# Puzzle 20 | (5 Pirates and 100 Gold Coins)

There are 5 pirates, they must decide how to distribute 100 gold coins among them. The pirates have seniority levels, the senior-most is A, then B, then C, then D, and finally the junior-most is E.

Rules of distribution are:

- The most senior pirate proposes a distribution of coins.
- All pirates vote on whether to accept the distribution.
- If the distribution is accepted, the coins are disbursed and the game ends.
- If not, the proposer is thrown and dies, and the next most senior pirate makes a new proposal to begin the system again.
- In case of a tie vote the proposer can has the casting vote

Rules every pirates follows.

- Every pirate wants to survive
- Given survival, each pirate wants to maximize the number of gold coins he receives.

**What is the maximum number of coins that pirate A might get?**

**Answer:**

The answer is 98 which is not intuitive.

A uses below facts to get 98.

- Consider the situation when A, B and C die, only D and E are left. E knows that he will not get anything (D is senior and will make a distribution of
**(100, 0)**. So E would be find with anything greater than 0. - Consider the situation when A and B die, C, D and E are left. D knows that he will not get anything (C will make a distribution of
**(99, 0, 1)**and E will vote in favor of C). - Consider the situation when A dies. B, C, D and E are left. To survive, B only needs to give 1 coin to D. So distribution is
**(99, 0, 1, 0)** - Similarly A knows about point 3, so he just needs to give 1 coin to C and 1 coin to E to get them in favor. So distribution is
**(98, 0, 1, 0, 1)**. - Puzzle 1 | (How to Measure 45 minutes using two identical wires?)
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- Puzzle 4 | (Pay an employee using a 7 units gold rod?)
- Puzzle 13 | (100 Prisoners with Red/Black Hats)
- Puzzle 5 | (Finding the Injection for Anesthesia)
- Puzzle 6 | (Monty Hall problem)
- Puzzle 7 | (3 Bulbs and 3 Switches)
- Puzzle 8 | (Find the Jar with contaminated pills)
- Puzzle 9 | (Find the fastest 3 horses)
- Puzzle 10 | (A Man with Medical Condition and 2 Pills)
- Puzzle 11 | (1000 Coins and 10 Bags)
- Puzzle 12 | (Maximize probability of White Ball)
- Puzzle 14 | (Strategy for a 2 Player Coin Game)
- Puzzle 15 | (Camel and Banana Puzzle)

The idea is based on the fact that what B will distribute if A dies (B would always want A to die). If A gives more coins to 2 people than B would have given, A wins.

**References:**

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pirate_game

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