URL class in Java with Examples

The URL class is the gateway to any of the resource available on the internet. A Class URL represents a Uniform Resource Locator, which is a pointer to a “resource” on the World Wide Web. A resource can point to a simple file or directory, or it can refer to a more complicated object, such as a query to a database or to a search engine

What is a URL?
As many of you must be knowing that Uniform Resource Locator-URL is a string of text that identifies all the resources on Internet, telling us the address of the resource, how to communicate with it and retrieve something from it.

A Simple URL looks like:
URL Class

Components of a URL:-
A URL can have many forms. The most general however follows three-components system-

  1. Protocol: HTTP is the protocol here
  2. Hostname: Name of the machine on which the resource lives.
  3. File Name: The path name to the file on the machine.
  4. Port Number: Port number to which to connect (typically optional).

Some constructors for URL class:-

  1. URL(String address) throws MalformedURLException: It creates a URL object from the specified String.
  2. URL(String protocol, String host, String file): Creates a URL object from the specified protcol, host, and file name.
  3. URL(String protocol, String host, int port, String file): Creates a URL object from protocol, host, port and file name.
  4. URL(URL context, String spec): Creates a URL object by parsing the given spec in the given context.
  5. URL(String protocol, String host, int port, String file, URLStreamHandler handler):-
    Creates a URL object from the specified protocol, host, port number, file, and handler.
  6. URL(URL context, String spec, URLStreamHandler handler):-
    Creates a URL by parsing the given spec with the specified handler within a specified context.

Sample Program:





// Java program to demonstrate working of URL
import java.net.MalformedURLException;
import java.net.URL;
public class URLclass1
    public static void main(String[] args)
                  throws MalformedURLException
        // creates a URL with string representation.
        URL url1 =
        new URL("https://www.google.co.in/?gfe_rd=cr&ei=ptYq" +
        // creates a URL with a protocol,hostname,and path
        URL url2 = new URL("http", "www.geeksforgeeks.org",
        URL url3 = new URL("https://www.google.co.in/search?"+
                           "q=gnu&rlz=1C1CHZL_enIN71" +
                           "4IN715&oq=gnu&aqs=chrome..69i57j6" +
                           "9i60l5.653j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF" +
        // print the string representation of the URL.
        System.out.println("Different components of the URL3-");
        // retrieve the protocol for the URL
        System.out.println("Protocol:- " + url3.getProtocol());
        // retrieve the hostname of the url
        System.out.println("Hostname:- " + url3.getHost());
        // retrieve the defalut port
        System.out.println("Default port:- " +
        // retrieve the query part of URL
        System.out.println("Query:- " + url3.getQuery());
        // retrive the path of URL
        System.out.println("Path:- " + url3.getPath());
        // retrive the file name
        System.out.println("File:- " + url3.getFile());
        // retrieve the reference
        System.out.println("Reference:- " + url3.getRef());




Different components of the URL3-
Protocol:- https
Hostname:- www.google.co.in
Default port:- 443
Query:- q=gnu&rlz=1C1CHZL_enIN714IN715&oq=gnu&aqs=chrome..69i57j69i60l5.653j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
Path:- /search
File:- /search?q=gnu&rlz=1C1CHZL_enIN714IN715&oq=gnu&aqs=chrome..69i57j69i60l5.653j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
Reference:- q=geeks+for+geeks+java

Explanation of some methods used in the above program is as follows:-

  1. public String toString(): As in any class, toString() returns the string representation of the given URL object.
  2. public String getAuthority(): returns the authority part of URL or null if empty.
  3. public String getPath(): returns the path of the URL, or null if empty.
  4. public String getQuery(): returns the query part of URL. Query is the part after the ‘?’ in the URL. Whenever logic is used to display the result, there would be a query field in URL. It is similar to querying a database.
  5. public String getHost(): return the hostname of the URL in IPv6 format.
  6. public String getFile(): returns the file name.
  7. public String getRef(): Returns the reference of the URL object. Usually, the reference is the part marked by a ‘#’ in the URL. You can see the working example by querying anything on google and seeing the part after ‘#’.
  8. public int getPort(): returns the port associated with the protocol specified by the URL.
  9. public int getDefaultPort: returns the default port used.
  10. public String getProtocol(): returns the protocol used by the URL.


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