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CBSE Sample Papers for Class 9 Social Science Set 2 with Solutions

Last Updated : 13 Feb, 2024
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The CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) sample papers for Class 9 Social Science Set 2 with solutions serve as valuable resources for students preparing for their examinations. These sample papers are designed by subject matter experts to align with the latest CBSE syllabus and exam pattern, providing students with a comprehensive overview of the Social Science curriculum.

The introduction of these sample papers typically includes:

  1. Overview of Class 9 Social Science Syllabus: A brief overview of the topics covered in the Class 9 Social Science syllabus, including History, Geography, Political Science, and Economics.
  2. Objective of Sample Papers: An explanation of the objective behind providing sample papers to students, which is to help them familiarize themselves with the exam pattern, question types, and marking scheme.
  3. Structure of Sample Papers: Information about the structure and format of the sample papers, including the number of sections, questions, and marks distribution. This section may also guide the time allocation for each section to help students manage their time effectively during the exam.
  4. Importance of Practicing Sample Papers: The introduction may emphasize the importance of practising sample papers as part of the exam preparation process. Regular practice with sample papers helps students assess their understanding of the subject, identify areas of improvement, and build confidence for the actual exam.
  5. Availability of Solutions: Students are informed about the availability of solutions or answer keys for the sample papers, which enable them to self-assess their performance and understand the correct approach to solving different types of questions.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 9 Social Science Set 2 with Solutions

Time Allowed: 3 hours Maximum Marks: 80


(1 x 20 = 20 Marks)

1. The city of Paris is located in: [1]

(A) Italy
(B) England
(C) France
(D) Portugal

Option (C) is correct.

2. Which country had an absolute monarchy before 1857? [1]

(A) France
(B) India
(C) Both
(D) Neither

Option (A) is correct.

3. Study the figure carefully and answer the question that follows:

Which of the following options best signifies this cartoon? [1]
(A) Demolition of Bastille
(B) Democracy of People
(C) People revolt against the king
(D) None of these

Option (A) is correct. (1)

4. ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’ is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all children in the age group of ………………. . [1]

(A) 6-12
(B) 6-10
(C) 8-14
(D) 6-14

Option (C) is correct.

5. What does the term holocaust mean? [1]

(A) Mass murder of Jews by Nazis
(B) Group of German Nazis
(C) Group of Jews
(D) Deporting people to gas chambers

Option (A) is correct.

6. In which year Hitler became the President of Germany? [1]

(A) 1933
(B) 1936
(C) 1934
(D) 1938

Option (C) Is correct.

7. A statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R). Mark the correct choice

Assertion (A): China is a democratic country.
Reason (R): In China, elections are regularly held after every five years for electing the country’s parliament
(A) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true, and Reason (R) is the correct explanation of Assertion (A).
(B) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true, but Reason (R) is not the correct explanation of Assertion (A).
(C) Assertion (A) is true, but Reason (R) is false.
(D) Asserhon (A) is false, hut Reason (R) is true.[1]

Option (D) is correct.

8. What is the easternmost longitude of India? [1]

(A) 97°25’N
(B) 97°25’E
(C) 97°25’W
(D) 97°25’S

Option (B) is correct.

9. There are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option.

Assertion (A): An educated society has direct and indirect advantages.
Reason (R): Educated and healthier people gain higher incomes
(A) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true and Reason (R) is the correct explanation of Assertion (A).
(B) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true and Reason (R) is not the correct explanation of Assertion (A).
(C) Assertion (A) is correct but Reason (R) is wrong.
(D) Assertion (A) is wrong but Reason (R) is correct. [1]

(B) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true and Reason (R) is not the correct explanation of Assertion (A).

10. Which country shares the longest boundary with India? [1]

(A) SriLanka
(B) Bangladesh
(C) China
(D) Myanmar

Option (B) is correct.

11. Which of the following is the poorest state? [1]

(A) Punjab
(B) Bihar
(C) Haryana
(D) Himachal Pradesh

Option (B) is correct.

12. The magnitude of population growth refers to: [1]

(A) the total population of an area.
(B) the number of persons added each year.
(C) the rate at which the population increases.
(D) the number of females per thousand males.

Option (B) is correct.

13. What is India’s share of the World’s Area and Population? [1]

(A) 2.4% and 17.5%
(B) 17.5% and 2.4%
(C) 2.4% and 17.5%
(D) 97.6% and 82.5%

Option (C) is correct.

14. Study the data carefully and answer the following questions:

Chennai recorded the highest temperature and highest rainfall in the months of ……………. and …………………. .[1]
(A) June, November
(B) May, December
(C) May, November
(D) June, December

Option (A) is correct.

15. Which of these is a non-democratic country? [1]

(A) USA.
(B) Africa
(C) India
(D) Pakistan

Option (D) is correct

16. On what does the fate of a democratic country mainly depend? [1]

(A) Constitution
(B) Politicians
(C) What we as responsible citizens do
(D) Foreign policies

Option (C) is correct

17. How are laws created and enforced in India? [1]

(A) By the Prime Minister
(B) By the President
(C) By the Parliament
(D) By the military

Option (C) is correct. [11

18. Who advocated that India would be truly independent only when the poorest of its people become free of human suffering? [1]

(A) Mahatma Gandhi
(B) Indira Gandhi
(C) Rajeev Gandhi
(D) B.R. Ambedkar

Option (A) is correct. [1]

19. Which of the following groups in India does not suffer from food insecurity? [1]

(A) Farmers
(B) Landlords
(C) Illiterates
(D) All of these

Option (B) is correct.

