The Internet and the Web
1. The Internet: In simplest terms, the Internet is a global network comprised of smaller networks that are interconnected using standardized communication protocols. The Internet standards describe a framework known as the Internet protocol suite. This model divides methods into a layered system of protocols.
These layers are as follows:
- Application layer (highest) – concerned with the data(URL, type, etc.). This is where HTTP, HTTPS, etc., comes in.
- Transport layer – responsible for end-to-end communication over a network.
- Network layer – provides data route.
The Internet provides a variety of information and communication facilities; contains forums, databases, email, hypertext, etc. It consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies.
2. The World Wide Web: The Web is the only way to access information through the Internet. It’s a system of Internet servers that support specially formatted documents. The documents are formatted in a markup language called HTML, or “HyperText Markup Language”, which supports a number of features including links and multimedia. These documents are interlinked using hypertext links and are accessible via the Internet.
To link hypertext to the Internet, we need:
- The markup language, i.e., HTML.
- The transfer protocol, e.g., HTTP.
- Uniform Resource Locator (URL), the address of the resource.
We access the Web using Web browsers.
Difference between Web and Internet:
|The Internet is the network of networks and the network allows to exchange of data between two or more computers.||The Web is a way to access information through the Internet.|
|It is also known as the Network of Networks.||The Web is a model for sharing information using the Internet.|
|The Internet is a way of transporting information between devices.||The protocol used by the web is HTTP.|
|Accessible in a variety of ways.||The Web is accessed by the Web Browser.|
|Network protocols are used to transport data.||Accesses documents and online sites through browsers.|
|Global network of networks||Collection of interconnected websites|
|Access Can be accessed using various devices||Accessed through a web browser|
|Connectivity Network of networks that allows devices to communicate and exchange data||Connectivity Allows users to access and view web pages, multimedia content, and other resources over the Internet|
|Protocols TCP/IP, FTP, SMTP, POP3, etc.||Protocols HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, SMTP, etc.|
|Infrastructure Consists of routers, switches, servers, and other networking hardware||Infrastructure Consists of web servers, web browsers, and other software and hardware|
|Used for communication, sharing of resources, and accessing information from around the world||Used for publishing and accessing web pages, multimedia content, and other resources on the Internet|
|No single creator||Creator Tim Berners-Lee|
|Provides the underlying infrastructure for the Web, email, and other online services||Provides a platform for publishing and accessing information and resources on the Internet|
URI: URI stands for ‘Uniform Resource Identifier’. A URI can be a name, locator, or both for an online resource whereas a URL is just the locator. URLs are a subset of URIs. A URL is a human-readable text that was designed to replace the numbers (IP addresses) that computers use to communicate with servers.
A URL consists of a protocol, domain name, and path (which includes the specific subfolder structure where a page is located) like-
- Protocol – HTTP or HTTPS.
- WebSiteName – geeksforgeeks, google etc.
- topLevelDomain- .com, .edu, .in etc.
- path- specific folders and/or subfolders that are on a given website.
Who governs the Internet?
The Internet is not governed and has no single authority figure. The ultimate authority for where the Internet is going rests with the Internet Society, or ISOC.
ISOC is a voluntary membership organization whose purpose is to promote global information exchange through Internet technology.
- ISOC appoints the IAB- Internet Architecture Board. They meet regularly to review standards and allocate resources, like addresses.
- IETF- Internet Engineering Task Force. Another volunteer organization that meets regularly to discuss operational and technical problems.
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