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State Transition Testing

Last Updated : 09 Jan, 2024
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State Transition Testing

is a type of software testing which is performed to check the change in the state of the application under varying input. The condition of input passed is changed and the change in state is observed. State Transition Testing is basically a black box testing technique that is carried out to observe the behavior of the system or application for different input conditions passed in a sequence. In this type of testing, both positive and negative input values are provided and the behavior of the system is observed. State Transition Testing is basically used where different system transitions are needed to be tested.

Objectives of State Transition Testing

The objective of State Transition testing is:

  • Determining the System States: Identify and record the different states that the system that is being tested can be in. These phases are frequently connected to certain circumstances or occurrences inside the system.
  • State Transition Modelling: It makes a model or state transition diagram that shows the system’s various states and the changes between them.
  • Verifying Legitimate State Transitions: Check that the system responds to various inputs or events by switching between valid states in a correct manner. By doing this, it is ensured that the system transitions between states with expected behaviour.
  • Checking the Beginning and End States: Verify that, following a series of actions or events, the system finishes in the expected final state and begins in the proper beginning state. This guarantees correct system setup and dismantling.
  • Error Correction and Recovery: Examine the system’s capacity to recover from unforeseen conditions and accept faults with patience. This covers situations in which the system operates and runs into unexpected inputs or events.

Transition States:

  • Change Mode: When this mode is activated then the display mode moves from TIME to DATE.
  • Reset: When the display mode is TIME or DATE, then reset mode sets them to ALTER TIME or ALTER DATE respectively.
  • Time Set: When this mode is activated, display mode changes from ALTER TIME to TIME.
  • Date Set: When this mode is activated, display mode changes from ALTER DATE to DATE.

State Transition Diagram:

State Transition Diagram shows how the state of the system changes on certain inputs. It has four main components:

  1. States
  2. Transition
  3. Events
  4. Actions

Advantages of State Transition Testing

  • Clear Visualization: The different states and transitions in the system are clearly represented visually through the use of state transition diagrams. Better comprehension, communication¬†and documentation of the system’s behavior are made possible by this visualization.
  • Effective Test Design: Effective test case design is facilitated by the modelling of states and transitions. Based on the state transition diagram, testers can create test scenarios that encompass both legitimate and illegitimate state changes.
  • Early Error Detection: Early fault discovery in relation to state transitions is aided by state transition testing. Testers can detect and fix problems early in the development life cycle by methodically testing various transitions.

Disadvantages of State Transition Testing:

  • Having Trouble Identifying States: It might be difficult to recognize and characterize every state that a complicated system can have. Neglecting crucial testing situations could be the consequence of incomplete state identification.
  • Failed to Evaluate Combinations: Individual state modifications and transitions are the main focus of state transition testing. It might not sufficiently cover testing of various state combinations, which is important for some systems.
  • Risk of Omission: When creating and running test cases, there’s a chance that some situations or state transitions will be missed, which could result in insufficient test coverage.


State Transition Testing is a useful tool in the toolbox of software testing, especially for systems where the order of events or inputs has a major impact on how the programme behaves. Careful integration into the testing process advances the primary goal of producing software systems that are dependable, stable and act properly.

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