20. Which organisation maintains buffer stock in India? [1]

(A) Indian Food Corporation
(B) Food Corporation
(C) Food Corporation of India (FCI)
(D) None of these.

Option (C) is correct.


Very Short Answer Questions
(2 x 4 = 8 Marks)

21. Why was centralised planning introduced in Russia? Describe the economic condition of the workers at the beginning of the twentieth century. [2]

Centralized planning was introduced in Russia primarily as a response to the economic challenges faced by the country, particularly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The Russian economy at the time was largely agrarian and underdeveloped compared to Western Europe. Industrialization was slow, and the majority of the population lived in rural areas as peasants engaged in subsistence farming.

Several factors contributed to the adoption of centralized planning:

  1. Economic backwardness: Russia’s economy was lagging behind Western European nations in terms of industrialization and technological advancement. This lag was seen as a hindrance to national development and competitiveness.
  2. Social unrest: The late 19th and early 20th centuries were marked by social unrest and dissatisfaction among the Russian population, including workers and peasants. Poor working conditions, low wages, and exploitation by industrialists fueled discontent and led to protests and strikes.
  3. Desire for modernization: There was a perceived need among Russian leaders to modernize the economy and catch up with Western powers. Centralized planning was seen as a way to achieve rapid industrialization and economic growth.

22. What do the civil and criminal courts deal with? [2]

Civil courts and criminal courts deal with different types of legal matters:

  1. Civil Courts:
    • Civil courts handle disputes between individuals or organizations, typically involving issues related to contracts, property, family matters (such as divorce or child custody), personal injury claims, and other non-criminal matters.
    • The primary goal of civil courts is to resolve disputes and provide remedies, such as monetary compensation or specific performance (requiring a party to fulfill their contractual obligations).
    • Cases in civil courts are initiated by individuals or entities seeking legal redress for perceived grievances, and the resolution often involves a judgment or settlement.
  2. Criminal Courts:
    • Criminal courts, on the other hand, deal with cases involving violations of criminal law, where the government accuses an individual or entity of committing a crime against the state or society.
    • These courts handle cases ranging from minor infractions (such as traffic violations) to serious offenses (such as theft, assault, murder, or white-collar crimes).
    • The primary goal of criminal courts is to determine guilt or innocence and administer punishment, such as imprisonment, fines, probation, or community service, in accordance with the law.
    • Cases in criminal courts are prosecuted by government-appointed prosecutors on behalf of the state, and defendants are entitled to legal representation and various procedural protections, including the right to a fair trial.

23.How can food security be ensured in a country? [2]

Food security can be ensured in a country through a combination of strategies aimed at promoting agricultural productivity, improving access to food, and addressing underlying socio-economic factors. Here are two key approaches:

  1. Investment in Agriculture:
    • Enhancing agricultural productivity through investment in modern farming techniques, irrigation infrastructure, and agricultural research and development.
    • Supporting smallholder farmers with access to credit, training, and technology to improve yields and resilience to climate change.
    • Promoting sustainable agricultural practices that conserve natural resources and protect the environment.
    • Diversifying agricultural production to ensure a variety of crops and livestock are available to meet dietary needs.
    • Strengthening rural infrastructure, including roads, storage facilities, and market networks, to facilitate the efficient movement of food from farms to consumers.
  2. Social Safety Nets and Food Assistance Programs:
    • Implementing social safety nets such as cash transfer programs, food vouchers, and school feeding programs to improve access to food for vulnerable populations.
    • Establishing food assistance programs, such as food banks, soup kitchens, and emergency food aid, to provide immediate relief during periods of crisis or food insecurity.
    • Addressing poverty and income inequality through employment generation, education, healthcare, and social welfare programs to improve purchasing power and access to nutritious food.
    • Strengthening food distribution systems to ensure that food reaches those in need, including improving storage, transportation, and market infrastructure.
    • Implementing policies and regulations to promote food safety, quality, and nutrition, including food fortification, labeling, and consumer education initiatives.

24. India has a single integrated judicial system. Explain the structure. [2]

India’s judicial system is indeed a single integrated system, with a hierarchical structure that consists of several layers of courts at both the federal and state levels. Here’s an overview of the structure:

  1. Supreme Court of India:
    • The Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority in the country and serves as the guardian of the Constitution.
    • It hears appeals from lower courts and resolves disputes between the central government and state governments or between states.
    • The Supreme Court also has the power of judicial review, which allows it to strike down laws or government actions that are inconsistent with the Constitution.
  2. High Courts:
    • Each state in India has its own High Court, which serves as the highest court of appeal within the state.
    • High Courts have original jurisdiction to hear certain types of cases, as well as appellate jurisdiction over lower courts within their respective states.
  3. District Courts:
    • Below the High Courts are District Courts, which are responsible for the administration of justice at the district level.
    • District Courts hear both civil and criminal cases and have original jurisdiction over most legal matters within their territorial jurisdiction.
    • District Courts are headed by District Judges and also include subordinate judicial officers such as Magistrates and Civil Judges.
  4. Subordinate Courts:
    • Subordinate Courts are situated below the District Courts and include various tiers of courts such as Sessions Courts, Civil Courts, and Magistrate Courts.
    • These courts handle cases at the grassroots level, including petty offenses, civil disputes, and small claims.

Overall, India’s judicial system is designed to ensure access to justice for all citizens and to uphold the rule of law. The structure allows for the resolution of disputes at different levels, with the Supreme Court serving as the final arbiter on matters of national importance and constitutional interpretation.


