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CBSE Class 10 Social Science Previous Year Question Paper 2019 with Solutions

Last Updated : 31 Jan, 2024
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The CBSE Class 10 Social Science Previous Year Question Paper for 2019 provides valuable practice material for students preparing for their board exams. This document includes a set of questions covering various topics in social science, allowing students to assess their knowledge and test-taking skills. The solutions provided offer guidance and explanations to help students understand the correct answers and improve their performance. This resource serves as a useful tool for self-assessment and exam preparation.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science Previous Year Question Paper 2019 with Solutions

Time Allowed: 3 hours                                    Maximum Marks: 80 Marks

1. Explain the aim to form ‘Zollverein’, a Customs Union, in 1834 in Germany. (1)

The aim of forming ‘Zollverein’ in 1834 in Germany was to promote economic unity among German states by eliminating internal tariffs and customs duties, thus facilitating trade and economic growth.


Explain the main reason responsible for the eruption of a major protest in Saigon Native Girls School in Vietnam in 1926. (1)

The main reason for the eruption of a major protest in Saigon Native Girls School in Vietnam in 1926 was the imposition of a dress code by French colonial authorities, which was seen as an attempt to erase Vietnamese culture and enforce French cultural norms, leading to widespread discontent and protests among students.

2. Why was printing of textbooks sponsored by the Imperial State in China? (1)

The printing of textbooks was sponsored by the Imperial State in China to standardize education, reach a wider population, and exert control over the content of education.


Why did Chandu Menon give up the idea of translation of ‘English Novels’ in Malayalam? (1)

Chandu Menon gave up the idea of translating ‘English Novels’ into Malayalam because he believed in promoting and enriching Malayalam literature with indigenous themes and cultural values, rather than relying on translated literature.

3. How has Shillong solved the problem of acute shortage of water? (1)

Shillong has addressed the problem of acute water shortage by implementing measures such as rainwater harvesting, watershed management, and sustainable water source development.


How has Tamil Nadu solved the problem of acute shortage of water? (1)

Tamil Nadu has resolved the problem of acute water shortage through various initiatives, including water conservation, interlinking of rivers, and efficient water management practices.

4. How did the feeling of alienation develop among the Sri Lankan Tamils? (1)

The feeling of alienation among Sri Lankan Tamils developed due to discriminatory policies, unequal access to resources and opportunities, and political tensions with the Sinhalese majority, eventually leading to ethnic conflict and civil war in Sri Lanka.

5. What may be a developmental goal of farmers who depend only on rain for growing crops? (1)

A developmental goal for farmers who depend only on rain for growing crops may include adopting sustainable farming practices or investing in irrigation systems to reduce dependence on unpredictable rainfall and improve crop yields.


What may be a developmental goal of urban unemployed youth? (1)

A developmental goal for urban unemployed youth may involve acquiring relevant job skills through vocational training programs to enhance employability and secure gainful employment.

6. Give one example each of modern currency and older currency. (1)

An example of modern currency is the United States Dollar (USD). An example of an older currency is the Roman Denarius, used in ancient Rome.

7 If you want to purchase an electrical valuable good, what logo would you like to see to confirm its quality? (1)

To confirm the quality of an electrical valuable good, you would like to see certification logos such as “UL” (Underwriters Laboratories), “CE” (Conformité Européenne), or “FCC” (Federal Communications Commission), depending on the region and product type.


8.Describe the great economic hardship that prevailed in Europe during the 1930s.

The 1930s in Europe was a period marked by severe economic hardship primarily due to the Great Depression. Some key aspects of this hardship included:

  • Unemployment: High unemployment rates left millions without work and income.
  • Bank Failures: Many banks collapsed, leading to the loss of savings for countless individuals and businesses.
  • Poverty: Widespread poverty resulted in reduced standards of living and limited access to basic necessities.
  • Trade Decline: International trade shrank significantly, affecting industries and causing further unemployment.
  • Political Instability: Economic distress fueled political instability and the rise of extremist ideologies.


Describe the serious problem faced by the modern part of Hanoi in 1903.

