# CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography (2023-24) Set 1 with Solution

Last Updated : 13 Feb, 2024

CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Set 1 are an essential resource for students preparing for their Class 11 Geography examinations. These sample papers are specifically designed to help students understand the exam pattern, question types, and the level of difficulty they can expect in the actual board exams.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Set 1 are valuable tools that aid in the preparation and performance of students in their Class 11 Geography examinations. They provide a structured approach to studying, allowing students to assess their knowledge, build confidence, and improve their overall performance. It is recommended that students use these sample papers as part of their study routine to achieve success in their geography exams.

## [Section- A]

### 1. There are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Mark your answer as per the codes providedbelow.

Assertion: The amount of insolation received by Earth on the 3rd of January is slightly less than the amount received on the 4th of July.
Reason: On 3rd January the distance between the sun and earth increases.

Options:
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(C) Both (A) and (R) are incorrect.
(D) (A) is correct but (R) is incorrect.

Option (C) is correct.

### 2. Consider the following and choose the correct answer with the help of given codes:

 Descriptor Magnitude i. Great 1. 6 â€“ 6.9 ii. Major 2. 8 and higher iii. Strong 3. 5 â€“ 5.9 iv. Moderate 4. 7 â€“ 7.9

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(A) 2 4 1 3

(B) 3 1 4 2

(C) 1 4 3 2

(D) 4 3 2 1

Option (A) is correct.

### 3. The Big Bang Theory is also called the: 1

(A) Galaxy Theory
(B) Expanding Universe Hypothesis
(C) Nebular Hypothesis
(D) Galaxy Expansion Theory

Option (B) is correct.

### 4. Consider the following statements and choose the correct answer with the help of the given options: 1

I. The amount of heat received by different parts of the earth is not the same.
II. This leads to the transfer of heat from one region to another by winds.
(A) Both statements are true
(B) Only statement I is true
(C) Only statement II is true
(D) Both statements are wrong

Option (A) is correct.

### 5. Given below is a list of layers of the Atmosphere and its Height in km. Which of the following pair is NOT correctly matched? 1

 Layers of Atmosphere Height in Kms (A) Troposphere 13 (B) Stratosphere 25 (C) Mesosphere 80 (D) Ionosphere 80 â€“ 400

Option (B) is correct.

### 6. The Solid mineral material forming part of the surface of the earth is called: 1

(A) rock
(B) magma
(C) sand
(D) silt

Option (A) is correct.

### 7. Which of the following are the physical characteristics of ocean water? 1

(A) Temperature
(B) Salinity
(C) Density
(D) All of these

Option (D) is correct.

### 8. The length of the international border between India and Pakistan is: 1

(A) 3310 Km
(B) 2210 Km
(C) 1110 Km
(D) 1010 Km

Option (A) is correct.

### 9. The southernmost part of India is: 1

(A) Sonia Point
(B) Indira Point
(C) Nehru Point
(D) Gandhi Point

Option (B) is correct.

### 10. Consider the following statements and choose the correct answer with the help of given options: 1

Statement I: Areas in the interior of India are under the moderating influence of the sea.
Statement II: Delhi, Kanpur, Amritsar experience seasonal contrasts in weather.

(A) Only statement I is correct
(B) Only statement II is correct
(C) Both the statements are correct, and statement II correctly explains statement I.
(D) Both the statements are true but not related with each other.

Option (B) is correct.

### 11. Arrange the stages of planet formation in the correct order: 1

(i) The condensation of the gas cloud and formation of chondrules
(ii) More violent and rapid impact accretion
(iii) The accretion of gas and dust to form small bodies between 1-10 km in diameter
(iv) The gravitational collapse of a star

(A) i, ii, iv, iii
(B) iv, i, iii, ii
(C) iii, iv, ii, i
(D) iii, i, ii, iv

Option (B) is correct.

### 12. Name the river which in Tibet is known as Langchen Khambab: 1

(A) Ravi
(B) Teesta
(C) Satluj
(D) Beas

Option (C) is correct.

### 13. They are formed by the alluvial deposits brought by the rivers-the Indus, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra: 1

(A) Brahmaputra Plains
(B) The Northern Plains
(C) Nimbus
(D) Cumulus

Option (B) is correct.