Short Answer-Based Questions (3 x 5 = 15 Marks)

25.Explain Lenin’s ‘April Theses’. What were its effects on the party members? [3]

Lenin’s “April Theses” were a series of directives and proposals put forward by Vladimir Lenin upon his return to Russia from exile in April 1917, following the February Revolution which had led to the overthrow of the Tsarist regime. These theses outlined Lenin’s vision for the future course of the Bolshevik Party and the Russian Revolution. Here’s a summary of the key points of the April Theses and their effects on party members:

  1. End to Provisional Government Support:
    • Lenin called for the Bolsheviks to reject any cooperation or support for the Provisional Government, which had been established after the February Revolution. He argued that the Provisional Government was bourgeois and incapable of implementing socialist policies.
  2. Transition to Socialist Revolution:
    • Lenin emphasized the need to transition from the bourgeois-democratic revolution of February to the socialist revolution. He advocated for the immediate transfer of power to the Soviets (workers’ councils) and the establishment of a socialist state.
  3. No Compromise with Moderate Socialists:
    • Lenin rejected any compromise with moderate socialist parties such as the Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries, whom he viewed as hindering the progress of the revolution. He called for the Bolsheviks to work towards winning over the majority of workers and peasants to their side.
  4. International Revolution:
    • Lenin stressed the importance of an international socialist revolution, calling for an end to the imperialist war (World War I) through revolutionary means and the establishment of a worldwide socialist order.

The April Theses had significant effects on the members of the Bolshevik Party:

  • Divisions within the Party: Lenin’s proposals initially sparked controversy within the Bolshevik Party. Some party members, including influential figures like Lev Kamenev and Grigory Zinoviev, opposed Lenin’s radical stance and advocated for a more moderate approach.
  • Shift in Party Strategy: Despite initial opposition, Lenin’s ideas gradually gained support within the Bolshevik Party. The April Theses served as a catalyst for a shift in the party’s strategy towards a more revolutionary and confrontational stance against the Provisional Government.
  • Consolidation of Bolshevik Leadership: Lenin’s leadership and ideological clarity, as demonstrated in the April Theses, helped solidify his position as the undisputed leader of the Bolshevik Party. The theses provided a clear direction for the party’s actions and laid the groundwork for the successful October Revolution later that year.

Overall, the April Theses played a pivotal role in shaping the trajectory of the Russian Revolution and the subsequent rise of the Bolshevik Party to power. They marked a decisive moment in the ideological development of the Bolshevik movement and its transformation into a vanguard force for revolutionary change in Russia.

26. What is meant by Indian Standard Time? Why do we need a Standard Meridian for India?

Indian Standard Time (IST) refers to the time zone used as the standard time in India. It is 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+5:30). IST is used as the official time throughout India and is observed across the country.

A Standard Meridian for India is needed primarily for the following reasons:

  1. Uniform Timekeeping: Having a standard meridian allows for uniform timekeeping across the country. It ensures that everyone in India uses the same reference point for time, which is essential for coordinating activities, transportation schedules, and communication systems.
  2. Legal and Administrative Purposes: A standard meridian provides a basis for establishing legal and administrative regulations related to timekeeping, such as official government documents, business transactions, and public services. It facilitates consistency and accuracy in record-keeping and regulatory compliance.
  3. International Coordination: Having a standard meridian helps in international coordination and communication. It enables India to synchronize its timekeeping with other countries and participate effectively in global activities, such as trade, diplomacy, and scientific research, which often require precise timing and coordination across different time zones.

In summary, the establishment of a Standard Meridian for India is essential for ensuring uniform timekeeping, facilitating legal and administrative processes, and enabling effective coordination and communication both domestically and internationally.


Why is Indian Ocean named after our country? Give three reasons. [3]

The Indian Ocean is not named after the country India. Rather, it is named after the broader geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. However, there are several reasons why the Indian Ocean is closely associated with India:

  1. Geographical Location: India occupies a significant portion of the Indian subcontinent, which extends into the northern and eastern shores of the Indian Ocean. The country’s proximity and extensive coastline along the ocean contribute to its strong connection with the region.
  2. Historical Influence: India has a rich maritime history dating back thousands of years. Ancient Indian civilizations such as the Indus Valley Civilization and the Harappan Civilization engaged in trade and maritime activities across the Indian Ocean. India’s historical influence in the region, including trade routes, cultural exchanges, and seafaring traditions, has contributed to the ocean’s association with the country.
  3. Strategic Importance: The Indian Ocean holds strategic significance due to its role in global trade, commerce, and geopolitical affairs. India’s growing economic and military presence in the region, as well as its efforts to promote regional cooperation through initiatives like the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), contribute to the perception of the ocean as closely linked with India.

While the Indian Ocean is not named after the country India, India’s geographical, historical, and strategic connections with the region have led to its association with the ocean and its importance in India’s identity and interests.

27. ‘Popular governments can also be undemocratic.’ Justify the statement by giving a suitable example. [3]

The statement “popular governments can also be undemocratic” holds true in situations where governments, despite enjoying widespread popular support, fail to uphold democratic principles and institutions. One such example is the rise of populist leaders who exploit democratic processes to consolidate power and undermine democratic norms. A fitting illustration of this phenomenon is the presidency of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in Turkey.

Initially elected as Prime Minister in 2003, Erdoğan’s Justice and Development Party (AKP) gained significant popularity due to its promises of economic prosperity and democratic reforms. However, over time, Erdoğan’s government has been accused of increasingly authoritarian tendencies.