Serious Problem Faced by Modern Part of Hanoi in 1903 (3 marks): In 1903, the modern part of Hanoi faced significant challenges, including:

  • Colonial Control: Hanoi was under French colonial rule, leading to the exploitation of local resources and labor.
  • Urbanization Issues: Rapid urbanization resulted in overcrowding, inadequate infrastructure, and poor living conditions.
  • Cultural Changes: Traditional Vietnamese culture faced assimilation pressures from Western colonial influences.
  • Resistance Movements: Nationalist movements and resistance against colonial rule were on the rise, leading to social and political tensions.
  • Economic Exploitation: The French administration extracted resources from Vietnam, contributing to economic disparities and poverty among the local population.

9. How had the printing press created a new culture of reading in Europe ? Explain with examples. (3)

The printing press revolutionized the culture of reading in Europe by making books more accessible and affordable. It had several key effects:

  • Wider Dissemination of Knowledge: Books and documents could be produced in larger quantities, making knowledge available to a broader audience. For example, Johannes Gutenberg’s Bible, printed in the mid-15th century, made the Bible more accessible to ordinary people.
  • Spread of Ideas and Information: The printing press facilitated the spread of new ideas, scientific discoveries, and cultural works. Copernicus’s “De revolutionibus orbium coelestium” (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) challenged geocentric beliefs and was widely distributed, influencing scientific thought.
  • Emergence of Vernacular Literature: Printing in local languages allowed for the growth of vernacular literature. For instance, Martin Luther’s translation of the Bible into German made religious texts comprehensible to the German-speaking population, promoting literacy.


How had Charles Dickens depicted the terrible effects of industrialisation on peoples lives and characters ? Explain with examples.

Charles Dickens and Industrialization’s Effects (3 marks): Charles Dickens, through his novels, depicted the terrible effects of industrialization on people’s lives and characters. Some examples include:

  • Hard Times: In his novel “Hard Times,” Dickens portrayed the dehumanizing impact of industrialization on workers. Characters like Stephen Blackpool and Sissy Jupe experience the harsh working conditions and emotional hardships caused by factory labor.
  • Oliver Twist: In “Oliver Twist,” Dickens highlighted the plight of orphaned and impoverished children in the urban slums, where they faced exploitation and mistreatment as a consequence of rapid industrialization.
  • Bleak House: In “Bleak House,” Dickens critiqued the legal and social injustices resulting from industrialization. The case of Jarndyce and Jarndyce symbolizes the inefficiency and corruption of the legal system.

10. Describe any three main features of ‘Alluvial soil’ found in India. (3)

Alluvial soil is widespread in India, and its main features include:

  • Fertility: Alluvial soil is highly fertile due to its composition of silt and clay, making it suitable for a variety of crops like rice, wheat, and sugarcane.
  • Depositional Origin: It is formed by the deposition of sediments brought by rivers like the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, resulting in its widespread distribution in river valleys.
  • Variability: Alluvial soil varies from region to region, ranging from sandy loam to clayey, allowing for diverse agricultural practices.


Describe any three main features of ‘Black soil’ found in India.

Main Features of Black Soil in India (3 marks): Black soil, also known as Regur soil, is prominent in India and characterized by:

  • Richness in Nutrients: Black soil is rich in nutrients, particularly calcium, magnesium, and iron. It is suitable for growing cotton, soybeans, and oilseeds.
  • High Water-Holding Capacity: It has excellent water-retention properties, making it suitable for rain-fed agriculture.
  • Color: Its dark color is due to the presence of organic matter and iron oxides, which contribute to its fertility.

11.”The dams that were constructed to control floods have triggered floods.” Analyse the statement. (3)

The statement “The dams that were constructed to control floods have triggered floods” can be analyzed as follows:

  • Dams are built to control water flow, store water, and release it gradually to prevent downstream flooding.
  • However, improper dam management, sudden release of excess water, or inadequate spillway capacity can lead to floods.
  • For example, the mismanagement of dams during heavy rainfall or monsoon seasons can result in downstream areas experiencing floods due to the sudden release of large volumes of water.

12.Name any two subjects that are included in Concurrent List. How are laws made on these subjects? Explain.