### 14. The â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦ are young, weak and flexible in their geological structure unlike the rigid and stable Peninsular Block. 1

(A) Karakoram
(B) Himalayas
(C) Anamudi
(D) Khasi

Option (B) is correct.

### 15. The rainfall in the given graph is measured in:

(A) Centimetres
(B) Millimetres
(C) Kilometres
(D) None of these

Option (B) is correct.

### 16. Which year received the maximum rain from North East Monsoon?

(A) 2003 â€“ 04
(B) 2005 â€“ 06
(C) 2007 â€“ 08
(D) 2010 â€“ 11

Option (B) is correct.

### 17. Which year received 800 mm of rainfall from both Southwest and Northeast Monsoons?

(A) 2000 â€“ 01
(B) 2001 â€“ 02
(C) 2012 â€“ 13
(D) 2013 â€“ 14

Option (B) is correct.

## [Section-B]

### 18. Read the given Passage carefully and answer the questions that follow: 3

The causes for climate change are many. They can be grouped into astronomical and terrestrial causes. The astronomical causes are the changes in solar output associated with sunspot activities. Sunspots are dark and cooler patches on the sun which increase and decrease in a cyclical manner. According to some meteorologists, when the number of sunspots increase, cooler and wetter weather and greater storminess occur.

A decrease in sunspot numbers is associated with warm and drier conditions. Yet, these findings are not statistically
significant. Another astronomical theory is Milankovitch oscillations, which infer cycles in the variations in the
earthâ€™s orbital characteristics around the sun, the wobbling of the earth and the changes in the earthâ€™s axial tilt. All these alter the amount of insolation received from the sun, which in turn, might have a bearing on the climate. Volcanism is considered as another cause for climate change. Volcanic eruption throws up lots of aerosols into ? the atmosphere. These aerosols remain in the atmosphere for a considerable period of time reducing the sunâ€™s radiation reaching the Earthâ€™s surface. After the recent Pinatubo and El Cion volcanic eruptions, the average temperature of the earth fell to some extent for some years. The most important anthropogenic effect on the climate is the increasing trend in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere which is likely to cause global warming.

### a. What is dark and cooler patches on the sun which increases and decreases in a cyclical manner called?b. What kind of material is thrown up a lot into the atmosphere during a volcanic eruption?c. What is the most important anthropogenic effect on the climates?

a. Sunspots
b. Aerosols
c. Increasing trend in the concentration greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

### 19. Observe the given map and answer the following questions: 3

a. Name the tectonic plate that is between the Asiatic and Pacific plate.
b. Name the tectonic plate between the Central American and Pacific plates.
c. Name the tectonic plate between South America and the Pacific plate.

a. Philippine Plate
b. Cocos Plate
c. Nazca Plate

## Question numbers 20 to 23 are Short Answer Type Questions.

### 20. How do geographers play an important role in any country? 3

Geographers play an important role in any country by contributing to various aspects of national development, planning, and decision-making. Here are some key ways in which geographers are essential:

1. Spatial Analysis: Geographers specialize in spatial analysis, which involves studying the distribution and arrangement of physical and human phenomena across geographical areas. They use this knowledge to analyze patterns, trends, and relationships within a country’s geography. This information is invaluable for urban planning, resource allocation, and disaster management.
2. Resource Management: Geographers help countries manage their natural resources effectively. They study the location and availability of resources such as water, minerals, and arable land. By understanding the spatial distribution of these resources, geographers assist in sustainable resource management and conservation.
3. Urban and Regional Planning: Geographers play a crucial role in urban and regional planning. They assess land use, transportation networks, and infrastructure needs. Their expertise helps governments and municipalities make informed decisions about zoning, housing development, and the allocation of public services.