Under Erdoğan’s leadership, Turkey has witnessed a crackdown on political opponents, journalists, and civil society organizations. Critics argue that Erdoğan has exploited his popular mandate to stifle dissent, weaken independent institutions such as the judiciary and media, and centralize power in the presidency.

Furthermore, Erdoğan’s government has been accused of electoral manipulation and undermining the fairness of the electoral process to maintain its grip on power. This erosion of democratic norms and institutions, despite Erdoğan’s continued electoral victories and popular support among certain segments of the population, exemplifies how a popularly elected government can become undemocratic.

In conclusion, the example of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s presidency in Turkey demonstrates that popular governments, even those elected through democratic processes, can deviate from democratic principles and practices, leading to undemocratic governance.

28.What are the most effective ways to stimulate economic growth and create more jobs? [3]

Several effective ways to stimulate economic growth and create more jobs include:

  1. Investment in Infrastructure: Governments can stimulate economic growth by investing in infrastructure projects such as roads, bridges, airports, and public transportation systems. These investments not only create jobs directly through construction and maintenance but also have long-term benefits by improving productivity, reducing transportation costs, and attracting private investment.
  2. Support for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs): Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are significant contributors to economic growth and job creation. Governments can support SMEs through access to finance, business development services, technical assistance, and streamlined regulations. Supporting entrepreneurship and innovation can spur the growth of new businesses and industries, creating employment opportunities.
  3. Education and Workforce Development: Investing in education and workforce development programs helps to improve human capital and increase labor productivity. Providing access to quality education, vocational training, and lifelong learning opportunities equips individuals with the skills and knowledge needed to secure employment in emerging sectors of the economy. Additionally, promoting STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) education can help meet the growing demand for skilled workers in technology-driven industries.
  4. Promotion of Research and Development (R&D): Encouraging investment in research and development fosters innovation and drives economic growth. Governments can provide incentives for private sector R&D investment, support public-private partnerships, and fund research institutions and universities. Innovation-led growth creates new industries, products, and services, generating job opportunities in high-tech sectors and boosting overall competitiveness.
  5. Trade and Export Promotion: Facilitating trade and export activities can stimulate economic growth by opening up markets, attracting foreign investment, and creating demand for domestically produced goods and services. Governments can negotiate trade agreements, reduce trade barriers, and provide export promotion services to help businesses access international markets and compete globally.
  6. Fiscal and Monetary Policy: Governments can use fiscal policy measures such as tax cuts, targeted spending programs, and stimulus packages to boost demand and stimulate economic activity during periods of recession or stagnation. Additionally, central banks can implement monetary policy measures such as lowering interest rates or quantitative easing to encourage borrowing, investment, and consumption.

By implementing a combination of these strategies, governments can stimulate economic growth, create more jobs, and promote sustainable development.

29. “In poor families, all suffer, but some suffer more than others.” Explain the statement. [3]

The statement “In poor families, all suffer, but some suffer more than others” encapsulates the idea that poverty affects individuals within a family differently, often exacerbating existing inequalities and vulnerabilities. Here’s a breakdown of the statement:

  1. Impact of Poverty on the Entire Family: Poverty imposes significant hardships on all members of a family, regardless of age or gender. Economic deprivation can lead to inadequate access to basic necessities such as food, shelter, healthcare, and education for everyone in the family. Lack of resources can result in living in substandard conditions, struggling to afford nutritious meals, and facing barriers to accessing essential services.
  2. Differential Suffering: While poverty affects all family members, the extent of suffering may vary depending on factors such as age, gender, health status, and socio-economic status within the family. For example:
    • Children in poor families may suffer disproportionately due to limited access to education, healthcare, and nutritious food, which can negatively impact their physical, cognitive, and emotional development.
    • Women and girls in impoverished households often bear a heavier burden of caregiving responsibilities, face higher risks of gender-based violence, and may have limited opportunities for economic empowerment and self-determination.
    • Elderly or disabled family members may face increased vulnerability and social isolation, as they may have limited access to healthcare, support networks, and financial resources.
  3. Intersecting Forms of Inequality: Poverty intersects with other forms of inequality, such as gender, race, ethnicity, and caste, further exacerbating disparities within families. Marginalized groups, including women, ethnic minorities, and indigenous populations, are often disproportionately affected by poverty due to systemic discrimination, lack of access to opportunities, and social exclusion.
  4. Cycle of Poverty: Poverty can perpetuate itself across generations, as children born into impoverished families are more likely to experience poverty as adults. Limited access to education, healthcare, and economic opportunities restricts social mobility and perpetuates the cycle of poverty within families and communities.

In summary, while poverty affects all members of a family, its impact is not evenly distributed, and some individuals may suffer more than others due to intersecting factors such as age, gender, and socio-economic status. Addressing poverty requires comprehensive strategies that recognize and address the diverse needs and vulnerabilities of all family members, with a focus on promoting equity, social justice, and inclusive development.


Long Answer Based Questions (5 × 4 = 20 Marks)

30.Describe the global poverty trends.

