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Functions in JavaScript

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JavaScript function is a set of statements that take inputs, do some specific computation, and produce output.

A JavaScript function is executed when “something” invokes it (calls it).

Example 1: A basic javascript function, here we create a function that divides the 1st element by the second element.


function myFunction(g1, g2) {
    return g1 / g2;
const value = myFunction(8, 2); // Calling the function



You must already have seen some commonly used functions in JavaScript like alert(), which is a built-in function in JavaScript. But JavaScript allows us to create user-defined functions also. We can create functions in JavaScript using the keyword `function`. 

Syntax: The basic syntax to create a function in JavaScript is shown below.

function functionName(Parameter1, Parameter2, ...)
// Function body

To create a function in JavaScript, we have to first use the keyword function, separated by the name of the function and parameters within parenthesis. The part of the function inside the curly braces {} is the body of the function.

In javascript, functions can be used in the same way as variables for assignments, or calculations.

Function Invocation:

  • Triggered by an event (e.g., a button click by a user).
  • When explicitly called from JavaScript code.
  • Automatically executed, such as in self-invoking functions.

Function Definition:

Before, using a user-defined function in JavaScript we have to create one. We can use the above syntax to create a function in JavaScript. A function definition is sometimes also termed a function declaration or function statement. Below are the rules for creating a function in JavaScript:

  • Every function should begin with the keyword function followed by,
  • A user-defined function name that should be unique,
  • A list of parameters enclosed within parentheses and separated by commas,
  • A list of statements composing the body of the function enclosed within curly braces {}.

Example 2: This example shows a basic declaration of a function in javascript.


function calcAddition(number1, number2) {
    return number1 + number2;



In the above example, we have created a function named calcAddition, 

  • This function accepts two numbers as parameters and returns the addition of these two numbers.
  • Accessing the function with just the function name without () will return the function object instead of the function result.

There are three ways of writing a function in JavaScript:

Function Declaration: It declares a function with a function keyword. The function declaration must have a function name.


function geeksforGeeks(paramA, paramB) {
// Set of statements

Function Expression:

It is similar to a function declaration without the function name. Function expressions can be stored in a variable assignment. 


let geeksforGeeks= function(paramA, paramB) {
// Set of statements

Example 3: This example explains the usage of the Function expression.


const square = function (number) {
      return number * number;
const x = square(4); // x gets the value 16



Functions as Variable Values:

Functions can be used the same way as you use variables.


// Function to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius
function toCelsius(fahrenheit) {
return (fahrenheit - 32) * 5/9;

// Using the function to convert temperature
let temperatureInFahrenheit = 77;
let temperatureInCelsius = toCelsius(temperatureInFahrenheit);
let text = "The temperature is " + temperatureInCelsius + " Celsius";

Arrow Function:

It is one of the most used and efficient methods to create a function in JavaScript because of its comparatively easy implementation. It is a simplified as well as a more compact version of a regular or normal function expression or syntax.


let function_name = (argument1, argument2 ,..) => expression

Example 4: This example describes the usage of the Arrow function.


const a = ["Hydrogen", "Helium", "Lithium", "Beryllium"];
const a2 = (s) {
    return s.length;
console.log("Normal way ", a2); // [8, 6, 7, 9]
const a3 = => s.length);
console.log("Using Arrow Function ", a3); // [8, 6, 7, 9]


Normal way  [ 8, 6, 7, 9 ]
Using Arrow Function  [ 8, 6, 7, 9 ]

Function Parameters:

Till now, we have heard a lot about function parameters but haven’t discussed them in detail. Parameters are additional information passed to a function. For example, in the above example, the task of the function calcAddition is to calculate the addition of two numbers. These two numbers on which we want to perform the addition operation are passed to this function as parameters. The parameters are passed to the function within parentheses after the function name and separated by commas. A function in JavaScript can have any number of parameters and also at the same time, a function in JavaScript can not have a single parameter.

Example 4: In this example, we pass the argument to the function.


function multiply(a, b) {
    b = typeof b !== "undefined" ? b : 1;
    return a * b;
console.log(multiply(69)); // 69



Calling Functions:

After defining a function, the next step is to call them to make use of the function. We can call a function by using the function name separated by the value of parameters enclosed between the parenthesis and a semicolon at the end. The below syntax shows how to call functions in JavaScript:


functionName( Value1, Value2, ..);

Example 5: Below is a sample program that illustrates the working of functions in JavaScript: 


function welcomeMsg(name) {
    return ("Hello " + name + " welcome to GeeksforGeeks");
// creating a variable
let nameVal = "Admin";
// calling the function


Hello Admin welcome to GeeksforGeeks

Return Statement:

There are some situations when we want to return some values from a function after performing some operations. In such cases, we can make use of the return statement in JavaScript. This is an optional statement and most of the time the last statement in a JavaScript function. Look at our first example with the function named as calcAddition. This function is calculating two numbers and then returns the result. 

Syntax: The most basic syntax for using the return statement is:

return value;

The return statement begins with the keyword return separated by the value which we want to return from it. We can use an expression also instead of directly returning the value.


We have a Cheat Sheet on Javascript where we covered all the important topics of Javascript to check those please go through Javascript Cheat Sheet-A Basic guide to JavaScript.

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Last Updated : 22 Nov, 2023
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