Two subjects in the Concurrent List of the Indian Constitution are:

  1. Education: Both the Union and State Governments can make laws on matters related to education. The Union can legislate on issues like national educational institutions, while the States can legislate on state-level educational institutions.
  2. Criminal Law: Both levels of government can make laws related to criminal offenses. The Indian Penal Code (IPC) is an example of a concurrent law that is applicable across the country.

Laws on Concurrent List subjects can be made through a dual process. If there is a conflict between a Union law and a State law on a concurrent subject, the Union law prevails. However, if the State law is consistent with the Union law, both laws can coexist. This sharing of legislative power ensures cooperation and coordination between the Union and State Governments.


How is sharing of power between the Union and the State Governments basic to the structure of the Constitution of India?

The sharing of power between the Union and the State Governments is a fundamental feature of the Constitution of India, and it is essential to the structure of the Indian Constitution for several reasons:

  1. Federal Structure: The Constitution of India establishes a federal system of government, where power is divided between the central (Union) government and the state governments. This federal structure ensures a distribution of authority and responsibilities between these two levels of government.
  2. Division of Subjects: The Constitution divides legislative powers into three lists: the Union List, the State List, and the Concurrent List. Each list contains specific subjects on which either the Union or the State Governments have the authority to make laws. This division ensures that both levels of government can legislate on matters of significance.
  3. Cooperative Federalism: The sharing of powers promotes cooperative federalism, where the Union and State Governments collaborate to address complex issues and challenges. This cooperative approach fosters unity and integration while allowing states to maintain their distinct identities and needs.
  4. Flexibility: The Constitution provides mechanisms for adjusting the division of powers when necessary. For example, during emergencies, the Union government gains additional authority over certain state matters. This flexibility allows the government to respond effectively to crises.
  5. Checks and Balances: The division of powers includes checks and balances to prevent any one level of government from becoming too dominant. The Constitution includes provisions for resolving disputes between the Union and states and ensures that neither can encroach excessively upon the other’s jurisdiction.
  6. Protecting Diversity: India is a diverse nation with varying regional, cultural, and linguistic differences. The sharing of power allows state governments to address local needs and protect their unique identities, languages, and cultures.
  7. Decentralization of Governance: The sharing of power supports the principles of decentralization and grassroots democracy. State governments are better positioned to understand and respond to the needs of their populations, promoting effective governance and accountability.

13.”Every social difference does not lead to social division.” Justify the statement.

This statement is true because not all social differences necessarily result in social division. Social differences, such as those related to religion, caste, language, or economic status, are part of a diverse society. However, social divisions occur when these differences lead to discrimination, inequality, and conflict among various groups.

For example, in a diverse country like India, there are numerous social differences, including multiple languages, religions, and cultures. While these differences exist, they do not always lead to social division. People can coexist harmoniously by respecting and celebrating their diversity. Social division occurs when individuals or groups exploit these differences for their gain, promote discrimination, or create conflicts.

14.How can caste take several forms in politics? Explain with examples.

Caste can take several forms in politics, and it often plays a significant role in shaping the political landscape. Here are some examples:

  • Caste-Based Political Parties: In India, there are political parties explicitly formed around caste identities. For instance, parties like the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) primarily represent the interests of the Dalits, while parties like the Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) have a strong support base among the Yadavs.
  • Caste-Based Voting Patterns: Voters often choose candidates based on their caste affiliations rather than their policies or qualifications. This leads to the formation of voting blocs based on caste, influencing election outcomes.
  • Reservation Policies: Governments often provide reservations in educational institutions and government jobs for certain castes to uplift historically marginalized communities. These policies are a form of caste-based affirmative action.
  • Caste-Based Campaigning: During elections, politicians may appeal to specific caste groups by promising policies or benefits that cater to their interests. This can further reinforce caste-based politics.

15.”Crude oil reserves are limited all over the world. If people continue to extract it at the present rate, the reserves would last only 35 – 40 years more.” Explain any three ways to solve this problem.

The problem of limited crude oil reserves can be addressed through various strategies:

  • Promoting Alternative Energy Sources: Encourage the use of renewable and sustainable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power. Governments can provide incentives and subsidies to promote the adoption of these alternatives.
  • Energy Efficiency: Promote energy-efficient technologies and practices in transportation, industries, and households. This can reduce the overall demand for crude oil.
  • Research and Innovation: Invest in research and development of new technologies to explore and extract unconventional oil reserves like shale oil or invest in cleaner technologies for oil extraction.