Global poverty trends have undergone significant changes over the past few decades, driven by various economic, social, and demographic factors. Here’s a description of these trends:

  1. Overall Reduction in Poverty Rates: One of the most notable global poverty trends is the overall reduction in poverty rates. Since the late 20th century, there has been substantial progress in reducing extreme poverty worldwide. According to data from organizations such as the World Bank, the proportion of people living in extreme poverty (defined as living on less than $1.90 per day) has declined significantly.
  2. Regional Variations: While global poverty rates have decreased, there are significant regional variations in the extent and pace of poverty reduction. Some regions, particularly East Asia and the Pacific, have experienced rapid economic growth and significant poverty reduction. Countries like China have lifted millions of people out of poverty through sustained economic development and poverty alleviation programs. However, poverty remains stubbornly high in regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, where a large proportion of the global poor reside.
  3. Urbanization and Poverty: Another important trend is the increasing urbanization of poverty. Rapid urbanization, particularly in developing countries, has led to the growth of slums and informal settlements, where millions of people live in overcrowded and unsanitary conditions with limited access to basic services. Urban poverty presents unique challenges related to housing, employment, healthcare, and social inclusion.
  4. Vulnerability to Shocks: Despite progress in reducing poverty rates, many people remain vulnerable to economic, environmental, and social shocks. Events such as economic downturns, natural disasters, conflicts, and pandemics can push households back into poverty or exacerbate existing poverty and inequality. Building resilience and social protection mechanisms are essential for mitigating the impact of such shocks on the poor and vulnerable populations.
  5. Multidimensional Poverty: Beyond income-based measures, there is increasing recognition of the multidimensional nature of poverty. Poverty is not just about lack of income but also encompasses deprivation in other areas such as education, healthcare, housing, and access to basic services. Efforts to address poverty must consider these multiple dimensions and tailor interventions accordingly to ensure holistic and sustainable poverty reduction.

In conclusion, global poverty trends reflect a complex interplay of economic, social, and environmental factors. While significant progress has been made in reducing poverty rates, challenges remain in achieving inclusive and sustainable development and addressing persistent disparities within and among countries. Continued efforts, investment in poverty alleviation programs, and policies that promote equitable growth and social inclusion are crucial for further reducing poverty and improving the well-being of the world’s population.


Give a brief account of inter-state disparities of poverty in India. [5]

Inter-state disparities of poverty in India reflect significant differences in economic development, social indicators, and living standards among various states and regions. Here’s a brief account of these disparities:

  1. Regional Concentration of Poverty: Poverty in India is not evenly distributed across states but is concentrated in certain regions, particularly in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, and Madhya Pradesh, commonly referred to as the “BIMARU” states. These states have historically lagged behind in terms of economic development, infrastructure, education, and healthcare, leading to higher levels of poverty and deprivation.
  2. Economic Disparities: Inter-state disparities in economic growth and development contribute to differences in poverty levels. States with higher levels of industrialization, urbanization, and investment in infrastructure tend to have lower poverty rates compared to states with agrarian economies and limited industrialization. For example, states like Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu have higher per capita income and lower poverty rates compared to states in the Hindi heartland and eastern India.
  3. Social Indicators: Disparities in social indicators such as literacy rates, education attainment, and healthcare access also contribute to variations in poverty levels among states. States with higher literacy rates and greater investment in education and healthcare tend to have lower poverty rates and better human development outcomes. Kerala, for instance, has achieved remarkable progress in social indicators and has consistently recorded lower poverty rates compared to other states.
  4. Rural-Urban Divide: The rural-urban divide is another factor contributing to inter-state disparities of poverty in India. Rural areas tend to have higher poverty rates compared to urban areas due to limited employment opportunities, inadequate infrastructure, and lower access to basic services. However, there are variations in urban poverty levels among states, with some states experiencing higher urban poverty rates than others.
  5. Government Policies and Programs: State-level differences in governance, policy priorities, and implementation of poverty alleviation programs also influence poverty disparities. States with effective governance, proactive policies, and targeted poverty alleviation initiatives tend to experience faster poverty reduction compared to states with weak governance and limited implementation capacity.

In summary, inter-state disparities of poverty in India reflect a complex interplay of economic, social, and governance factors. Addressing these disparities requires targeted interventions focusing on inclusive and sustainable development, investment in human capital, infrastructure, and social protection, as well as efforts to promote equitable growth and reduce regional inequalities.

31. Describe any five provisions of the Right to Freedom. 5

The Right to Freedom enshrined in the Constitution of India guarantees several fundamental freedoms to its citizens. Here are five provisions of the Right to Freedom:

  1. Freedom of Speech and Expression (Article 19(1)(a)): This provision grants citizens the freedom to express their opinions, thoughts, and ideas through speech, writing, printing, or any other means. It includes the right to criticize the government, express dissenting views, and engage in peaceful protests and demonstrations. However, this freedom is subject to reasonable restrictions imposed by the state in the interest of public order, morality, sovereignty, and security of the state.
  2. Freedom to Assemble Peaceably and Without Arms (Article 19(1)(b)): Citizens have the right to assemble peacefully and without weapons, either individually or in groups, to express their grievances, discuss issues of public concern, or participate in peaceful demonstrations and processions. However, similar to freedom of speech, this right is subject to reasonable restrictions imposed by the state in the interest of public order and the sovereignty and integrity of India.
  3. Freedom to Form Associations or Unions (Article 19(1)(c)): Citizens have the right to form associations, unions, or societies for various purposes, including social, cultural, political, economic, or recreational activities. This provision allows individuals to collectively organize and advocate for their interests and rights. However, the state can impose reasonable restrictions on this right in the interest of public order, morality, or the sovereignty and integrity of India.
  4. Freedom to Move Freely Throughout the Territory of India (Article 19(1)(d)): This provision guarantees citizens the freedom to travel and reside in any part of the country. It ensures mobility and freedom of movement within the territorial boundaries of India, allowing individuals to seek employment, pursue education, or engage in other lawful activities without restrictions. However, this right is subject to reasonable restrictions imposed by the state in the interest of public order, security, or the protection of tribal areas.
  5. Freedom to Practice Any Profession or to Carry on Any Occupation, Trade, or Business (Article 19(1)(g)): Citizens have the right to choose and pursue any profession, occupation, trade, or business of their choice. This provision ensures economic freedom and the right to livelihood, allowing individuals to engage in gainful employment or entrepreneurship without arbitrary restrictions. However, the state can impose reasonable restrictions on this right in the interest of public health, morality, or the protection of the rights of others.

