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CSS | Pseudo-classes
  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 03 Jan, 2019

A Pseudo class in CSS is used to define the special state of an element. It can be combined with a CSS selector to add an effect to existing elements based on their states. For Example, changing the style of an element when the user hovers over it, or when a link is visited. All of these can be done using Pseudo Classes in CSS.

Note that pseudo-class names are not case-sensitive.

Syntax:

selector: pseudo-class{
     property: value;
}

There are many Pseudo classes in CSS but the ones which are most commonly used are as follows:

  • :hover Pseudo-class: This pseudo-class is used to add special effect to an element when our mouse pointer is over it. The below example demonstrates that when your mouse enters the box area, its background color changes from yellow to orange.
    Example:






    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>
    <head>
        <title>CSS transition-property property</title>
        <style>
        .box{
            background-color: yellow;
            width: 300px;
            height: 200px;
            margin: auto;
            font-size: 40px;
            text-align: center;
        }
      
        .box:hover{
            background-color: orange;
        }
      
        h1, h2{
            color: green;
            text-align: center;
        }
        </style>
    </head>
      
    <body>
        <h1>Geeks For Geeks</h1>
        <h2>:hover Pseudo-class</h2>
        <div class="box">
            My color changes if you hover over me!
        </div>
    </body>
    </html>                    

    Output:

  • :active Pseudo-class: This pseudo-class is used to select an element which is activated when the user clicks on it. The following example demonstrates that when you click on the box, its background color changes for a moment.

    Example:




    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>
    <head>
        <title>CSS transition-property property</title>
        <style>
        .box{
            background-color: yellow;
            width: 300px;
            height: 200px;
            margin: auto;
            font-size: 40px;
            text-align: center;
        }
      
        .box:active{
            background-color: orange;
        }
      
        h1, h2{
            color: green;
            text-align: center;
        }
        </style>
    </head>
      
    <body>
        <h1>Geeks For Geeks</h1>
        <h2>:active Pseudo-class</h2>
        <div class="box">
            My color changes for a moment if you click me!
        </div>
    </body>
    </html>                    

    Output:

  • :focus Pseudo-class: This pseudo-class is used to select an element which is currently focussed by the user. It works on user input elements used in forms and is triggered as soon as the user clicks on it. In the following example, the background color of the input field which is currently focussed changes.

    Example:




    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>
    <head>
        <title>CSS transition-property property</title>
        <style>
        form{
            width: 300px;
            height: 200px;
            margin: 0 auto;
            text-align: center;
            line-height: 2rem;
        }
      
        label{
            width: 30%;
        }
      
        input{
            background-color: default;
            float: right;
        }
      
        input:focus{
            background-color: grey;
        }
      
        h1, h2{
            color: green;
            text-align: center;
        }
        </style>
    </head>
      
    <body>
        <h1>Geeks For Geeks</h1>
        <h2>:focus Pseudo-class</h2>
        <form>
            <label for="username">Username:</label>
            <input type="text" name="username" 
                    placeholder="Enter your username" />
                      
            <label for="emailid">Email-Id:</label>
            <input type="email" name="emailid" 
                    placeholder="Enter your email-id" />
                      
            <label for="Password">Password:</label>
            <input type="password" name="Password" 
                    placeholder="Enter your password" />
        </form>
    </body>
    </html>                    

    Output:

  • :visited Pseudo-class: This pseudo-class is used to select the links which have been already visited by the user. In the following example, the color of the link changes once it is visited.

    Example:




    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>
    <head>
        <title>CSS transition-property property</title>
        <style>
        body{
            text-align: center;
        }
      
        h1, h2{
            color: green;
        }
      
        a:visited{
            color: red;
        }
        </style>
    </head>
      
    <body>
        <h1>Geeks For Geeks</h1>
        <h2>:visited Pseudo-class</h2>
          
        <p>
            <a href="https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/" target="_blank">
                My color changes once you vist this link
            </a>
        </p>
    </body>
    </html>                    

    Output:

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