### Why is geography considered an important subject? 3

Geography is considered an important subject for several reasons, as it provides valuable knowledge and skills that are relevant in various aspects of life and society. Here are three key reasons why geography is regarded as important:

1. Understanding the World: Geography helps individuals gain a comprehensive understanding of the world in which they live. It explores the Earth’s physical features, landscapes, climates, ecosystems, and human societies. This knowledge fosters global awareness and a sense of place, enabling individuals to appreciate the diversity of cultures, environments, and geographic regions worldwide.
2. Solving Real-World Issues: Geography equips students with analytical and problem-solving skills. It teaches spatial analysis, data interpretation, and critical thinking, which are essential for addressing complex real-world challenges. Geographical information and tools, such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), are used in fields like urban planning, disaster management, environmental conservation, and resource allocation.
3. Informed Decision-Making: Geography plays a vital role in informed decision-making at various levels, from personal choices to national policies. It provides insights into issues such as sustainable development, climate change, population dynamics, and urbanization. Understanding geographical factors helps individuals and governments make informed choices about land use, infrastructure development, resource management, and disaster preparedness.

### 21.Write three points of difference between body waves and surface waves. 3

Here are three points of difference between body waves and surface waves presented in tabular form:

Aspect Body Waves Surface Waves
Nature of Waves Body waves are seismic waves that propagate through the Earth’s interior. Surface waves are seismic waves that travel along the Earth’s surface.
Types There are two main types of body waves: Primary waves (P-waves) and Secondary waves (S-waves). There are two main types of surface waves: Love waves and Rayleigh waves.
Speed and Energy Body waves typically have higher speeds and carry more energy than surface waves. Surface waves have slower speeds compared to body waves and generally cause more ground shaking during an earthquake.

These differences illustrate how body waves and surface waves behave differently in terms of their propagation and impact during seismic events.

### 22. â€˜Water is a cyclic resourceâ€™. Explain. 3

“Water is a cyclic resource” means that water on Earth is involved in a continuous and interconnected cycle known as the water cycle or hydrological cycle. This cycle consists of various processes that recycle water, ensuring its availability for various purposes. Here’s an explanation of this concept in three points:

1. Evaporation and Condensation: Water from various sources, such as oceans, rivers, lakes, and even the Earth’s surface, continuously undergoes evaporation due to solar energy. As the sun heats the Earth’s surface, water turns into water vapor and rises into the atmosphere. Once in the atmosphere, this water vapor cools and condenses to form clouds.
2. Precipitation: Condensed water vapor in the atmosphere forms clouds, and when these clouds become saturated with moisture, they release precipitation in the form of rain, snow, sleet, or hail. This precipitation falls back to the Earth’s surface and replenishes water bodies, such as rivers, lakes, and groundwater reservoirs.
3. Runoff and Infiltration: Precipitation that falls on land can follow two main paths. Some of it runs off into rivers and streams, eventually making its way back to the oceans. The rest of the precipitation infiltrates into the ground, recharging groundwater aquifers. Groundwater can later resurface through natural springs or be pumped for various uses, completing the cycle.

OR

### Explain the process of hydrological cycle.

The hydrological cycle, also known as the water cycle, is a continuous and natural process that describes the movement and circulation of water on Earth. It consists of several interconnected stages that recycle water throughout the planet. Here’s an explanation of the process of the hydrological cycle in three key stages:

1. Evaporation: The hydrological cycle begins with the process of evaporation. Solar energy from the sun heats the Earth’s surface, causing water from various sources like oceans, lakes, rivers, and even moist soil to change from a liquid state to water vapor (gas). This water vapor rises into the atmosphere, driven by the heat.
2. Condensation: As the water vapor rises higher into the atmosphere, it encounters cooler temperatures at higher altitudes. This cooling causes the water vapor to condense and form tiny water droplets or ice crystals. These condensed water droplets gather and combine to create clouds in the atmosphere.
3. Precipitation: Once the clouds become saturated with moisture, the water droplets within them join together and fall to the Earth’s surface in the form of precipitation. Precipitation includes various forms such as rain, snow, sleet, or hail, depending on local temperature conditions. Precipitation can occur in the form of gentle drizzles or heavy downpours.

### 23. Why is there a time variation of 2 hours between the easternmost and westernmost part of the country? 3

The time variation of 2 hours between the easternmost and westernmost parts of a country is primarily due to the longitudinal extent of the country and its division into time zones. This variation is most commonly observed in large countries, such as India, which span multiple longitudinal lines.