These provisions collectively ensure the protection and promotion of various freedoms essential for the functioning of a democratic society and the empowerment of its citizens.


‘The claims of the citizens should be such that it can be made available to the others also.” Explain. Also, summanse the important characteristics of rights. [5]

The statement “The claims of the citizens should be such that it can be made available to others also” reflects the principle of equality and fairness in the exercise of rights. It implies that the exercise of individual rights should not infringe upon the rights and interests of others and should be compatible with the well-being and rights of the broader community. Here’s an explanation of the statement:

  1. Balancing Individual and Collective Interests: While citizens have the right to assert their claims and exercise their freedoms, it is essential to ensure that these claims do not harm or disadvantage others. Rights should be exercised in a manner that respects the rights, dignity, and well-being of fellow citizens and promotes harmony and social cohesion within society.
  2. Limits to Rights: The principle suggests that there are inherent limits to the exercise of individual rights. Rights are not absolute but come with responsibilities and obligations towards others. The exercise of rights may be subject to reasonable restrictions imposed by law to prevent harm to others or to protect public order, morality, or the rights of others.
  3. Promotion of Common Good: Upholding the principle helps promote the common good and collective welfare of society. It encourages citizens to consider the broader implications of their actions and decisions on the well-being of others and to act in ways that contribute positively to the advancement of the community’s interests and values.
  4. Social Justice and Equity: The principle aligns with the principles of social justice and equity by ensuring that the benefits and burdens of rights are distributed fairly and equitably among all members of society. It discourages actions that perpetuate inequality, discrimination, or exploitation and promotes inclusivity and solidarity among citizens.

Characteristics of Rights:

  1. Inalienable: Rights are inherent to human beings and cannot be taken away or transferred arbitrarily. They are intrinsic to human dignity and are not contingent upon external factors.
  2. Universal: Rights are applicable to all individuals, irrespective of factors such as race, ethnicity, gender, religion, nationality, or socio-economic status. They are fundamental to the equality and dignity of all human beings.
  3. Indivisible: Rights are interconnected and interdependent, meaning that the enjoyment of one right often depends on the realization of other rights. For example, the right to education may depend on the realization of the right to non-discrimination or the right to freedom of expression.
  4. Inherent: Rights are not granted by governments or authorities but are inherent to human beings by virtue of their existence. Governments have a duty to respect, protect, and fulfill the rights of individuals but do not create or grant rights.
  5. Enforceable: Rights are enforceable through legal mechanisms and institutions. Individuals have the right to seek redress through courts or other avenues when their rights are violated or denied. Legal frameworks, such as constitutions and international human rights treaties, provide mechanisms for the protection and enforcement of rights.

32. How does migration play a significant role in changing the composition and distribution of the population of a place? Explain.

Migration plays a significant role in changing the composition and distribution of the population of a place in several ways:

  1. Population Growth or Decline: Migration can contribute to population growth or decline in a particular area. In-migration, or the arrival of migrants into a place, can lead to population growth by increasing the number of residents. Conversely, out-migration, or the departure of residents from a place, can result in population decline. The net effect of migration on population growth or decline depends on factors such as the volume and direction of migration flows.
  2. Demographic Diversity: Migration contributes to demographic diversity by introducing individuals from diverse backgrounds, cultures, and ethnicities into a population. Migrants bring with them different languages, religions, traditions, and customs, enriching the cultural fabric of the receiving community. This diversity can have social, economic, and cultural benefits, fostering innovation, creativity, and tolerance.
  3. Economic Impact: Migration influences the economic composition and distribution of a population by affecting labor supply, demand, and mobility. In-migration of skilled workers can alleviate labor shortages in certain sectors and contribute to economic growth and development. Conversely, out-migration of skilled workers, also known as brain drain, can lead to skill shortages and hinder economic productivity in the sending areas.
  4. Urbanization and Rural Depopulation: Migration plays a crucial role in shaping urbanization patterns and rural depopulation trends. Rural-to-urban migration, driven by factors such as economic opportunities, industrialization, and urban amenities, leads to population concentration in urban areas. This migration contributes to the growth of cities and urban sprawl while causing depopulation and decline in rural areas, affecting agricultural productivity and rural livelihoods.
  5. Social Services and Infrastructure: Migration influences the demand for social services and infrastructure in receiving communities. In-migration may strain existing infrastructure and public services, such as housing, healthcare, education, and transportation, leading to challenges in providing adequate resources and amenities to meet the needs of the growing population. Conversely, out-migration from rural areas may result in underutilization of infrastructure and services, exacerbating disparities between urban and rural areas.

Overall, migration is a dynamic process that shapes the composition and distribution of populations in various ways, including demographic diversity, economic impact, urbanization, and social services provision. Understanding the drivers and consequences of migration is essential for effective policy-making and planning to address the opportunities and challenges associated with population change.