16.Why is it necessary to increase a large number of banks mainly in rural areas? Explain. (3)

It is necessary to increase the number of banks in rural areas for several reasons:

  • Financial Inclusion: Rural areas often have limited access to banking services. By increasing the number of banks, more rural residents can have access to banking facilities, leading to financial inclusion and economic empowerment.
  • Agricultural Development: Rural areas heavily depend on agriculture. Access to credit facilities from banks can help farmers invest in modern farming techniques, purchase equipment, and improve crop yields.
  • Savings and Investments: Banks provide a secure place for rural residents to save money and invest in various financial products, fostering economic growth and stability.
  • Reducing Dependency on Informal Sector: In rural areas, people often resort to informal lenders who charge high interest rates. More banks can provide affordable loans, reducing dependence on informal sources.


Why are service conditions of formal sector loans better than informal sector?

The service conditions of formal sector loans are generally better than those of the informal sector due to several reasons:

  1. Regulation and Oversight: Formal sector loans are typically regulated by financial institutions and governed by laws and regulations. These regulations ensure that borrowers are protected from predatory lending practices and unfair terms. In contrast, informal sector loans often lack such oversight, making borrowers vulnerable to exploitative conditions.
  2. Lower Interest Rates: Formal sector loans usually offer lower interest rates compared to informal loans, which often come with significantly higher interest rates. Lower interest rates reduce the financial burden on borrowers and make repayment more manageable.
  3. Transparency: Formal sector loans are characterized by transparency in terms and conditions. Borrowers receive clear documentation outlining the loan terms, repayment schedules, and any associated fees. This transparency helps borrowers understand their obligations and rights. In contrast, informal sector loans may lack transparency, leading to confusion and disputes.

17.How can the Government of India play a major role to make globalisation more fair? Explain with examples.

The Government of India can play a significant role in making globalization fair through various measures:

  • Trade Policies: Implement trade policies that protect domestic industries from unfair competition, while also facilitating international trade. This can help local industries grow without being overwhelmed by foreign competition.
  • Social Safety Nets: Establish social safety nets to protect vulnerable populations from the negative impacts of globalization, such as job loss. Programs like rural employment schemes can provide alternative livelihoods.
  • Regulatory Framework: Enforce strong regulations to ensure fair labor practices, environmental standards, and ethical business conduct by multinational corporations operating in India.
  • Education and Skill Development: Invest in education and skill development programs to empower the workforce and make them competitive in the global market.


How has globalisation affected the life of Indians? Explain with examples.

Globalization has brought about significant changes in the lives of Indians:

  • Economic Growth: Globalization has opened up opportunities for trade and investment, contributing to India’s economic growth. It has led to increased job opportunities and higher incomes for many Indians.
  • Cultural Exchange: Exposure to global cultures through media, entertainment, and travel has enriched Indian society with diverse influences and ideas.
  • Technological Advancements: Globalization has accelerated the adoption of modern technologies, improving communication, healthcare, education, and quality of life.
  • Challenges: Globalization has also brought challenges such as increased competition, inequality, and environmental concerns. Some sections of society have faced job displacement due to global market forces.
  • Urbanization: Economic opportunities in urban areas have led to rural-to-urban migration, resulting in the growth of cities and changes in lifestyle.

18. How are consumers enjoying the ‘right to be informed’ in their daily life? Explain with examples.

Consumers are enjoying the ‘right to be informed’ in their daily life in various ways:

  1. Product Labels: Many consumer products display detailed information on their labels. For example, food items list ingredients, nutritional facts, and expiration dates, helping consumers make informed choices.
  2. Advertising: Advertisements often provide information about products and services, helping consumers understand their features and benefits. For instance, an advertisement for a smartphone may highlight its camera specifications, battery life, and other features.
  3. Online Reviews: In the digital age, consumers can access online reviews and ratings for products and services. These reviews provide insights into the experiences of other consumers, aiding in decision-making. For example, before booking a hotel, consumers can read reviews on platforms like TripAdvisor or Yelp.


