Detect a negative cycle in a Graph | (Bellman Ford)

2.3

We are given a directed graph. We need compute whether the graph has negative cycle or not. A negative cycle is one in which the overall sum of the cycle comes negative.


Image Source : http://algo.epfl.ch

Negative weights are found in various applications of graphs. For example, instead of paying cost for a path, we may get some advantage if we follow the path.

Examples:

Input : 4 4
        0 1 1
        1 2 -1
        2 3 -1
        3 0 -1

Output : Yes
The graph contains a negative cycle.

The idea is to use Bellman Ford Algorithm.

Below is algorithm find if there is a negative weight cycle reachable from given source.

1) Initialize distances from source to all vertices as infinite and distance to source itself as 0. Create an array dist[] of size |V| with all values as infinite except dist[src] where src is source vertex.

2) This step calculates shortest distances. Do following |V|-1 times where |V| is the number of vertices in given graph.
…..a) Do following for each edge u-v
………………If dist[v] > dist[u] + weight of edge uv, then update dist[v]
………………….dist[v] = dist[u] + weight of edge uv

3) This step reports if there is a negative weight cycle in graph. Do following for each edge u-v
……If dist[v] > dist[u] + weight of edge uv, then “Graph contains negative weight cycle”
The idea of step 3 is, step 2 guarantees shortest distances if graph doesn’t contain negative weight cycle. If we iterate through all edges one more time and get a shorter path for any vertex, then there is a negative weight cycle.

// A C++ program to check if a graph contains negative
// weight cycle using Bellman-Ford algorithm. This program
// works only if all vertices are reachable from a source
// vertex 0.
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;

// a structure to represent a weighted edge in graph
struct Edge {
    int src, dest, weight;
};

// a structure to represent a connected, directed and
// weighted graph
struct Graph {
    // V-> Number of vertices, E-> Number of edges
    int V, E;

    // graph is represented as an array of edges.
    struct Edge* edge;
};

// Creates a graph with V vertices and E edges
struct Graph* createGraph(int V, int E)
{
    struct Graph* graph = new Graph;
    graph->V = V;
    graph->E = E;
    graph->edge = new Edge[graph->E];
    return graph;
}

// The main function that finds shortest distances
// from src to all other vertices using Bellman-
// Ford algorithm.  The function also detects
// negative weight cycle
bool isNegCycleBellmanFord(struct Graph* graph,
                           int src)
{
    int V = graph->V;
    int E = graph->E;
    int dist[V];

    // Step 1: Initialize distances from src
    // to all other vertices as INFINITE
    for (int i = 0; i < V; i++)
        dist[i] = INT_MAX;
    dist[src] = 0;

    // Step 2: Relax all edges |V| - 1 times.
    // A simple shortest path from src to any
    // other vertex can have at-most |V| - 1
    // edges
    for (int i = 1; i <= V - 1; i++) {
        for (int j = 0; j < E; j++) {
            int u = graph->edge[j].src;
            int v = graph->edge[j].dest;
            int weight = graph->edge[j].weight;
            if (dist[u] != INT_MAX && dist[u] + weight < dist[v])
                dist[v] = dist[u] + weight;
        }
    }

    // Step 3: check for negative-weight cycles.
    // The above step guarantees shortest distances
    // if graph doesn't contain negative weight cycle.
    // If we get a shorter path, then there
    // is a cycle.
    for (int i = 0; i < E; i++) {
        int u = graph->edge[i].src;
        int v = graph->edge[i].dest;
        int weight = graph->edge[i].weight;
        if (dist[u] != INT_MAX && dist[u] + weight < dist[v])
            return true;
    }

    return false;
}

// Driver program to test above functions
int main()
{
    /* Let us create the graph given in above example */
    int V = 5; // Number of vertices in graph
    int E = 8; // Number of edges in graph
    struct Graph* graph = createGraph(V, E);

    // add edge 0-1 (or A-B in above figure)
    graph->edge[0].src = 0;
    graph->edge[0].dest = 1;
    graph->edge[0].weight = -1;

    // add edge 0-2 (or A-C in above figure)
    graph->edge[1].src = 0;
    graph->edge[1].dest = 2;
    graph->edge[1].weight = 4;

    // add edge 1-2 (or B-C in above figure)
    graph->edge[2].src = 1;
    graph->edge[2].dest = 2;
    graph->edge[2].weight = 3;

    // add edge 1-3 (or B-D in above figure)
    graph->edge[3].src = 1;
    graph->edge[3].dest = 3;
    graph->edge[3].weight = 2;

    // add edge 1-4 (or A-E in above figure)
    graph->edge[4].src = 1;
    graph->edge[4].dest = 4;
    graph->edge[4].weight = 2;

    // add edge 3-2 (or D-C in above figure)
    graph->edge[5].src = 3;
    graph->edge[5].dest = 2;
    graph->edge[5].weight = 5;

    // add edge 3-1 (or D-B in above figure)
    graph->edge[6].src = 3;
    graph->edge[6].dest = 1;
    graph->edge[6].weight = 1;

    // add edge 4-3 (or E-D in above figure)
    graph->edge[7].src = 4;
    graph->edge[7].dest = 3;
    graph->edge[7].weight = -3;

    if (isNegCycleBellmanFord(graph, 0))
        cout << "Yes";
    else
        cout << "No";

    return 0;
}

Output :

No

How does it work?
As discussed in Bellman Ford algorithm, for a given source, it first calculates the shortest distances which have at-most one edge in the path. Then, it calculates shortest paths with at-nost 2 edges, and so on. After the i-th iteration of outer loop, the shortest paths with at most i edges are calculated. There can be maximum |V| – 1 edges in any simple path, that is why the outer loop runs |v| – 1 times. If there is a negative weight cycle, then one more iteration would give a shorted path.