“There has been a sudden rise in population of India since 1951.” Support the statement with reason. [5]

The statement “There has been a sudden rise in population of India since 1951” is supported by several reasons:

  1. Decline in Mortality Rates: Since 1951, India has experienced significant improvements in healthcare, sanitation, and disease control measures. Advancements in medical technology, increased access to healthcare services, and public health interventions such as immunization campaigns have led to a decline in mortality rates. Reduced mortality rates mean that more individuals are surviving into adulthood and old age, contributing to population growth.
  2. Increase in Life Expectancy: Improvements in healthcare, nutrition, and living standards have led to an increase in life expectancy in India since 1951. Higher life expectancy means that individuals are living longer, further contributing to population growth as more people survive to reproduce and have children.
  3. Fertility Rates: Although fertility rates have been declining in India, they remained relatively high in the decades following independence in 1947. Cultural norms, limited access to family planning services, and a lack of awareness about contraception contributed to high fertility rates, resulting in rapid population growth. Despite efforts to promote family planning and reproductive health, the decline in fertility rates has been gradual, leading to continued population growth.
  4. Social and Economic Factors: Social and economic factors such as poverty, gender inequality, and lack of education have also contributed to population growth in India. High levels of poverty and unemployment, particularly in rural areas, often lead to larger family sizes as children are viewed as a source of labor and support in old age. Additionally, gender disparities in education and employment opportunities have influenced fertility rates, with women in lower socioeconomic strata having higher fertility rates.
  5. Migration: While internal migration has played a role in redistributing the population within India, it has not been a significant factor contributing to the overall population growth since 1951. The primary driver of population growth has been natural increase (births minus deaths), with fertility rates exceeding mortality rates.

In summary, the sudden rise in the population of India since 1951 can be attributed to a combination of factors including declining mortality rates, increasing life expectancy, high fertility rates, social and economic factors, and limited success in family planning efforts. These factors have contributed to sustained population growth, posing challenges for resource allocation, infrastructure development, and socio-economic development in India.

33. State any five steps taken by Hitler to establish his dictatorial rule in Germany.

Adolf Hitler employed various strategies to establish his dictatorial rule in Germany. Here are five key steps he took:

  1. Enabling Act (1933): Following the Reichstag Fire in February 1933, Hitler and the Nazi Party used the incident as a pretext to push through the Enabling Act. This legislation granted Hitler sweeping powers to bypass the Reichstag and govern by decree, effectively suspending civil liberties and constitutional rights. It marked a significant step towards establishing Hitler’s dictatorial rule by centralizing power in his hands and dismantling democratic institutions.
  2. Elimination of Political Opposition: Hitler moved swiftly to eliminate political opposition, particularly from rival parties and organizations. He banned political parties that opposed the Nazis, such as the Communist Party and the Social Democratic Party, and arrested or persecuted their leaders and members. Through intimidation, violence, and propaganda, Hitler ensured that there was no significant opposition to his regime.
  3. Control of the Judiciary: Hitler exerted control over the judiciary by purging judges who were perceived as not loyal to the Nazi regime and replacing them with Nazi sympathizers. The judiciary became a tool of repression, serving to legitimize Nazi policies and persecute political opponents, dissidents, and minority groups. Hitler ensured that the legal system upheld his dictatorial rule and suppressed dissent.
  4. Creation of the Gestapo and SS: Hitler established secret police forces such as the Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei) and the SS (Schutzstaffel) to enforce his authoritarian rule and suppress opposition. These organizations were given broad powers to surveil, arrest, and intimidate perceived enemies of the state, including political opponents, Jews, intellectuals, and other marginalized groups. The Gestapo and SS played a central role in maintaining Hitler’s dictatorship through fear and terror.
  5. Propaganda and Indoctrination: Hitler and the Nazi Party utilized propaganda and indoctrination to control public opinion, manipulate mass consciousness, and foster loyalty to the regime. Propaganda campaigns glorified Hitler as a charismatic leader and promoted Nazi ideology, nationalism, and anti-Semitic sentiments. The Nazis controlled media outlets, education systems, cultural institutions, and public events to disseminate their propaganda and ensure conformity to their dictatorial rule.

These steps, among others, enabled Hitler to consolidate power and establish his dictatorial rule in Germany, leading to the suppression of dissent, the erosion of civil liberties, and the persecution of millions during the Nazi regime.


Mention five important consequences of Nazism in Germany. [5]

The consequences of Nazism in Germany were profound and far-reaching, impacting various aspects of society, politics, and culture. Here are five important consequences:

  1. Totalitarian Rule: Nazism led to the establishment of a totalitarian regime under Adolf Hitler, characterized by centralized control, repression of dissent, and the suppression of civil liberties. The Nazi regime exerted authoritarian control over all aspects of life, including politics, the economy, education, media, and culture, leading to a climate of fear, censorship, and conformity.
  2. Persecution of Minorities: Nazism resulted in the systematic persecution and genocide of minority groups, particularly Jews, Roma (Gypsies), homosexuals, disabled individuals, and political dissidents. The Nazi regime implemented racist policies, such as the Nuremberg Laws, which stripped Jews of their rights and citizenship, and established concentration camps and extermination camps, such as Auschwitz and Dachau, where millions were imprisoned, tortured, and murdered.
  3. World War II: Nazism precipitated World War II, one of the deadliest conflicts in human history, which resulted in widespread destruction, loss of life, and suffering. Hitler’s aggressive expansionist policies, militarization of Germany, and pursuit of Lebensraum (living space) in Eastern Europe contributed to the outbreak of the war in 1939. The war caused immense human suffering, devastation, and economic ruin, particularly in Europe.
  4. Holocaust: The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the systematic extermination of six million Jews by the Nazi regime during World War II. The Holocaust remains one of the darkest chapters in human history, representing the pinnacle of Nazi racism, anti-Semitism, and genocide. The genocide of Jews, along with millions of other victims, including Roma, disabled individuals, and political prisoners, has left a lasting legacy of trauma, mourning, and remembrance.
  5. Legacy of Shame and Guilt: Nazism left a legacy of shame, guilt, and collective responsibility for the German people and the world. The atrocities committed under the Nazi regime, including the Holocaust and other war crimes, led to a reckoning with Germany’s past and efforts to confront and come to terms with the horrors of the Holocaust. The Nuremberg Trials and subsequent trials of Nazi war criminals sought to hold perpetrators accountable for their actions and establish principles of international law to prevent such atrocities in the future.

