordinate and y-coordinate of the mouse click of the user and return a tuple. Depending upon the (x, y) we can define the exact row and the exact column where the user has clicked. Finally, when we have the row and col, we pass these two as arguments to the function drawXO(row, col) to draw the image of ‘X’ or the image of ‘O’ at the desired position of the user on the game screen.

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def drawXO(row, col):
    global board, XO
      
    # for the first row, the image
    # should be pasted at a x coordinate
    # of 30 from the left margin
    if row == 1:
        posx = 30
          
    # for the second row, the image 
    # should be pasted at a x coordinate 
    # of 30 from the game line     
    if row == 2:
  
        # margin or width / 3 + 30 from 
        # the left margin of the window
        posx = width / 3 + 30
          
    if row == 3:
        posx = width / 3 * 2 + 30
   
    if col == 1:
        posy = 30
          
    if col == 2:
        posy = height / 3 + 30
      
    if col == 3:
        posy = height / 3 * 2 + 30
          
    # setting up the required board 
    # value to display
    board[row-1][col-1] = XO
      
    if(XO == 'x'):
          
        # pasting x_img over the screen 
        # at a coordinate position of
        # (pos_y, posx) defined in the
        # above code
        screen.blit(x_img, (posy, posx))
        XO = 'o'
      
    else:
        screen.blit(o_img, (posy, posx))
        XO = 'x'
    pg.display.update()
   
def user_click():
    # get coordinates of mouse click
    x, y = pg.mouse.get_pos()
   
    # get column of mouse click (1-3)
    if(x<width / 3):
        col = 1
      
    elif (x<width / 3 * 2):
        col = 2
      
    elif(x<width):
        col = 3
      
    else:
        col = None
   
    # get row of mouse click (1-3)
    if(y<height / 3):
        row = 1
      
    elif (y<height / 3 * 2):
        row = 2
      
    elif(y<height):
        row = 3
      
    else:
        row = None
        
    # after getting the row and col, 
    # we need to draw the images at
    # the desired positions
    if(row and col and board[row-1][col-1] is None):
        global XO
  
        drawXO(row, col)
        check_win()

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Running an infinite loop

This is the final important step to run our game infinitely until the user clicks exit. Before running an infinite loop, we need to set up a function that can reset all the global values and parameters to initial values for a fresh start of the game.
reset_game() is used for this purpose. It resets the board value to 3 * 3 None value again and initializes global parameters.

In the game development, every action by the player is an event. Whether he clicks on the window or clicks on the exit/close icon. To get these events as an object, pygame has a built-in method used as pg.event.get(). If the event type is “QUIT”, we use the sys library of Python to exit the game. But if the mouse is pressed, the event.get() will return “MOUSEBUTTONDOWN” and our call to user_click() happens to know the exact coordinate of the board where the user has clicked.

In the entire code we have used the .sleep() method to pause our game for sometimes and make that user friendly and smooth.

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def reset_game():
    global board, winner, XO, draw
    time.sleep(3)
    XO = 'x'
    draw = False
    game_initiating_window()
    winner = None
    board = [[None]*3, [None]*3, [None]*3]
   
game_initiating_window()
   
while(True):
    for event in pg.event.get():
  
        if event.type == QUIT:
            pg.quit()
            sys.exit()
  
        elif event.type is MOUSEBUTTONDOWN:
            user_click()
  
            if(winner or draw):
                reset_game()
  
    pg.display.update()
    CLOCK.tick(fps)

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The complete code:

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# importing the required libraries
import pygame as pg
import sys
import time
from pygame.locals import *
   
# declaring the global variables
  
# for storing the 'x' or 'o' 
# value as character
XO = 'x'
  
# storing the winner's value at
# any instant of code
winner = None
  
# to check if the game is a draw
draw = None
  
# to set width of the game window
width = 400
  
# to set height of the game window
height = 400
  
# to set background color of the 
# game window
white = (255, 255, 255)
  
# color of the straightlines on that 
# white game board, dividing board 
# into 9 parts
line_color = (0, 0, 0)
   
# setting up a 3 * 3 board in canvas
board = [[None]*3, [None]*3, [None]*3]
  
  
# initializing the pygame window
pg.init()
  
# setting fps manually
fps = 30
  
# this is used to track time
CLOCK = pg.time.Clock()
  
# this method is used to build the
# infrastructure of the display
screen = pg.display.set_mode((width, height + 100), 0, 32)
  
# setting up a nametag for the 
# game window
pg.display.set_caption("My Tic Tac Toe")
   
# loading the images as python object
initiating_window = pg.image.load("modified_cover.png")
x_img = pg.image.load("X_modified.png")
y_img = pg.image.load("o_modified.png")
   
# resizing images
initiating_window = pg.transform.scale(initiating_window, (width, height + 100))
x_img = pg.transform.scale(x_img, (80, 80))
o_img = pg.transform.scale(y_img, (80, 80))
   
def game_initiating_window():
      
