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Laws of Exponents & Use of Exponents to Express Small Numbers in Standard Form – Exponents and Powers | Class 8 Maths
  • Last Updated : 15 Dec, 2020
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It is known that numbers can be expressed as xn where ‘x’ is called “Base” and ‘n’ is called as “Exponent”. In simple words, we can say that the Significance of the exponent is that it tells the number of times we need to multiply our base. There are certain Laws of exponents which will make the calculation easier and faster. Let’s us See Laws along with examples, in all the examples we have taken x as 5 for better understanding, x can be any number.    

Laws

Examples

 x0 = 150  = 1
 x1 = x51  = 5
 x-1 = 1 / x5-1  = 1 / 5 
xa xb = x(a + b)54 53 = 5(4 + 3) = 57
xa / xb = x(a b)56 / 5 = 5(6 2) = 54
(xa)b = x(a * b)(53)4 = 5(3 * 4) = 512
(xy)a = xaya   (5 * 6)2 = 52 * 62
(x/y)a = xa/ya(5/6)3 = 53/6 3
x-a  = 1/xa5-4 = 1/54

Let’s Discuss each of the laws in more detail

Law 1

If we have any number as base and exponent of that base is 0 then answer will be 1 .

For Example:  



 20 = 1 

 30 =1

120 = 1

Law 2

If we have any number as base and exponent of that base is 1 the answer is base itself.

For Example:  

71 = 7 

211 = 21

151 = 15

Law 3 

If we have any number as base and exponent of that base is -1 then  answer will be reciprocal of that base.

For Example: 

 8-1 = 1 / 8  

15-1 = 1 / 15 

27-1 = 1 / 27

Law 4

If  we have to multiply two numbers with same base and different exponents then 

xaxb = xa + b  

x3x = (x * x * x) * (x * x * x * x)

        = (x * x * x * x * x * x * x)

        = x(3 + 4) 



        = x7

For Example: 

2423  = 2(4 + 3)

            = 27

7574 = 7(5 + 4)

           = 79

(12)6(12)2 = 12(6 + 2)

                = 128

 Law 5

If we have to divide two numbers with same base and different exponents then

xa / xb  = xa – b

x5 / x3  = (x * x * x * x * x) / (x * x * x)

           = (x * x)= x(5 – 3)

               = x2

For Example:

  34 / 3 =  3(4 – 2)

              = 32

58 / 53   =  5(8 – 3)

             =  55

(13)7 / (13)5 = 13(7 – 5)

                    = 132

 Law 6

 (xa)b  =  xab

 (x2) 3 =  (x * x)3

          = (x * x) (x * x) (x * x) 

          = (x * x * x * x * x * x) =  x(2 * 3)

          = (x)6 

For Example:

(23)4 = 2(3 * 4)

           = 212

(52)3 = 5(2 * 3)

        = 56

(134)5 = (13)(4 * 5)

              = 1320

Law 7

If we have two numbers to multiply with different base but same exponent then

(x * y)a = xaya

(x * y)4 = (xy) (xy) (xy) (xy)

           = xyxyxyxy

           = xxxxyyyy = x4y4

For Example:

(5 * 4)2 = 52 * 42

(7 * 3)4 = 74 * 34

(12 * 32)9 = 129  * 329 

Law 8

If we have to divide two numbers with different base but same exponent then

(x / y)a = xa / y a

(x / y)3  = (x/y)(x/y)(x/y)

            = (x * x * x) / (y * y * y)

            = x / y3

For Example:

(2 / 3)4 = 24 / 34

(6 / 8)2 = 6 / 82

(15 / 27)8 = 15 / 278

Law 9

x-a = 1 / xa

For Example:

8 -2 = 1 / 8-2  

7-3 = 1 / 73

15-6 = 1 / 156

Use of Exponents to Express Small Number in Standard Form

What is a Standard Form of Number ??     

Many times it Happens that we encounter a number that is very small to read and write properly, so for that purpose, there’s a better way of Describing those small numbers in Standard form.

Examples:

  1. Diameter of a computer chip is 0.000003m = 3 * 10-6m
  2. Mass of dust particle is 0.000000000753 kg = 7.53 * 10-10 kg
  3. The length of the shortest visible wavelength of visible light (violet) is 0.0000004 m. = 4.0 * 10-7 m

These numbers are very small so we will convert them to standard form lets see the steps:

  • Step I: Move the Decimal to the right until there’s only 1(non-zero) Digit to the left of the decimal.
  • Step II: Suppose we have shifted the decimal by n place to right then multiply the remaining number by 10-n.

Examples:

  • 0.000000000753 =  7.53 * 10-10
  • 0.0000004           =  4 * 10-7
  • 0.0000000894     =  8.94 * 10-8
  • 0.00000000052   =  5.2 * 10-10

Attention reader! Don’t stop learning now. Get hold of all the important DSA concepts with the DSA Self Paced Course at a student-friendly price and become industry ready.

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