Open In App
Related Articles

Differences between Functional Components and Class Components

Improve
Improve
Improve
Like Article
Like
Save Article
Save
Report issue
Report

In this article, we will learn about the differences between functional and class components in React with the help of an example. We will create a counter and implement it using both class and functional components to understand the differences practically.

Functional Components

Functional components are some of the more common components that will come across while working in React. These are simply JavaScript functions. We can create a functional component to React by writing a JavaScript function.

Syntax:

const Car=()=> {
return <h2>Hi, I am also a Car!</h2>;
}

Counter using Functional Components

Example:

Javascript

import React, { useState } from "react";
  
const FunctionalComponent = () => {
    const [count, setCount] = useState(0);
  
    const increase = () => {
        setCount(count + 1);
    }
  
    return (
        <div style={{ margin: '50px' }}>
            <h1>Welcome to Geeks for Geeks </h1>
            <h3>Counter App using Functional Component : </h3>
            <h2>{count}</h2>
            <button onClick={increase}>Add</button>
        </div>
    )
}
  
export default FunctionalComponent;

                    

Output:

Class Component

This is the bread and butter of most modern web apps built in ReactJS. These components are simple classes (made up of multiple functions that add functionality to the application).

Syntax:

class Car extends React.Component {
render() {
return <h2>Hi, I am a Car!</h2>;
}
}

Counter using Class Components

Example:

Javascript

import React, { Component } from "react";
  
class ClassComponent extends React.Component {
    constructor() {
        super();
        this.state = {
            count: 0
        };
        this.increase = this.increase.bind(this);
    }
  
    increase() {
        this.setState({ count: this.state.count + 1 });
    }
  
    render() {
        return (
            <div style={{ margin: '50px' }}>
                <h1>Welcome to Geeks for Geeks </h1>
                <h3>Counter App using Class Component : </h3>
                <h2> {this.state.count}</h2>
                <button onClick={this.increase}> Add</button>
  
            </div>
        )
    }
}
  
export default ClassComponent;

                    

Output:

 

 

In the above example, for functional components, we use hooks (useState) to manage the state. If you write a function component and realize you need to add some state to it, previously you had to convert it to a class component. Now you can use a Hook inside the existing function component to manage the state and no need to convert it into the Class component. Hooks are a new addition to React 16.8. They let you use state and other React features without writing a class. Instead of Classes, one can use Hooks in the Functional component as this is a much easier way of managing the state. Hooks can only be used in functional components, not in-class components.

Functional Components vs Class Components:

                         Functional Components                                            Class Components                
A functional component is just a plain JavaScript pure function that accepts props as an argument and returns a React element(JSX). A class component requires you to extend from React. Component and create a render function that returns a React element.
There is no render method used in functional components. It must have the render() method returning JSX (which is syntactically similar to HTML)
Functional components run from top to bottom and once the function is returned it can’t be kept alive. The class component is instantiated and different life cycle method is kept alive and is run and invoked depending on the phase of the class component.
Also known as Stateless components as they simply accept data and display them in some form, they are mainly responsible for rendering UI. Also known as Stateful components because they implement logic and state.
React lifecycle methods (for example, componentDidMount) cannot be used in functional components. React lifecycle methods can be used inside class components (for example, componentDidMount).

Hooks can be easily used in functional components to make them Stateful.

Example:

const [name,SetName]= React.useState(' ')

It requires different syntax inside a class component to implement hooks.

Example:

constructor(props) {
   super(props);
   this.state = {name: ' '}
}
Constructors are not used. Constructor is used as it needs to store state. 


Last Updated : 02 Aug, 2023
Like Article
Save Article
Previous
Next
Share your thoughts in the comments
Similar Reads