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JavaScript | Const

  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 07 Dec, 2021

ES2015 (ES6) introduced const keyword to define a new variable. The difference in const variable declaration than others is that it cannot be reassigned.

Properties:

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  • Cannot be reassigned.
  • Block Scope
  • It can be assign on the variable on declaration line.
  • Primitive value.
  • The property of a const object can be change but it cannot be change to reference to the new object
  • The values inside the const array can be change, it can add new items to const arrays but it cannot reference to a new array.
  • Re-declaring of a const variable inside different block scope is allowed.
  • Cannot be Hoisted.
  • Create only read only reference to value.

Example 1: It describes that the const variable cannot be reassigned.




<script type="text/javascript">
    const x = 12;
    x = 13;
    x += 1;
</script>                    

Output:



Uncaught TypeError: Assignment to constant variable.

Example 2: It describes the const variable which contains the Block Scope.




<script type="text/javascript">
    const x = 22;
    {
        const x = 90;
        console.log(x);
   
        {
            const x = 77;
            console.log(x);
        }
        {
            const x = 45;
            console.log(x);
        }
    }
    console.log(x);
</script>

Output:

90
77
45
22

Example 3: It describes the const variable and assigned it after declaration.




<script type="text/javascript">
    const x;
    x = 12;
</script>

Output:

Uncaught SyntaxError: Missing initializer in const declaration

Example 4: It describes the const variable cannot be Hoisted.




<script type="text/javascript">
    x = 3;
    console.log(x);
    const x;
</script>

Output:

Uncaught SyntaxError: Missing initializer in const declaration

Example 5: It describes that the array values can be modified only reference to array cannot be change.




<script type="text/javascript">
  
    // Changing the content of array is
    // possible in cost array
    const arr1 = ["pankaj", "sumit", "chandan", "ajay"];
      
    console.log(arr1.toString());
      
    arr1[2] = "Narayan"; // possible
      
    console.log(arr1.toString());
</script>

Output:

pankaj, sumit, chandan, ajay
pankaj, sumit, Narayan, ajay

Example 6: It describes that the object properties can be modified only reference to object cannot be changed.




<script type="text/javascript">
  
    const person = {
        first_name: "Pankaj",
        last_name: "Singh",
        Age: 20,
        About: "Web Developer and Competitive Programmer"
    };
      
    console.log(person);
      
    // It is possible
    person.first_name = "Aryan";
    person.last_name = "Yadav";
    person.Age = 22;
    person.About = "Commerce undergraduate";
      
    console.log(person);
    
    // it is not possible
    // const person={
    //     "first_name":"Aryan",
    //     "last_name":"Yadav",
    //     "Age":22,
    //     "About":"Commerce undergraduate"
    // }
</script>

Output:

Supported Browsers:

  • chrome 21 and above
  • Edge 12 and above
  • Firefox 36 and above
  • Internet Explorer 11 and above
  • Opera 9 and above
  • Safari 5.1 and above



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