19.How had the First World War’ created economic problems in India? Explain with examples. (5)

The Economic Impact of the First World War on India:

The First World War had significant economic repercussions in India, affecting various sectors of the economy. Here are some key ways in which the war created economic problems in India:

  1. Disruption of Trade: The war disrupted international trade, causing a decline in India’s export market. Traditional exports like cotton and jute faced reduced demand due to disruptions in European industries. This affected Indian farmers and manufacturers.
  2. Inflation: The war led to inflationary pressures in India. The increased government spending on war efforts, coupled with disruptions in global supply chains, caused rising prices of essential goods. This inflation eroded the purchasing power of the Indian population, especially the lower-income groups.
  3. Recruitment and Loss of Labor: India provided a significant number of soldiers for the British Empire’s war effort. This recruitment led to a shortage of labor in various sectors, including agriculture and industries, impacting productivity and economic activities.
  4. Increase in Taxation: The British government in India imposed higher taxes to finance the war. This placed an additional burden on the Indian population, particularly on the rural and agricultural communities.
  5. Impact on Industries: Some Indian industries, such as those producing war-related materials like jute bags and textiles, benefited from increased demand during the war. However, after the war, the decline in demand for these products resulted in economic challenges.


How had a variety of cultural processes developed a sense of collective belongingness in India during the 19th century? Explain with examples.

During the 19th century, India witnessed a variety of cultural processes that contributed to the development of a sense of collective belongingness among its diverse population. These processes helped bridge regional, linguistic, and religious differences, fostering a shared sense of identity. Here are some key factors and examples:

  1. Language and Literature:
    • Language Reform Movements: Efforts to promote regional languages and literature played a pivotal role. Figures like Raja Ram Mohan Roy advocated for the preservation and promotion of Indian languages.
    • Bengali Renaissance: In Bengal, the literary and cultural renaissance led by figures like Rabindranath Tagore promoted Bengali language and culture. Tagore’s works, such as “Gitanjali,” resonated with people across India, transcending regional boundaries.
  2. Religious Reform Movements:
    • Arya Samaj: Swami Dayananda Saraswati’s Arya Samaj sought to reform Hinduism, emphasizing Vedic principles and opposing idol worship. This movement influenced Hindus across India, fostering a sense of religious unity.
    • Brahmo Samaj: Led by figures like Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Debendranath Tagore, the Brahmo Samaj promoted monotheism and rationalism. It attracted followers from various religious backgrounds, emphasizing the universality of ethical values.
  3. Nationalistic Literature:
    • Novels and Essays: Prominent Indian writers like Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay and Dadabhai Naoroji wrote novels and essays that highlighted the common struggle against colonialism. Chattopadhyay’s “Anandamath” and Naoroji’s “Poverty and Un-British Rule in India” stirred nationalist sentiments.
  4. Cultural Revival:
    • Art and Music: The promotion of classical Indian art forms, such as classical music and dance, showcased the rich cultural heritage shared by Indians across regions. Musicians like Ravi Shankar and dancers like Rukmini Devi Arundale played key roles.
    • Traditional Festivals: Celebrations of festivals like Diwali, Eid, and Durga Puja brought people of different communities together, fostering a sense of unity in diversity.
  5. Political Movements:
    • Indian National Congress (INC): Established in 1885, the INC became a platform for Indians of diverse backgrounds to come together and demand political rights and self-governance.
    • Partition of Bengal (1905): The protests against the partition of Bengal in 1905 united people from various communities, religions, and regions, leading to its reversal in 1911.

20.Describe the role of technology’ in transformation of the world in the nineteenth century.

The nineteenth century witnessed significant technological advancements that transformed various aspects of the world. Here are key roles played by technology during that era:

  1. Industrial Revolution: The introduction of steam engines, mechanization of textile production, and innovations in transportation (such as the steam locomotive and the steamship) marked the Industrial Revolution. These technologies revolutionized manufacturing and transportation, leading to the growth of industries and urbanization.
  2. Communication Revolution: The invention of the telegraph and the development of the Morse code revolutionized long-distance communication. People could send messages rapidly over great distances, facilitating business, diplomacy, and news dissemination.
  3. Medical Advancements: Nineteenth-century medical technology, including the development of anesthesia and improved surgical techniques, transformed healthcare. This led to more successful surgeries and better patient outcomes.
  4. Agricultural Innovation: Technological advancements in agriculture, such as the steel plow, mechanical reaper, and seed drill, increased agricultural productivity and helped feed growing populations.
  5. Transportation Revolution: The expansion of railways and the construction of canals and roads improved transportation networks. This facilitated the movement of goods and people, boosting trade and economic growth.