Here’s why this time variation occurs:

1. Earth’s Rotation: Earth is divided into 24 time zones, each roughly 15 degrees of longitude apart. The Earth rotates 360 degrees in approximately 24 hours, which means it rotates at a rate of 15 degrees per hour. As a result, each time zone represents a one-hour difference in local time.
2. Longitudinal Extent: In countries with a significant longitudinal extent, such as India, there can be a substantial difference in local solar time between the easternmost and westernmost regions. The easternmost regions, being ahead in longitude, experience sunrise and sunset earlier than the westernmost regions.
3. Time Zones: To maintain consistency and convenience, countries often adopt multiple time zones to standardize time across their territory. For example, India spans multiple longitudinal lines but follows a single time zone known as Indian Standard Time (IST), which is usually 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+5:30).

## Question numbers 24 to 28 are Long Answer Type Questions.

### Differentiate between physical weathering and chemical weathering. 5

Aspect Physical Weathering Chemical Weathering
Definition Physical weathering, also known as mechanical weathering, involves the breakdown of rocks into smaller fragments without changing their chemical composition. Chemical weathering is the process of altering the chemical composition of rocks and minerals through chemical reactions with environmental agents.
Mechanism It occurs through physical forces and processes such as temperature changes, frost action, abrasion, pressure release, and root wedging. It involves chemical reactions between minerals in rocks and various agents, including water, oxygen, acids, and organic compounds.
Type of Changes Physical weathering mainly results in the disintegration of rocks into smaller pieces or fragments, but it does not change the minerals’ chemical composition. Chemical weathering leads to the alteration and decomposition of minerals within rocks, resulting in the formation of new minerals or dissolution of existing ones.
Examples Examples of physical weathering processes include frost shattering, exfoliation (peeling of rock layers), and salt crystal growth. Examples of chemical weathering processes include dissolution (e.g., limestone dissolving in acidic rainwater), oxidation (e.g., rusting of iron), and hydrolysis (e.g., feldspar turning into clay minerals).
Environmental Factors Physical weathering is often influenced by factors such as temperature fluctuations, mechanical stress, and the presence of ice or vegetation. Chemical weathering is influenced by factors like moisture, temperature, the presence of acids (natural or anthropogenic), and the mineral composition of rocks.
End Result Physical weathering results in the fragmentation of rocks into smaller pieces, which can then be further affected by chemical weathering. Chemical weathering leads to the alteration of mineral composition and the formation of secondary minerals and mineral byproducts

### 25. Explain the structure of the atmosphere with the help of a labelled diagram. 5

The Earth’s atmosphere is composed of several distinct layers, each with unique characteristics and properties. Here’s an explanation of the structure of the atmosphere along with a labelled diagram:

Structure of the Atmosphere:

1. Troposphere (0-10 km): The troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere, extending from the Earth’s surface to an average altitude of about 10 kilometers (6 miles). In this layer, temperature decreases with altitude, and it contains most of the Earth’s weather phenomena, including clouds, precipitation, and convection currents.
2. Stratosphere (10-50 km): Above the troposphere is the stratosphere, which extends from approximately 10 kilometers to 50 kilometers (30 miles) above the Earth’s surface. The stratosphere contains the ozone layer, which absorbs and blocks a significant portion of the sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. As a result, temperature increases with altitude in the stratosphere.
3. Mesosphere (50-80 km): The mesosphere lies above the stratosphere and extends from about 50 kilometers to 80 kilometers (50 miles) in altitude. In this layer, temperatures decrease again with altitude, making it the coldest region of the Earth’s atmosphere. The mesosphere is where meteors burn up upon entry into the atmosphere.
4. Thermosphere (80-700 km): The thermosphere extends from approximately 80 kilometers to 700 kilometers (440 miles) above the Earth’s surface. Despite its high altitude, the thermosphere experiences extremely high temperatures due to the absorption of solar radiation by various gases. However, the density of molecules in the thermosphere is very low.
5. Exosphere (700 km and beyond): The exosphere is the outermost layer of the Earth’s atmosphere and begins around 700 kilometers (440 miles) above the Earth’s surface. It gradually transitions into outer space and consists of sparse gas molecules and atoms. The exosphere marks the boundary between the Earth’s atmosphere and space.

