Java and Multiple Inheritance
Multiple Inheritance is a feature of an object-oriented concept, where a class can inherit properties of more than one parent class. The problem occurs when there exist methods with the same signature in both the superclasses and subclass. On calling the method, the compiler cannot determine which class method to be called and even on calling which class method gets the priority.
Note: Java doesn’t support Multiple Inheritance
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Output: Compilation error is thrown
Conclusion: As depicted from code above, on calling the method fun() using Test object will cause complications such as whether to call Parent1’s fun() or Parent2’s fun() method.
GrandParent / \ / \ Parent1 Parent2 \ / \ / Test
The code is as follows
Again it throws compiler error when run() method as multiple inheritances cause a diamond problem when allowed in other languages like C++. From the code, we see that: On calling the method fun() using Test object will cause complications such as whether to call Parent1’s fun() or Child’s fun() method. Therefore, in order to avoid such complications, Java does not support multiple inheritances of classes.
Multiple inheritance is not supported by Java using classes, handling the complexity that causes due to multiple inheritances is very complex. It creates problems during various operations like casting, constructor chaining, etc, and the above all reason is that there are very few scenarios on which we actually need multiple inheritances, so better to omit it for keeping things simple and straightforward.
How are the above problems handled for Default Methods and Interfaces?
Java 8 supports default methods where interfaces can provide a default implementation of methods. And a class can implement two or more interfaces. In case both the implemented interfaces contain default methods with the same method signature, the implementing class should explicitly specify which default method is to be used, or it should override the default method.
Default PI1 Default PI2
Note: If we remove the implementation of default method from “TestClass”, we get a compiler error. If there is a diamond through interfaces, then there is no issue if none of the middle interfaces provide implementation of root interface. If they provide implementation, then implementation can be accessed as above using super keyword.