Describe the life of workers during the nineteenth century in England.

The life of workers in nineteenth-century England was characterized by a combination of significant challenges and gradual improvements. Here are some key aspects of their lives:

  1. Harsh Working Conditions: Workers, especially those in factories and mines, faced grueling working conditions. Long working hours, often exceeding 12 hours a day, were common. Many workers, including children, toiled in dangerous environments with little safety regulation.
  2. Low Wages: Wages were generally low, and many workers struggled to make ends meet. Poverty was widespread, and families often had to send their children to work to supplement their income.
  3. Child Labor: Child labor was rampant in various industries. Children as young as six or seven were employed in factories and mines, where they endured harsh conditions and limited access to education.
  4. Lack of Rights: Workers had few legal rights or protections. Strikes and protests for better working conditions were met with resistance from employers and often led to job loss and harsh consequences.
  5. Housing and Sanitation: Housing for workers in industrial towns and cities was often overcrowded and unsanitary. Workers lived in cramped and poorly ventilated conditions, contributing to the spread of diseases.


Describe various steps taken to clean up London in the nineteenth century.

During the nineteenth century, London faced significant challenges related to sanitation and public health due to rapid urbanization and industrialization. Several steps were taken to address these issues and improve the city’s cleanliness:

  1. The Metropolitan Board of Works: Established in 1855, this administrative body was responsible for improving London’s infrastructure, including sanitation. It oversaw the construction of sewage systems, road improvements, and the regulation of public health.
  2. Joseph Bazalgette’s Sewage System: In response to the Great Stink of 1858, Joseph Bazalgette designed and implemented a comprehensive sewage system. This system, including an extensive network of sewers and the Thames Embankment, helped divert sewage away from the Thames River and reduced the spread of diseases like cholera.
  3. Public Health Act of 1875: This legislation empowered local authorities to address public health issues. It led to the improvement of housing conditions, sanitation, and waste disposal in London and other urban areas.
  4. Urban Planning: The development of parks and green spaces within the city, such as Hyde Park and Regent’s Park, aimed to provide residents with healthier environments and recreational opportunities.
  5. Improved Housing Regulations: Housing regulations were introduced to ensure that new housing developments met minimum standards of sanitation and ventilation, reducing overcrowding and improving living conditions.

21. Name the two major beverage crops grown in India. Describe their growing areas.

India is known for the cultivation of various crops, including beverage crops. Two major beverage crops grown in India are tea and coffee. Here’s an overview of their growing areas:


  • Growing Regions: India is one of the world’s largest producers of tea, with tea estates located in several regions across the country.
  • Assam: Assam, in northeastern India, is famous for its strong and robust Assam tea. The Brahmaputra Valley is the primary tea-producing region in Assam.
  • Darjeeling: Located in the state of West Bengal, Darjeeling is renowned for its premium Darjeeling tea, known for its unique flavor and aroma. The high-altitude tea gardens in Darjeeling produce this coveted tea.
  • Nilgiris: The Nilgiri Hills in southern India, particularly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, are known for Nilgiri tea. It is valued for its mild and fragrant characteristics.
  • Kangra: In the Kangra Valley of Himachal Pradesh, tea is grown at higher altitudes. Kangra tea is known for its distinct flavor.
  • Dooars and Terai: These regions in West Bengal and Assam are also known for tea cultivation.


  • Growing Regions: Coffee is primarily grown in the southern states of India, with Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu being the major coffee-producing regions.
  • Arabica Coffee: The Western Ghats, particularly in Coorg (Kodagu) in Karnataka, is known for producing high-quality Arabica coffee. The region’s cool climate and elevation are ideal for Arabica cultivation.
  • Robusta Coffee: Robusta coffee is grown in the hilly regions of Wayanad in Kerala and parts of Tamil Nadu. Robusta coffee is known for its strong and bold flavor.
  • Chikmagalur: This region in Karnataka is also famous for both Arabica and Robusta coffee cultivation.