### 26. Difference between the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats. 5

Aspect Western Ghats Eastern Ghats
Location Western Ghats run parallel to the western coast of India, along the Arabian Sea. Eastern Ghats run parallel to the eastern coast of India, along the Bay of Bengal.
States Western Ghats span multiple Indian states, including Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Gujarat. Eastern Ghats pass through states such as Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and parts of Tamil Nadu.
Altitude Western Ghats are generally higher and more rugged, with peaks exceeding 2,000 meters (6,561 feet) in elevation. Eastern Ghats are comparatively lower, with maximum elevations typically below 1,500 meters (4,921 feet).
Biodiversity Western Ghats are known for their rich biodiversity and are recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. They are home to a variety of flora and fauna, including many endemic species. Eastern Ghats also support diverse ecosystems but are relatively less studied and recognized for biodiversity compared to the Western Ghats.
Climate Western Ghats receive heavy rainfall during the monsoon season, contributing to the region’s lush forests and high rainfall areas, such as the Western Coastal Plains. Eastern Ghats receive comparatively less rainfall and have a more arid climate in some regions, leading to dry landscapes and deciduous forests.
Rivers Western Ghats are the source of several major rivers in India, including the Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, and Tungabhadra, which flow eastward towards the Bay of Bengal. Eastern Ghats also give rise to significant rivers, such as the Mahanadi, Godavari, and Krishna, which flow towards the eastern coast and the Bay of Bengal.

OR

### Write a detailed note on the Northern Plains.

The Northern Plains of India, also known as the Indo-Gangetic Plains, are one of the most significant geographical features of the Indian subcontinent. These plains cover a vast expanse of northern India, extending from the foothills of the Himalayas in the north to the Narmada River in the south and from the Aravalli Range in the west to the Brahmaputra Delta in the east. Here’s a detailed note on the Northern Plains:

1. Geographic Extent:

• The Northern Plains stretch across several Indian states, including Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal.
• These plains are drained by the major river systems of India, including the Ganges, Yamuna, Brahmaputra, and their numerous tributaries.

2. Formation:

• The formation of the Northern Plains is primarily attributed to the deposition of alluvial soil by the major rivers flowing down from the Himalayan mountain range.
• The sedimentary deposits carried by these rivers over millions of years have created fertile plains that are ideal for agriculture.

3. Fertile Soil:

• The alluvial soil in the Northern Plains is incredibly fertile, making it one of the most agriculturally productive regions in India.
• The regular deposition of silt by the rivers enriches the soil, making it suitable for a wide variety of crops, including rice, wheat, sugarcane, cotton, and various fruits and vegetables.

4. Agricultural Prosperity:

• Due to its fertile soil and availability of water from the rivers, the Northern Plains have traditionally been the heartland of Indian agriculture.
• The region plays a pivotal role in the country’s food production and contributes significantly to the nation’s agricultural output.

5. Urbanization and Industrialization:

• The Northern Plains are also home to some of India’s most important cities and industrial centers. Cities like Delhi, Kanpur, Lucknow, and Kolkata are located in this region.
• The combination of fertile land and urbanization has led to the development of agro-based industries and manufacturing hubs.

6. Climate:

• The Northern Plains experience a diverse climate, with hot summers, cold winters, and a distinct monsoon season.
• The availability of water from the rivers helps moderate the climate and supports the growth of various crops throughout the year.

7. Transportation and Communication:

• The flat terrain of the Northern Plains makes it suitable for the construction of extensive road and rail networks, facilitating transportation and communication across the region.
• The Ganges and its tributaries also serve as important waterways for transportation.

In conclusion, the Northern Plains of India are a vital geographical feature that has played a central role in the country’s agriculture, economy, and culture. The fertility of the alluvial soil, coupled with the presence of major rivers, has made this region the breadbasket of India, supporting a significant portion of the country’s population and economic activities.

