In computer central processing units, micro-operations (also known as micro-ops) are the functional or atomic, operations of a processor. These are low level instructions used in some designs to implement complex machine instructions. They generally perform operations on data stored in one or more registers. They transfer data between registers or between external buses of the CPU, also performs arithmetic and logical operations on registers.
In executing a program, operation of a computer consists of a sequence of instruction cycles, with one machine instruction per cycle. Each instruction cycle is made up of a number of smaller units – Fetch, Indirect, Execute and Interrupt cycles. Each of these cycles involves series of steps, each of which involves the processor registers. These steps are referred as micro-operations. the prefix micro refers to the fact that each of the step is very simple and accomplishes very little. Figure below depicts the concept being discussed here.
Summary: Execution of a program consists of sequential execution of instructions. Each instruction is executed during an instruction cycle made up of shorter sub-cycles(example – fetch, indirect, execute, interrupt). The performance of each sub-cycle involves one or more shorter operations, that is, micro-operations.
In my next article I will give detailed information of each Instruction Cycle.
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- Computer Organization | Basic Computer Instructions
- Computer Organization | Performance of Computer
- Differences between Computer Architecture and Computer Organization
- Cache Memory in Computer Organization
- Computer Organization and Architecture | Pipelining | Set 1 (Execution, Stages and Throughput)
- Computer Organization and Architecture | Pipelining | Set 3 (Types and Stalling)
- Computer Organization and Architecture | Pipelining | Set 2 (Dependencies and Data Hazard)
- Computer Organization | Amdahl's law and its proof
- Computer Organization | Hardwired v/s Micro-programmed Control Unit
- Computer Organization | Different Instruction Cycles
- Computer Organization | Booth's Algorithm
- Computer Organization | Instruction Formats (Zero, One, Two and Three Address Instruction)
- Computer Organization | Problem Solving on Instruction Format
- Computer Organization | Von Neumann architecture
- Computer Organization | Asynchronous input output synchronization
- Computer Organization | Locality and Cache friendly code
- Last Minute Notes Computer Organization
- BUS Arbitration in Computer Organization
- MPU Communication in Computer Organization
- Purpose of an Interrupt in Computer Organization
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