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JavaScript Arithmetic Operators

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JavaScript Arithmetic Operators are the operators that operate upon the numerical values and return a numerical value. Any kind of arithmetic operations performance required these operators.

JavaScript Assignment Operators list: There are so many arithmetic operators as shown in the table with the description.

 

OPERATOR NAME

USAGE

OPERATION

Addition Operatora+bAdd two numbers or concatenate the string
Subtraction Operatora-bDifference between the two operators
Multiplication Operatora*bMultiply two number
Division Operatora/bFind the quotient of two operands
Modulus Operatora%bFind the remainder of two operands
Exponentiation Operatora**bRaise the Left operator to the power of the right operator 
Increment Operatora++
++a
Return the operand and then increase by one
Increase operand by one and then return
Decrement Operatora–
–a
Return operand and then decrease by one
Decrease operand by one and then return
Unary Plus(+)+aConverts NaN to number
Unary Negation (-)-aConverts operand to negative

Addition (+): The addition operator takes two numerical operands and gives their numerical sum. It also concatenates two strings or numbers.

Example:

Javascript

// Number + Number => Addition 
let x = 1 + 2
console.log(x)
  
// Number + String => Concatenation
let y =  5 + "hello" 
console.log(y)

                    

Output:

3
5hello

Subtraction (-): The subtraction operator gives the difference between two operands in the form of numerical value.

Example:

Javascript

// Number - Number => Subtraction 
let x = 10 - 7 
console.log(x)
  
let y = "Hello" - 1 
console.log(y)

                    

Output:

3
NaN

Multiplication (*): The multiplication operator gives the product of operands where one operand is a multiplicand and another is multiplier.

Example:

Javascript

// Number * Number => Multiplication
let x = 3 * 3 
let y = -4 * 4 
console.log(x)
console.log(y)
  
let a = Infinity * 0 
let b = Infinity * Infinity 
console.log(a)
console.log(b)
let z = 'hi' * 2 
console.log(z)

                    

Output:

9
-16
NaN
Infinity
NaN

Division (/): The division operator provides the quotient of its operands where the right operand is the divisor and the left operand is the dividend.

Example:

Javascript

// Number / Number => Division
let x = 5 / 2
let y = 1.0 / 2.0
console.log(x)
console.log(y)
  
  
let a = 3.0 / 0
let b = 4.0 / 0.0
console.log(a)
console.log(b)
let z = 2.0 / -0.0
console.log(z)

                    

Output:

2.5
0.5
Infinity
Infinity
-Infinity

Modulus (%): The modulus operator returns the remainder left over when a dividend is divided by a divisor. The modulus operator is also known as the remainder operator. It takes the sign of the dividend.

Example:

Javascript

// Number % Number => Modulus of the number
let x = 9 % 5
let y = -12 % 5
let z = 1 % -2
let a = 5.5 % 2
let b = -4 % 2
let c = NaN % 2
  
console.log(x)
console.log(y)
console.log(z)
console.log(a)
console.log(b)
console.log(c)

                    

Output:

4
-2
1
1.5
0
NaN

Exponentiation (**): The exponentiation operator gives the result of raising the first operand to the power of the second operand. The exponentiation operator is right-associative. 

In JavaScript, it is not possible to write an ambiguous exponentiation expression i.e. you cannot put an unary operator (+ / – / ~ / ! / delete / void) immediately before the base number.

Example:

Javascript

// Number ** Number => Exponential of the number
  
// let x = -4 ** 2 // This is an incorrect expression
let y = -(4 ** 2) 
let z = 2 ** 5 
let a = 3 ** 3
let b = 3 ** 2.5 
let c = 10 ** -2 
let d = 2 ** 3 ** 2 
let e = NaN ** 2
  
console.log(y)
console.log(z)
console.log(a)
console.log(b)
console.log(c)
console.log(d)
console.log(e)

                    

Output:

-16
32
27
15.588457268119896
0.01
512
NaN

Increment (++): The increment operator increments (adds one to) its operand and returns a value.

  • If used postfix with the operator after the operand (for example, x++), then it increments and returns the value before incrementing.
  • If used prefix with the operator before the operand (for example, ++x), then it increments and returns the value after incrementing.

Example:

Javascript

// Postfix 
let a = 2;
b = a++; // b = 2, a = 3
  
// Prefix
let x = 5;
y = ++x; // x = 6, y = 6
  
console.log(a)
console.log(b)
console.log(x)
console.log(y)

                    

Output:

3
2
6
6

Decrement (- -): The decrement operator decrements (subtracts one from) its operand and returns a value.

  • If used postfix, with operator after operand (for example, x–), then it decrements and returns the value before decrementing.
  • If used prefix, with the operator before the operand (for example, –x), then it decrements and returns the value after decrementing.

Example:

Javascript

// Prefix
let a = 2;
b = --a; 
  
// Postfix 
let x = 3;
y = x--;
   
console.log(a)
console.log(b)
console.log(x)
console.log(y)

                    

Output:

1
1
2
3

Unary Negation(-): This is a unary operator i.e. it operates on a single operand. It gives the negation of an operand.

Example:

Javascript

let a = 3;
b = -a; 
  
// Unary negation operator
// can convert non-numbers
// into a number
let x = "3";
y = -x; 
    
console.log(a)
console.log(b)
console.log(x)
console.log(y)

                    

Output:

3
-3
3
-3

Unary Plus(+): This is a way to convert a non-number into a number. Although unary negation (-) also can convert non-numbers, unary plus is the fastest and preferred way of converting something into a number, because it does not perform any other operations on the number.

Example:

Javascript

let a =  +4     
let b = +'2'   
let c = +true  
let x = +false 
let y = +null
       
console.log(a)
console.log(b)
console.log(c)
console.log(x)
console.log(y)

                    

Output:

4
2
1
0
0

Supported Browsers: The browsers supported by all JavaScript Arithmetic operators are listed below:

  • Google Chrome
  • Firefox
  • Opera
  • Safari
  • Microsoft Edge
  • Internet Explorer

We have a complete list of Javascript operators, to check those please go through this Javascript Operators Complete reference article.

We have a Cheat Sheet on Javascript where we covered all the important topics of Javascript to check those please go through Javascript Cheat Sheet-A Basic guide to JavaScript.



Last Updated : 21 Jun, 2023
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