### 27. Write a note on the tributaries of the Indus River System. 5

The Indus River System is one of the major river systems in South Asia and is primarily located in Pakistan. It is fed by several tributaries that contribute to its flow and drainage. Here’s a note on the tributaries of the Indus River System:

1. Jhelum River:

• The Jhelum River is one of the most important tributaries of the Indus River.
• It originates from the Indian-administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir and flows through both India and Pakistan before entering the Punjab province of Pakistan.
• The Jhelum River merges with the Chenab River near the city of Trimmu, forming the Chenab-Jhelum confluence.
• It contributes significant water to the Indus River and plays a crucial role in the irrigation and agriculture of the region.

2. Chenab River:

• The Chenab River is another major tributary of the Indus River.
• It originates in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh and flows through the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir before entering Pakistan.
• The Chenab River is known for its strong flow and is one of the five rivers of the Punjab region.
• It merges with the Jhelum River to form the Chenab-Jhelum confluence, which, in turn, joins the Indus River.

3. Ravi River:

• The Ravi River is one of the smaller tributaries of the Indus River.
• It also originates in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh and flows into Pakistan.
• The river once formed the boundary between India and Pakistan in the Punjab region.
• It eventually joins the Chenab River before entering the Indus River system.

4. Sutlej River:

• The Sutlej River is one of the easternmost tributaries of the Indus River.
• It originates in Tibet and flows through the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab before entering Pakistan.
• The river used to flow into the Beas River, another tributary of the Indus, but due to human interventions, it now flows directly into the Indus River.

5. Beas River:

• The Beas River is one of the five rivers of the Punjab region.
• It originates in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh and flows through the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab.
• Historically, it used to flow into the Sutlej River, but its course was changed to flow into the Indus River as a part of irrigation projects.

These tributaries, along with the Indus River itself, form a complex network of rivers that provide essential water resources for irrigation, agriculture, and other activities in Pakistan. They play a crucial role in the region’s economy and agriculture, supporting millions of people who rely on the river system for their livelihoods.

OR

### Write a note on the important tributaries of the Ganga System.

The Ganga River System, also known as the Ganges River System, is one of the most significant river systems in India. It consists of the Ganga (Ganges) River and its numerous tributaries, which contribute to the flow and drainage of the region. Here’s a note on the important tributaries of the Ganga River System:

1. Yamuna River:

• The Yamuna River is one of the largest and most important tributaries of the Ganga.
• It originates from the Yamunotri Glacier in the Indian state of Uttarakhand and flows through several states, including Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi, and Uttar Pradesh, before entering the Ganga in the state of Uttar Pradesh.
• The Yamuna is known for its historical and cultural significance, as it flows through the cities of Delhi and Agra, where it passes near the iconic Taj Mahal.

2. Son River:

• The Son River is another significant tributary of the Ganga.
• It originates in the Amarkantak Plateau in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and flows through Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Bihar before joining the Ganga near the city of Patna.
• The Son River basin is rich in mineral resources and plays a vital role in the regional economy.

3. Gandak River:

• The Gandak River, also known as the Narayani River in Nepal, is a major left-bank tributary of the Ganga.
• It originates in the Himalayas of Nepal and flows through Nepal and the Indian states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh before joining the Ganga near Patna.
• The Gandak is prone to flooding during the monsoon season and has led to the development of flood control measures in the region.

4. Kosi River:

• The Kosi River is often referred to as the “Sorrow of Bihar” due to its history of causing devastating floods.
• It originates in Tibet and flows through Nepal and the Indian state of Bihar before entering the Ganga.
• The Kosi has a shifting course, and its floods have led to the displacement of populations and significant challenges in managing its waters.

5. Ghaghara River:

• The Ghaghara River, also known as the Karnali River in Nepal, is a major left-bank tributary of the Ganga.
• It originates in Tibet and flows through Nepal and the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar before joining the Ganga.
• The Ghaghara is known for its turbulent and fast-flowing waters.

These tributaries, along with the Ganga itself, form a vast and intricate river system that plays a vital role in the cultural, economic, and ecological landscape of northern India. They provide essential water resources for irrigation, agriculture, transportation, and other aspects of life in the region, making the Ganga River System a lifeline for millions of people.