These beverage crops are not only important for the Indian economy but also for global exports. The unique flavors and qualities of Indian tea and coffee contribute to their popularity worldwide.

22 How can the industrial pollution of fresh water be reduced? Explain various ways.

Industrial pollution of fresh water bodies can have detrimental effects on the environment and public health. To reduce industrial pollution, several strategies and practices can be employed:

  1. Effluent Treatment Plants (ETPs): Industries should install ETPs to treat wastewater before it is discharged into water bodies. ETPs use physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove pollutants, ensuring that the water released is cleaner.
  2. Recycling and Reuse: Industries can implement recycling and reuse practices to minimize water consumption and reduce the discharge of polluted water. Treated wastewater can be reused for non-potable purposes within the industry.
  3. Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD): ZLD systems aim to recover and reuse all water from industrial processes, leaving no liquid waste to be discharged. This approach minimizes the environmental impact of industrial activities.
  4. Pollution Control Regulations: Governments can enforce strict pollution control regulations and standards for industries, setting limits on the release of pollutants into water bodies. Regular monitoring and penalties for non-compliance can deter pollution.
  5. Green Technologies: Adoption of eco-friendly and green technologies can reduce the generation of hazardous pollutants. For example, industries can switch to cleaner energy sources and use closed-loop systems to minimize contamination.

23.”Democracies do not appear to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities.” Justify the statement.

While democracy is often associated with principles of equality and social justice, it is true that democracies, in practice, have not been very successful in reducing economic inequalities. Several reasons justify this statement:

  1. Influence of Wealth: In democratic systems, individuals and groups with significant wealth and resources often have a disproportionate influence on politics. They can fund political campaigns, lobby for policies that benefit their interests, and exert influence over decision-making. This influence can perpetuate economic inequalities as policies may favor the wealthy.
  2. Lack of Effective Redistribution: While democracies may have welfare programs and progressive taxation systems, the effectiveness of these measures in reducing economic inequality varies. Often, political resistance and the influence of powerful interest groups can hinder the implementation of more robust redistribution policies.
  3. Inequality in Access to Education: Economic inequality often begins with unequal access to quality education. In many democracies, access to education is unequal, and this perpetuates disparities in income and opportunities. Despite democratic principles, education systems may not always address these inequalities effectively.
  4. Globalization and Market Forces: In today’s globalized world, market forces can exacerbate economic inequalities. Democracies may find it challenging to control the impact of globalization, leading to wage disparities, job insecurity, and wealth concentration.
  5. Political Polarization: In some democracies, political polarization can hinder the consensus needed for effective policies to address economic inequality. Divisive political environments may prioritize ideological differences over efforts to reduce disparities.


“Democracy is a better form of government than any other form of government.” Justify the statement.

Democracy, as a form of government, has several inherent strengths and advantages that make it a superior choice when compared to other forms of government. Here are five key justifications for the statement:

  1. Protection of Individual Rights: Democracy places a strong emphasis on protecting individual rights and freedoms. In democratic systems, citizens enjoy fundamental rights such as freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and the right to a fair trial. These rights are enshrined in constitutions and are upheld through the rule of law and independent judiciaries. As a result, citizens are shielded from arbitrary and oppressive rule.
  2. Popular Sovereignty: Democracy is built on the principle of popular sovereignty, where the ultimate authority rests with the people. Through regular, free, and fair elections, citizens have the power to choose their leaders and representatives. This ensures that the government is accountable to the people and derives its legitimacy from their consent.
  3. Accountability and Transparency: Democratic governments are transparent and accountable to the public. Elected representatives are answerable for their actions and decisions to the electorate. This accountability helps prevent abuse of power, corruption, and arbitrary rule. Additionally, democratic institutions, such as legislatures and the media, play a crucial role in scrutinizing government actions.
  4. Peaceful Conflict Resolution: Democracies offer a peaceful means of resolving political conflicts and disputes. Through elections and the rule of law, competing interests and ideologies can be reconciled without resorting to violence. This stability contributes to social cohesion and prevents civil unrest.
  5. Inclusivity and Diversity: Democracy accommodates diverse perspectives and interests within society. It allows for the participation of different social, ethnic, religious, and ideological groups. This inclusivity fosters a sense of belonging and social cohesion, reducing the likelihood of discrimination and exclusion.

