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# DDA Line generation Algorithm in Computer Graphics

• Difficulty Level : Easy
• Last Updated : 19 Feb, 2021

In any 2-Dimensional plane if we connect two points (x0, y0) and (x1, y1), we get a line segment. But in the case of computer graphics, we can not directly join any two coordinate points, for that we should calculate intermediate points’ coordinates and put a pixel for each intermediate point, of the desired color with help of functions like putpixel(x, y, K) in C, where (x,y) is our co-ordinate and K denotes some color.
Examples:

```Input: For line segment between (2, 2) and (6, 6) :
we need (3, 3) (4, 4) and (5, 5) as our intermediate
points.

Input: For line segment between (0, 2) and (0, 6) :
we need (0, 3) (0, 4) and (0, 5) as our intermediate
points.```

For using graphics functions, our system output screen is treated as a coordinate system where the coordinate of the top-left corner is (0, 0) and as we move down our y-ordinate increases and as we move right our x-ordinate increases for any point (x, y).
Now, for generating any line segment we need intermediate points and for calculating them we can use a basic algorithm called DDA(Digital differential analyzer) line generating algorithm.

DDA Algorithm :
Consider one point of the line as (X0,Y0) and the second point of the line as (X1,Y1).

```// calculate dx , dy
dx = X1 - X0;
dy = Y1 - Y0;

// Depending upon absolute value of dx & dy
// choose number of steps to put pixel as
// steps = abs(dx) > abs(dy) ? abs(dx) : abs(dy)
steps = abs(dx) > abs(dy) ? abs(dx) : abs(dy);

// calculate increment in x & y for each steps
Xinc = dx / (float) steps;
Yinc = dy / (float) steps;

// Put pixel for each step
X = X0;
Y = Y0;
for (int i = 0; i <= steps; i++)
{
putpixel (round(X),round(Y),WHITE);
X += Xinc;
Y += Yinc;
}```

## C

 `// C program for DDA line generation``#include``#include``#include``//Function for finding absolute value``int` `abs` `(``int` `n)``{``    ``return` `( (n>0) ? n : ( n * (-1)));``}` `//DDA Function for line generation``void` `DDA(``int` `X0, ``int` `Y0, ``int` `X1, ``int` `Y1)``{``    ``// calculate dx & dy``    ``int` `dx = X1 - X0;``    ``int` `dy = Y1 - Y0;` `    ``// calculate steps required for generating pixels``    ``int` `steps = ``abs``(dx) > ``abs``(dy) ? ``abs``(dx) : ``abs``(dy);` `    ``// calculate increment in x & y for each steps``    ``float` `Xinc = dx / (``float``) steps;``    ``float` `Yinc = dy / (``float``) steps;` `    ``// Put pixel for each step``    ``float` `X = X0;``    ``float` `Y = Y0;``    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i <= steps; i++)``    ``{``        ``putpixel (round(X),round(Y),RED);  ``// put pixel at (X,Y)``        ``X += Xinc;           ``// increment in x at each step``        ``Y += Yinc;           ``// increment in y at each step``        ``delay(100);          ``// for visualization of line-``                             ``// generation step by step``    ``}``}` `// Driver program``int` `main()``{``    ``int` `gd = DETECT, gm;` `    ``// Initialize graphics function``    ``initgraph (&gd, &gm, ``""``);  ` `    ``int` `X0 = 2, Y0 = 2, X1 = 14, Y1 = 16;``    ``DDA(2, 2, 14, 16);``    ``return` `0;``}`

Output:

` `

• It is simple and easy to implement algorithm.
• It avoid using multiple operations which have high time complexities.
• It is faster than the direct use of the line equation because it does not use any floating point multiplication and it calculates points on the line.

• It deals with the rounding off operation and floating point arithmetic so it has high time complexity.
• As it is orientation dependent, so it has poor endpoint accuracy.
• Due to the limited precision in the floating point representation it produces cumulative error.

Bresenham’s Line Generation Algorithm