Greedy Algorithms | Set 5 (Prim’s Minimum Spanning Tree (MST))

We have discussed Kruskal’s algorithm for Minimum Spanning Tree. Like Kruskal’s algorithm, Prim’s algorithm is also a Greedy algorithm. It starts with an empty spanning tree. The idea is to maintain two sets of vertices. The first set contains the vertices already included in the MST, the other set contains the vertices not yet included. At every step, it considers all the edges that connect the two sets, and picks the minimum weight edge from these edges. After picking the edge, it moves the other endpoint of the edge to the set containing MST.
A group of edges that connects two set of vertices in a graph is called cut in graph theorySo, at every step of Prim’s algorithm, we find a cut (of two sets, one contains the vertices already included in MST and other contains rest of the verices), pick the minimum weight edge from the cut and include this vertex to MST Set (the set that contains already included vertices).

How does Prim’s Algorithm Work? The idea behind Prim’s algorithm is simple, a spanning tree means all vertices must be connected. So the two disjoint subsets (discussed above) of vertices must be connected to make a Spanning Tree. And they must be connected with the minimum weight edge to make it a Minimum Spanning Tree.

Algorithm
1) Create a set mstSet that keeps track of vertices already included in MST.
2) Assign a key value to all vertices in the input graph. Initialize all key values as INFINITE. Assign key value as 0 for the first vertex so that it is picked first.
3) While mstSet doesn’t include all vertices
….a) Pick a vertex u which is not there in mstSet and has minimum key value.
….b) Include u to mstSet.
….c) Update key value of all adjacent vertices of u. To update the key values, iterate through all adjacent vertices. For every adjacent vertex v, if weight of edge u-v is less than the previous key value of v, update the key value as weight of u-v

The idea of using key values is to pick the minimum weight edge from cut. The key values are used only for vertices which are not yet included in MST, the key value for these vertices indicate the minimum weight edges connecting them to the set of vertices included in MST.

Let us understand with the following example:

The set mstSet is initially empty and keys assigned to vertices are {0, INF, INF, INF, INF, INF, INF, INF} where INF indicates infinite. Now pick the vertex with minimum key value. The vertex 0 is picked, include it in mstSet. So mstSet becomes {0}. After including to mstSet, update key values of adjacent vertices. Adjacent vertices of 0 are 1 and 7. The key values of 1 and 7 are updated as 4 and 8. Following subgraph shows vertices and their key values, only the vertices with finite key values are shown. The vertices included in MST are shown in green color.

Pick the vertex with minimum key value and not already included in MST (not in mstSET). The vertex 1 is picked and added to mstSet. So mstSet now becomes {0, 1}. Update the key values of adjacent vertices of 1. The key value of vertex 2 becomes 8.

Pick the vertex with minimum key value and not already included in MST (not in mstSET). We can either pick vertex 7 or vertex 2, let vertex 7 is picked. So mstSet now becomes {0, 1, 7}. Update the key values of adjacent vertices of 7. The key value of vertex 6 and 8 becomes finite (7 and 1 respectively).

Pick the vertex with minimum key value and not already included in MST (not in mstSET). Vertex 6 is picked. So mstSet now becomes {0, 1, 7, 6}. Update the key values of adjacent vertices of 6. The key value of vertex 5 and 8 are updated.

We repeat the above steps until mstSet includes all vertices of given graph. Finally, we get the following graph.

How to implement the above algorithm?
We use a boolean array mstSet[] to represent the set of vertices included in MST. If a value mstSet[v] is true, then vertex v is included in MST, otherwise not. Array key[] is used to store key values of all vertices. Another array parent[] to store indexes of parent nodes in MST. The parent array is the output array which is used to show the constructed MST.