Image Source : http://algo.epfl.ch

How to handle disconnected graph (If cycle is not reachable from source)?
The above algorithm and program might not work if the given graph is disconnected. It works when all vertices are reachable from source vertex 0.

To handle disconnected graph, we can repeat the process for vertices for which distance is infinite.

// A C++ program for Bellman-Ford's single source
// shortest path algorithm.
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;

// a structure to represent a weighted edge in graph
struct Edge {
    int src, dest, weight;
};

// a structure to represent a connected, directed and
// weighted graph
struct Graph {
    // V-> Number of vertices, E-> Number of edges
    int V, E;

    // graph is represented as an array of edges.
    struct Edge* edge;
};

// Creates a graph with V vertices and E edges
struct Graph* createGraph(int V, int E)
{
    struct Graph* graph = new Graph;
    graph->V = V;
    graph->E = E;
    graph->edge = new Edge[graph->E];
    return graph;
}

// The main function that finds shortest distances
// from src to all other vertices using Bellman-
// Ford algorithm. The function also detects
// negative weight cycle
bool isNegCycleBellmanFord(struct Graph* graph,
                           int src, int dist[])
{
    int V = graph->V;
    int E = graph->E;

    // Step 1: Initialize distances from src
    // to all other vertices as INFINITE
    for (int i = 0; i < V; i++)
        dist[i] = INT_MAX;
    dist[src] = 0;

    // Step 2: Relax all edges |V| - 1 times.
    // A simple shortest path from src to any
    // other vertex can have at-most |V| - 1
    // edges
    for (int i = 1; i <= V - 1; i++) {
        for (int j = 0; j < E; j++) {
            int u = graph->edge[j].src;
            int v = graph->edge[j].dest;
            int weight = graph->edge[j].weight;
            if (dist[u] != INT_MAX && dist[u] + weight < dist[v])
                dist[v] = dist[u] + weight;
        }
    }

    // Step 3: check for negative-weight cycles.
    // The above step guarantees shortest distances
    // if graph doesn't contain negative weight cycle.
    // If we get a shorter path, then there
    // is a cycle.
    for (int i = 0; i < E; i++) {
        int u = graph->edge[i].src;
        int v = graph->edge[i].dest;
        int weight = graph->edge[i].weight;
        if (dist[u] != INT_MAX && dist[u] + weight < dist[v])
            return true;
    }

    return false;
}

// Returns true if given graph has negative weight
// cycle.
bool isNegCycleDisconnected(struct Graph* graph)
{

    int V = graph->V;
    // To keep track of visited vertices to avoid
    // recomputations.
    bool visited[V];
    memset(visited, 0, sizeof(visited));

    // This array is filled by Bellman-Ford
    int dist[V];

    // Call Bellman-Ford for all those vertices
    // that are not visited
    for (int i = 0; i < V; i++) {
        if (visited[i] == false) {
            // If cycle found
            if (isNegCycleBellmanFord(graph, i, dist))
                return true;

            // Mark all vertices that are visited
            // in above call.
            for (int i = 0; i < V; i++)
                if (dist[i] != INT_MAX)
                    visited[i] = true;
        }
    }

    return false;
}

// Driver program to test above functions
int main()
{
    /* Let us create the graph given in above example */
    int V = 5; // Number of vertices in graph
    int E = 8; // Number of edges in graph
    struct Graph* graph = createGraph(V, E);

    // add edge 0-1 (or A-B in above figure)
    graph->edge[0].src = 0;
    graph->edge[0].dest = 1;
    graph->edge[0].weight = -1;

    // add edge 0-2 (or A-C in above figure)
    graph->edge[1].src = 0;
    graph->edge[1].dest = 2;
    graph->edge[1].weight = 4;

    // add edge 1-2 (or B-C in above figure)
    graph->edge[2].src = 1;
    graph->edge[2].dest = 2;
    graph->edge[2].weight = 3;

    // add edge 1-3 (or B-D in above figure)
    graph->edge[3].src = 1;
    graph->edge[3].dest = 3;
    graph->edge[3].weight = 2;

    // add edge 1-4 (or A-E in above figure)
    graph->edge[4].src = 1;
    graph->edge[4].dest = 4;
    graph->edge[4].weight = 2;

    // add edge 3-2 (or D-C in above figure)
    graph->edge[5].src = 3;
    graph->edge[5].dest = 2;
    graph->edge[5].weight = 5;

    // add edge 3-1 (or D-B in above figure)
    graph->edge[6].src = 3;
    graph->edge[6].dest = 1;
    graph->edge[6].weight = 1;

    // add edge 4-3 (or E-D in above figure)
    graph->edge[7].src = 4;
    graph->edge[7].dest = 3;
    graph->edge[7].weight = -3;

    if (isNegCycleDisconnected(graph))
        cout << "Yes";
    else
        cout << "No";

    return 0;
}

Output :

No

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