### 28. Explain any five factors that determine the climate of India based on location and relief.

The climate of India is influenced by a variety of factors, including its geographical location and relief features. Here are five factors that determine the climate of India based on location and relief:

1. Latitude:

• India is located primarily between the Tropic of Cancer (approximately 23.5 degrees North) and the Equator. This tropical location means that most of India receives direct and intense sunlight throughout the year, resulting in high temperatures and distinct seasons.

2. Altitude:

• The relief features of India, particularly its elevation or altitude, have a significant impact on climate. The country exhibits a wide range of elevations, from the low-lying coastal areas to the high Himalayan peaks.
• Higher altitudes in regions like the Himalayas experience cooler temperatures and even snowfall, while low-lying coastal areas have a more humid and tropical climate.

3. Proximity to the Sea:

• India has a vast coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The proximity to these bodies of water influences the climate in coastal areas.
• Coastal regions experience milder temperature variations compared to inland areas. The sea moderates temperature extremes, resulting in a more temperate and maritime climate.

4. Monsoon Winds:

• India’s climate is greatly influenced by the seasonal monsoon winds. During the summer monsoon season (June to September), moist winds from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rainfall to most parts of India.
• In contrast, during the winter months (October to May), the dry northeast monsoon winds prevail, leading to drier and cooler conditions in many regions.

• The rain shadow effect occurs on the leeward side of mountain ranges, such as the Western Ghats. As moist winds from the Arabian Sea encounter these mountains, they are forced to ascend, cool, and release rainfall on the windward side.
• On the leeward side, areas like the Deccan Plateau experience drier conditions and receive significantly less rainfall due to the rain shadow effect.

These factors, combined with India’s vast and diverse geographical features, result in a wide range of climate zones and microclimates across the country. India’s climate varies from arid desert regions in the northwest to tropical rainforests in the northeast, providing a rich tapestry of weather patterns and climatic conditions.

OR

### Explain the three categories of social forestry.

Social forestry is an approach to the management and conservation of forests that involves the active participation of local communities and individuals. It aims to meet the needs of the present generation while ensuring the sustainability of forests for future generations. There are three main categories or components of social forestry:

1. Farm Forestry:

• Farm forestry focuses on the integration of trees and forests into agricultural lands and farming practices.
• Under this category, farmers and landowners cultivate trees on their own land alongside crops and other agricultural activities.
• The primary objective is to promote the sustainable use of forest resources, enhance soil fertility, improve water retention, and provide additional income to farmers through the sale of timber, fruits, and other forest products.

2. Community Forestry:

• Community forestry involves the active participation of local communities in the management and protection of nearby forests and tree resources.
• In this approach, local communities are given rights and responsibilities for the sustainable management of forests and benefit-sharing from forest resources.
• It empowers communities to make decisions regarding forest management, conservation, and utilization, thereby promoting both conservation and livelihood improvement.

3. Urban and Peri-urban Forestry:

• Urban and peri-urban forestry focuses on the planting and management of trees and forests in and around urban areas, including cities and towns.
• This category addresses the growing need for green spaces in urban environments to improve air quality, provide shade, enhance aesthetics, and support urban biodiversity.
• It involves tree planting along streets, parks, schools, and public spaces, as well as the promotion of home and community gardening with trees and shrubs.

These three categories of social forestry collectively aim to achieve various objectives, such as environmental conservation, sustainable resource management, poverty alleviation, and the improvement of rural and urban livelihoods. Social forestry programs encourage the active involvement of individuals, communities, and institutions in the preservation and enhancement of forest resources, thereby contributing to both environmental sustainability and socio-economic development.

## [Section â€“ E]

### A) Flood prone area of Gujarat â€˜(B) Drought prone area on the west(C) Earthquake prone area in the northern India(D) Landslide prone area of south .(E) Most cyclone prone area of India(F) Northernmost state of India(G) Any one very high risk zone (Earthquake) area

(A) Sabarmati
(B) Gujarat
(C) Uttarakhand
(D) Andaman & Nicobar Islands
(E) Bay of Bengal
(F) Jammu and Kashmir

### 30. On the outline map of the world, locate and label any five of the following. 5

(A) Tropical Andes
(B) Atlantic Forest