Overall, Nazism had devastating consequences for Germany and the world, resulting in mass violence, genocide, and war, and leaving a lasting legacy of trauma, remembrance, and reflection


Case-Based Questions (4 x 3 = 12 Marks)

34. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow: (1+1+2=4)

The Himalayas, geologically young and structurally fold mountains stretch over the northern borders of India, This mountain ranges run in a west-east direction from the Indus to the Brahmaputra. The Himalayas represent the loftiest and one of the most rugged mountain harriers in the world. The’ form an arc, which covers a distance of about 2,400 km. Their width varies from 400 km in Kashmir to 150 km in Arunachal Pradesh. The altitudinal variations are greater in the eastern half than those in the western half.

The Himalayas consists of three parallel ranges in their longitudinal extent. A number of valleys lie between these ranges. The northernmost range is known as the Great or Inner Himalayas or the Himadri. It is the most continuous range consisting of the loftiest peaks with an average height of 6,000 meters. It contains all prominent Himalayan peaks. The folds of the Great Himalayas are asymmetrical in nature. The core of this part o the Himalayas is composed of granite. It is perennially snowbound, and a number of glaciers descend from this range.
1. Which is the youngest and Lowest range of Himalayas?
2. What are known as Duns?
3. Differentiate between Himadri and Himachal

  1. The youngest and lowest range of the Himalayas is the Shivalik range.
  2. Duns are large, flat, fertile valleys lying between the lesser and higher Himalayan ranges. They are formed by the deposition of sediments brought down by rivers flowing from the mountains. Duns are known for their rich agricultural productivity.
  3. Difference between Himadri and Himachal:
    • Himadri: Also known as the Great or Inner Himalayas, the Himadri is the northernmost range of the Himalayas. It consists of the loftiest peaks, with an average height of 6,000 meters. The folds of the Himadri are asymmetrical in nature, and its core is composed of granite. This range is perennially snowbound, and many glaciers descend from it.
    • Himachal: The Himachal range lies to the south of the Himadri and is characterized by lower elevations compared to the Himadri. It is also known as the Lesser Himalayas or the Middle Himalayas. The Himachal range consists of a series of lesser peaks and valleys and is composed of sedimentary rocks. The altitude of the Himachal range is lower than that of the Himadri, and it is not as extensively glaciated.

35. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow: (1+1+2=4)

In May 1945, Germany surrendered to the Allies. Anticipating what was coming, Hitler, his propaganda minister Goebbels, and his entire family committed suicide collectively in his Berlin bunker in April. At the end of the war, an International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg was set up to prosecute Nazi war criminals for Crimes against lace, for War Crimes, and Crimes Against Humanity. Germany’s conduct during the war, especially those actions which came to be called Crimes Against Humanity, raised serious moral and ethical questions and invited worldwide condemnation.
1. When did Germany surrender to the Allies?
2. Who was Hitler’s propaganda minister?
3. What raised serious moral and ethical questions against Germany and invited worldwide condemnation?

  1. Germany surrendered to the Allies in May 1945.
  2. Hitler’s propaganda minister was Joseph Goebbels.
  3. Germany’s conduct during the war, especially actions categorized as Crimes Against Humanity, raised serious moral and ethical questions and invited worldwide condemnation.

36. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow: (1+1+2=4)

Like South Africa, India’s Constitution was also drawn up under very difficult circumstances. The making of the Constitution for a huge and diverse country like India was not an easy affair. At that time the people of India were emerging from the status of subjects to that of citizens. The country was born through a partition on the basis of religious differences. This was a traumatic experience for the people of India and Pakistan. At least ten lakh people were killed on both sides of the border in partition-related violence.

There was another problem. The British had left it to the rulers of the princely states to decide whether they wanted to merge with India or with Pakistan or remain independent. The merger of these princely states was a difficult and uncertain task. When the Constitution was being written, the future of the country did not look as secure as it does today. The makers of the constitution had anxieties about the present and the future of the country.
I. Like South Africa, which other country’s constitution was drawn under very difficult circumstances
2. Why was making the Constitution for a huge and diverse country like India not an easy affair?
3. Why did the makers of the Constitution have anxieties when the Constitution was being written?

  1. The constitution of India was drawn up under very difficult circumstances, similar to South Africa.
  2. Making the Constitution for a huge and diverse country like India was not an easy affair because India was emerging from the status of subjects to that of citizens. Additionally, the country was born through a traumatic partition on the basis of religious differences, resulting in widespread violence and loss of life. Furthermore, the integration of princely states, which were given the option to merge with India, Pakistan, or remain independent, posed a significant challenge.
  3. The makers of the Constitution had anxieties because the future of the country did not look as secure as it does today. There were uncertainties surrounding the integration of princely states, the aftermath of partition-related violence, and the challenges of governing a diverse and newly independent nation. The process of writing the Constitution was fraught with concerns about ensuring stability, unity, and progress in the face of these challenges.

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