    # displaying over the screen
    screen.blit(initiating_window, (0, 0))
      
    # updating the display
    pg.display.update()
    time.sleep(3)                    
    screen.fill(white)
   
    # drawing vertical lines
    pg.draw.line(screen, line_color, (width / 3, 0), (width / 3, height), 7)
    pg.draw.line(screen, line_color, (width / 3 * 2, 0), (width / 3 * 2, height), 7)
   
    # drawing horizontal lines
    pg.draw.line(screen, line_color, (0, height / 3), (width, height / 3), 7)
    pg.draw.line(screen, line_color, (0, height / 3 * 2), (width, height / 3 * 2), 7)
    draw_status()
   
def draw_status():
      
    # getting the global variable draw
    # into action
    global draw
      
    if winner is None:
        message = XO.upper() + "'s Turn"
    else:
        message = winner.upper() + " won !"
    if draw:
        message = "Game Draw !"
   
    # setting a font object
    font = pg.font.Font(None, 30)
      
    # setting the font properties like 
    # color and width of the text
    text = font.render(message, 1, (255, 255, 255))
   
    # copy the rendered message onto the board
    # creating a small block at the bottom of the main display
    screen.fill ((0, 0, 0), (0, 400, 500, 100))
    text_rect = text.get_rect(center =(width / 2, 500-50))
    screen.blit(text, text_rect)
    pg.display.update()
      
def check_win():
    global board, winner, draw
   
    # checking for winning rows
    for row in range(0, 3):
        if((board[row][0] == board[row][1] == board[row][2]) and (board [row][0] is not None)):
            winner = board[row][0]
            pg.draw.line(screen, (250, 0, 0),
                         (0, (row + 1)*height / 3 -height / 6),
                         (width, (row + 1)*height / 3 - height / 6 ),
                         4)
            break
   
    # checking for winning columns
    for col in range(0, 3):
        if((board[0][col] == board[1][col] == board[2][col]) and (board[0][col] is not None)):
            winner = board[0][col]
            pg.draw.line (screen, (250, 0, 0), ((col + 1)* width / 3 - width / 6, 0), \
                          ((col + 1)* width / 3 - width / 6, height), 4)
            break
   
    # check for diagonal winners
    if (board[0][0] == board[1][1] == board[2][2]) and (board[0][0] is not None):
          
        # game won diagonally left to right
        winner = board[0][0]
        pg.draw.line (screen, (250, 70, 70), (50, 50), (350, 350), 4)
          
    if (board[0][2] == board[1][1] == board[2][0]) and (board[0][2] is not None):
          
        # game won diagonally right to left
        winner = board[0][2]
        pg.draw.line (screen, (250, 70, 70), (350, 50), (50, 350), 4)
   
    if(all([all(row) for row in board]) and winner is None ):
        draw = True
    draw_status()
      
def drawXO(row, col):
    global board, XO
      
    # for the first row, the image
    # should be pasted at a x coordinate
    # of 30 from the left margin
    if row == 1:
        posx = 30
          
    # for the second row, the image 
    # should be pasted at a x coordinate 
    # of 30 from the game line     
    if row == 2:
  
        # margin or width / 3 + 30 from 
        # the left margin of the window
        posx = width / 3 + 30
          
    if row == 3:
        posx = width / 3 * 2 + 30
   
    if col == 1:
        posy = 30
          
    if col == 2:
        posy = height / 3 + 30
      
    if col == 3:
        posy = height / 3 * 2 + 30
          
    # setting up the required board 
    # value to display
    board[row-1][col-1] = XO
      
    if(XO == 'x'):
          
        # pasting x_img over the screen 
        # at a coordinate position of
        # (pos_y, posx) defined in the
        # above code
        screen.blit(x_img, (posy, posx))
        XO = 'o'
      
    else:
        screen.blit(o_img, (posy, posx))
        XO = 'x'
    pg.display.update()
   
def user_click():
    # get coordinates of mouse click
    x, y = pg.mouse.get_pos()
   
    # get column of mouse click (1-3)
    if(x<width / 3):
        col = 1
      
    elif (x<width / 3 * 2):
        col = 2
      
    elif(x<width):
        col = 3
      
    else:
        col = None
   
    # get row of mouse click (1-3)
    if(y<height / 3):
        row = 1
      
    elif (y<height / 3 * 2):
        row = 2
      
    elif(y<height):
        row = 3
      
    else:
        row = None
        
    # after getting the row and col, 
    # we need to draw the images at
    # the desired positions
    if(row and col and board[row-1][col-1] is None):
        global XO
        drawXO(row, col)
        check_win()
          
def reset_game():
    global board, winner, XO, draw
    time.sleep(3)
    XO = 'x'
    draw = False
    game_initiating_window()
    winner = None
    board = [[None]*3, [None]*3, [None]*3]
   
game_initiating_window()
   
while(True):
    for event in pg.event.get():
        if event.type == QUIT:
            pg.quit()
            sys.exit()
        elif event.type is MOUSEBUTTONDOWN:
            user_click()
            if(winner or draw):
                reset_game()
    pg.display.update()
    CLOCK.tick(fps)

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