C/C++

// A C / C++ program for Prim's Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) algorithm. 
// The program is for adjacency matrix representation of the graph

#include <stdio.h>
#include <limits.h>

// Number of vertices in the graph
#define V 5

// A utility function to find the vertex with minimum key value, from
// the set of vertices not yet included in MST
int minKey(int key[], bool mstSet[])
{
   // Initialize min value
   int min = INT_MAX, min_index;

   for (int v = 0; v < V; v++)
     if (mstSet[v] == false && key[v] < min)
         min = key[v], min_index = v;

   return min_index;
}

// A utility function to print the constructed MST stored in parent[]
int printMST(int parent[], int n, int graph[V][V])
{
   printf("Edge   Weight\n");
   for (int i = 1; i < V; i++)
      printf("%d - %d    %d \n", parent[i], i, graph[i][parent[i]]);
}

// Function to construct and print MST for a graph represented using adjacency
// matrix representation
void primMST(int graph[V][V])
{
     int parent[V]; // Array to store constructed MST
     int key[V];   // Key values used to pick minimum weight edge in cut
     bool mstSet[V];  // To represent set of vertices not yet included in MST

     // Initialize all keys as INFINITE
     for (int i = 0; i < V; i++)
        key[i] = INT_MAX, mstSet[i] = false;

     // Always include first 1st vertex in MST.
     key[0] = 0;     // Make key 0 so that this vertex is picked as first vertex
     parent[0] = -1; // First node is always root of MST 

     // The MST will have V vertices
     for (int count = 0; count < V-1; count++)
     {
        // Pick thd minimum key vertex from the set of vertices
        // not yet included in MST
        int u = minKey(key, mstSet);

        // Add the picked vertex to the MST Set
        mstSet[u] = true;

        // Update key value and parent index of the adjacent vertices of
        // the picked vertex. Consider only those vertices which are not yet
        // included in MST
        for (int v = 0; v < V; v++)

           // graph[u][v] is non zero only for adjacent vertices of m
           // mstSet[v] is false for vertices not yet included in MST
           // Update the key only if graph[u][v] is smaller than key[v]
          if (graph[u][v] && mstSet[v] == false && graph[u][v] <  key[v])
             parent[v]  = u, key[v] = graph[u][v];
     }

     // print the constructed MST
     printMST(parent, V, graph);
}


// driver program to test above function
int main()
{
   /* Let us create the following graph
          2    3
      (0)--(1)--(2)
       |   / \   |
      6| 8/   \5 |7
       | /     \ |
      (3)-------(4)
            9          */
   int graph[V][V] = {{0, 2, 0, 6, 0},
                      {2, 0, 3, 8, 5},
                      {0, 3, 0, 0, 7},
                      {6, 8, 0, 0, 9},
                      {0, 5, 7, 9, 0},
                     };

    // Print the solution
    primMST(graph);

    return 0;
}

Java

// A Java program for Prim's Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) algorithm.
// The program is for adjacency matrix representation of the graph

import java.util.*;
import java.lang.*;
import java.io.*;

class MST
{
    // Number of vertices in the graph
    private	static final int V=5;

    // A utility function to find the vertex with minimum key
    // value, from the set of vertices not yet included in MST
    int minKey(int key[], Boolean mstSet[])
    {
        // Initialize min value
        int min = Integer.MAX_VALUE, min_index=-1;

        for (int v = 0; v < V; v++)
            if (mstSet[v] == false && key[v] < min)
            {
                min = key[v];
                min_index = v;
            }

        return min_index;
    }

    // A utility function to print the constructed MST stored in
    // parent[]
    void printMST(int parent[], int n, int graph[][])
    {
        System.out.println("Edge   Weight");
        for (int i = 1; i < V; i++)
            System.out.println(parent[i]+" - "+ i+"    "+
                               graph[i][parent[i]]);
    }

    // Function to construct and print MST for a graph represented
    //  using adjacency matrix representation
    void primMST(int graph[][])
    {
        // Array to store constructed MST
        int parent[] = new int[V];

        // Key values used to pick minimum weight edge in cut
        int key[] = new int [V];

        // To represent set of vertices not yet included in MST
        Boolean mstSet[] = new Boolean[V];

        // Initialize all keys as INFINITE
        for (int i = 0; i < V; i++)
        {
            key[i] = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
            mstSet[i] = false;
        }

        // Always include first 1st vertex in MST.
        key[0] = 0;     // Make key 0 so that this vertex is
                        // picked as first vertex
        parent[0] = -1; // First node is always root of MST

        // The MST will have V vertices
        for (int count = 0; count < V-1; count++)
        {
            // Pick thd minimum key vertex from the set of vertices
            // not yet included in MST
            int u = minKey(key, mstSet);

            // Add the picked vertex to the MST Set
            mstSet[u] = true;

            // Update key value and parent index of the adjacent
            // vertices of the picked vertex. Consider only those
            // vertices which are not yet included in MST
            for (int v = 0; v < V; v++)

