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The Internet and the Web

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Introduction  :

The internet is a global network of interconnected computers and servers that allows people to communicate, share information, and access resources from anywhere in the world. It was created in the 1960s by the US Department of Defense as a way to connect computers and share information between researchers and scientists.

The World Wide Web, or simply the web, is a system of interconnected documents and resources, linked together by hyperlinks and URLs. It was created by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 as a way for scientists to share information more easily. The web quickly grew to become the most popular way to access information on the internet.

Together, the internet and the web have revolutionized the way we communicate, do business, and access information. They have made it possible for people all over the world to connect with each other instantly and have transformed many industries, from media and entertainment to education and healthcare.

 1. The Internet: In simplest terms, the Internet is a global network comprised of smaller networks that are interconnected using standardized communication protocols. The Internet standards describe a framework known as the Internet protocol suite. This model divides methods into a layered system of protocols. 

These layers are as follows:

  1. Application layer (highest) – concerned with the data(URL, type, etc.). This is where HTTP, HTTPS, etc., comes in.
  2. Transport layer – responsible for end-to-end communication over a network.
  3. Network layer – provides data route. 

The Internet provides a variety of information and communication facilities; contains forums, databases, email, hypertext, etc. It consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. 

2. The World Wide Web: The Web is the only way to access information through the Internet. It’s a system of Internet servers that support specially formatted documents. The documents are formatted in a markup language called HTML, or “HyperText Markup Language”, which supports a number of features including links and multimedia. These documents are interlinked using hypertext links and are accessible via the Internet. 

To link hypertext to the Internet, we need: 

  1. The markup language, i.e., HTML.
  2. The transfer protocol, e.g., HTTP.
  3. Uniform Resource Locator (URL), the address of the resource. 

We access the Web using Web browsers

Difference between Web and Internet:

InternetWeb
The Internet is the network of networks and the network allows to exchange of data between two or more computers.                                                                                                                                                 The Web is a way to access information through the Internet.
It is also known as the Network of Networks.The Web is a model for sharing information using the Internet.                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
The Internet is a way of transporting information between devices.The protocol used by the web is HTTP.
Accessible in a variety of ways.The Web is accessed by the Web Browser.
Network protocols are used to transport data.Accesses documents and online sites through browsers.
 Global network of networksCollection of interconnected websites
Access Can be accessed using various devicesAccessed through a web browser
Connectivity Network of networks that allows devices to communicate and exchange dataConnectivity Allows users to access and view web pages, multimedia content, and other resources over the Internet
Protocols TCP/IP, FTP, SMTP, POP3, etc.Protocols HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, SMTP, etc.
Infrastructure Consists of routers, switches, servers, and other networking hardwareInfrastructure Consists of web servers, web browsers, and other software and hardware
 Used for communication, sharing of resources, and accessing information from around the worldUsed for publishing and accessing web pages, multimedia content, and other resources on the Internet
No single creatorCreator Tim Berners-Lee
Provides the underlying infrastructure for the Web, email, and other online servicesProvides a platform for publishing and accessing information and resources on the Internet

URI: URI stands for ‘Uniform Resource Identifier’. A URI can be a name, locator, or both for an online resource whereas a URL is just the locator. URLs are a subset of URIs.  A URL is a human-readable text that was designed to replace the numbers (IP addresses) that computers use to communicate with servers.

A URL consists of a protocol, domain name, and path (which includes the specific subfolder structure where a page is located) like-

       protocol://WebSiteName.topLevelDomain/path

  1. Protocol – HTTP or HTTPS.
  2. WebSiteName – geeksforgeeks, google etc.
  3. topLevelDomain- .com, .edu, .in etc.
  4. path- specific folders and/or subfolders that are on a given website.

Who governs the Internet? 

The Internet is not governed and has no single authority figure. The ultimate authority for where the Internet is going rests with the Internet Society, or ISOC. 
ISOC is a voluntary membership organization whose purpose is to promote global information exchange through Internet technology.  

  • ISOC appoints the IAB- Internet Architecture Board. They meet regularly to review standards and allocate resources, like addresses.
  • IETF- Internet Engineering Task Force. Another volunteer organization that meets regularly to discuss operational and technical problems. 

Uses of Internet and the Web :

  1. Communication: The internet and web have made communication faster and easier than ever before. We can now send emails, chat online, make video calls, and use social media platforms to connect with people all over the world.
  2. Information sharing: The web has made it possible to access vast amounts of information on any topic from anywhere in the world. We can read news articles, watch videos, listen to podcasts, and access online libraries and databases.
  3. Online shopping: The internet and web have revolutionized the way we shop. We can now browse and purchase products online, from clothes and groceries to electronics and furniture.
  4. Entertainment: The internet and web provide a wealth of entertainment options, from streaming movies and TV shows to playing online games and listening to music.
  5. Education: The web has made it possible to access educational resources from anywhere in the world. We can take online courses, access e-books and digital libraries, and connect with educators and other learners through online communities.
  6. Business: The internet and web have transformed the way businesses operate. Companies can now use e-commerce platforms to sell products and services, collaborate with remote workers, and access global markets.
  7. Research: The internet and web have made it easier for researchers to access and share information. We can now access scientific journals and databases, collaborate with other researchers online, and conduct surveys and experiments through online platforms.

Issues in Internet and the Web :

  1. Privacy and security: The internet and web are vulnerable to various security threats, such as hacking, identity theft, and phishing attacks. These threats can compromise our personal information, such as login credentials, financial information, and personal data.
  2. Cyberbullying: The anonymity of the internet and web can lead to cyberbullying, where individuals are harassed or threatened online. Cyberbullying can have severe consequences, including depression, anxiety, and suicide.
  3. Online addiction: The internet and web can be addictive, and individuals can spend hours browsing social media or playing online games, leading to neglect of other important aspects of their lives.
  4. Disinformation: The internet and web are filled with inaccurate or false information, which can lead to misinformation, propaganda, and conspiracy theories.
  5. Digital divide: Access to the internet and web is not universal, and many individuals, particularly those in low-income areas or rural communities, lack access to reliable and high-speed internet.
  6. Online censorship: Some governments or organizations may censor or restrict access to certain websites or information, limiting freedom of speech and expression.
  7. Environmental impact: The internet and web consume a significant amount of energy, contributing to carbon emissions and climate change.


Last Updated : 10 Apr, 2023
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