24.What is a political party? Explain any four characteristics of a political party.

A political party is an organized group of individuals who share common political goals and ideologies and work collectively to contest elections, form governments, and influence public policy. Here are four characteristics of political parties:

  1. Organized Structure: Political parties have a well-defined organizational structure with leaders, members, and various levels of hierarchy. They have formal systems for decision-making, party governance, and candidate selection. This structured setup enables them to operate effectively in the political arena.
  2. Ideological Orientation: Parties are guided by specific political ideologies or platforms that outline their core beliefs, values, and policy positions. These ideologies often serve as a basis for attracting like-minded voters and members. For example, a party may have a liberal, conservative, socialist, or nationalist ideology.
  3. Contest Elections: One of the primary functions of political parties is to contest elections at various levels of government, from local to national. They field candidates who represent the party’s interests and policies in electoral campaigns. Winning elections allows parties to gain political power and influence.
  4. Policy Formulation: Political parties develop and promote policy proposals and agendas. These policies reflect the party’s vision for governance and are designed to address social, economic, and political issues. Parties seek to gain public support based on their policy platforms. For instance, a party may advocate for healthcare reform, environmental protection, or economic deregulation.
  5. Political Mobilization: Parties engage in political mobilization to garner support from the electorate. They organize rallies, campaigns, and outreach activities to connect with voters, solicit donations, and build electoral momentum. Effective mobilization is essential for winning elections.

25. Compare the economic activities of the private sector with that of the public sector.

Aspect Private Sector Public Sector
Ownership Privately owned and operated businesses and enterprises Government-owned and government-operated organizations
Profit Motive Operates with a profit motive, seeks to maximize profits Focuses on providing public services and societal goals
Competition Highly competitive, businesses compete for market share Less competitive, driven by government policies and goals
Resource Allocation Allocation based on market demand and profitability Determined by government budgets, policies, and priorities
Risk and Reward Entrepreneurs and investors bear business risks Risks and rewards shared collectively by taxpayers
Primary Objective Profit generation and financial success Public service delivery and societal well-being
Regulation Subject to government regulations and oversight Governed by government policies and accountability


26. Note: The following questions are for the Visually Impaired Candidates only, in lieu of Q. No. 26. Attempt any five questions:

(26.1) Name the State where the Indian National Congress held its session in December 1920.

(26.2) Name the State where cotton mill workers organised Satyagraha.

(26.3) Name the place related to the calling-off of the Non-Cooperation Movement.

(26.4) Name the State where Bokaro Iron and Steel plant is located.

(26.5) Name the State where Tarapur Nuclear Power plant is located.

(26.6) On which coast of India is Tuticorin sea port located?

(26.7) Name the State where Salal Dam is located.

(A) Two features ‘a’ and ‘b’ are marked on the given political outline map of India (on page 11). Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked near them: (a) The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held. (b) The place where Gandhiji violated the salt law. (B) Locate and label any three of the following with appropriate symbols on the same given outline political map of India: (i) Bokaro Iron and Steel Plant (ii) Gandhinagar Software Technology Park (iii) Tarapur Nuclear Power Plant (iv) Salal Dam answer all the questions.

26.1) The Indian National Congress held its session in December 1920 in Nagpur, which is in the state of Maharashtra.

26.2) Cotton mill workers organized Satyagraha in Ahmedabad, which is in the state of Gujarat.

26.3) The Non-Cooperation Movement was called off in the city of Chauri Chaura, located in the state of Uttar Pradesh.

26.4) The Bokaro Iron and Steel Plant is located in the state of Jharkhand.

26.5) The Tarapur Nuclear Power Plant is located in the state of Maharashtra.

26.6) Tuticorin sea port is located on the eastern coast of India, along the Bay of Bengal.

26.7) Salal Dam is located in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

For the labeling on the map, please refer to a physical map or an atlas to accurately mark the locations as described in the questions.

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