                // graph[u][v] is non zero only for adjacent vertices of m
                // mstSet[v] is false for vertices not yet included in MST
                // Update the key only if graph[u][v] is smaller than key[v]
                if (graph[u][v]!=0 && mstSet[v] == false &&
                    graph[u][v] <  key[v])
                {
                    parent[v]  = u;
                    key[v] = graph[u][v];
                }
        }

        // print the constructed MST
        printMST(parent, V, graph);
    }

    public static void main (String[] args)
    {
        /* Let us create the following graph
           2    3
        (0)--(1)--(2)
        |    / \   |
        6| 8/   \5 |7
        | /      \ |
        (3)-------(4)
             9          */
        MST t = new MST();
        int graph[][] = new int[][] {{0, 2, 0, 6, 0},
                                    {2, 0, 3, 8, 5},
                                    {0, 3, 0, 0, 7},
                                    {6, 8, 0, 0, 9},
                                    {0, 5, 7, 9, 0},
                                   };

        // Print the solution
        t.primMST(graph);
    }
}
// This code is contributed by Aakash Hasija


Output:
Edge   Weight
0 - 1    2
1 - 2    3
0 - 3    6
1 - 4    5

Time Complexity of the above program is O(V^2). If the input graph is represented using adjacency list, then the time complexity of Prim’s algorithm can be reduced to O(E log V) with the help of binary heap. Please see Prim’s MST for Adjacency List Representation for more details.

Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above.









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  • Guest

    please mention the line of the program that assigns the parent of the first child of the root

  • steve

    hey friends i have a question here. i have a text file as shown below:

    A
    A-B:3
    A-C:4
    B-C:2
    D-C:1
    D-E:2

    here are the instructions: the first letter(A) on top can be any character as long as its one of the vertices of the graph and shows our starting node(vertex),from this node we should use prim alg.to calc the MST . then the data below the first row is the edges and their weights and should be dynamic meaning not constant. how do we go about that

  • Guest

    Why have you included limits.h ?

    • GeeksforGeeks

      For INT_MAX

      • Guest

        You don’t need to use this at all. You can use the maximum value stored in the graph itself – it is the last element in preorder and inorder traversal. For postorder you will need minimum number which is the first element so still O(1).

      • Guest

        You don’t need to use this at all. You can use the maximum value stored in the graph itself – it is the last element in preorder and inorder traversal. For postorder you will need minimum number which is the first element so still O(1).

  • Asif Raza

    I used a little bit different approach for implementing same algorithm.. Its all about how a person think to solve problem. Have look at my C++ code for Prim’s Algorithm

    http://in.docsity.com/en-docs/Prim_Algorithm_-_C_plus_plus_Code

  • racks786
     
    /* Paste your code here (You may delete these lines if not writing code) */
     
    • Alien

      Algorithm is already provided..

      Algorithm
      1) Create a set mstSet that keeps track of vertices already included in MST.
      2) Assign a key value to all vertices in the input graph. Initialize all key values as INFINITE. Assign key value as 0 for the first vertex so that it is picked first.
      3) While mstSet doesn’t include all vertices
      ….a) Pick a vertex u which is not there in mstSet and has minimum key value.
      ….b) Include u to mstSet.
      ….c) Update key value of all adjacent vertices of u. To update the key values, iterate through all adjacent vertices. For every adjacent vertex v, if weight of edge u-v is less than the previous key value of v, update the key value as weight of u-v

  • Srinivas Giduthuri

    Why can’t I pick vertex 2 instead of vertex 7 in step 3?

    • GeeksforGeeks

      You can pick 2 also. When there are edges of same wights, there may be more than one solutions (MSTs)

      • cooldude

        But if we pick 2 then mst net weight is 41 as compared to picking up7(weight=37) so will we have to take both cases nd compare

         
        /* Paste your code here (You may delete these lines if not writing code) */
         
        • GeeksforGeeks

          We should same weight minimum spannning tree (trees may be different, but weight must be same) by picking any of the same weight edges.
          You must be missing something in your calculations.

    • Momo

      For the first time ” minKey” should be called after the update operation for the first node adjacent vertices ,because it will return wrong answer for the condition “key[v] <= min" (if written in place of "key[v] < min").

    • Kunal Chopra

      I am getting error :: ) expected at line 6..
      what to do?