Substitution Cipher

Hiding some data is known as encryption. When plain text is encrypted it becomes unreadable and is known as ciphertext. In a Substitution cipher, any character of plain text from the given fixed set of characters is substituted by some other character from the same set depending on a key. For example with a shift of 1, A would be replaced by B, B would become C, and so on.

Note: Special case of Substitution cipher is known as Caesar cipher where the key is taken as 3.

Mathematical representation

The encryption can be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,…, Z = 25. Encryption of a letter by a shift n can be described mathematically as.

E_n(x)=(x+n)mod\ 26
(Encryption Phase with shift n)

D_n(x)=(x-n)mod\ 26
(Decryption Phase with shift n)



substitution-cipher

Examples:

Plain Text: I am studying Data Encryption
Key: 4
Output: M eq wxyhCmrk Hexe IrgvCtxmsr

Plain Text: ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Key: 4
Output: EFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcd

Algorithm for Substitution Cipher:
Input:

  • A String of both lower and upper case letters, called PlainText.
  • An Integer denoting the required key.

Procedure:

  • Create a list of all the characters.
  • Create a dictionary to store the subtitution for all characters.
  • For each character, transform the given character as per the rule, depending on whether we’re encrypting or decrypting the text.
  • Print the new string generated.

Below is the implementation.

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# Python program to demonstrate
# Substitution Cipher
  
  
import string
  
  
# A list containing all characters
all_letters= string.ascii_letters
   
      
""" 
create a dictionary to store the substitution 
for the given alphabet in the plain text 
based on the key
"""
   
      
dict1 = {}
key = 4
   
for i in range(len(all_letters)):
    dict1[all_letters[i]] = all_letters[(i+key)%len(all_letters)]
   
   
plain_txt= "I am studying Data Encryption"
cipher_txt=[]
   
# loop to generate ciphertext
   
for char in plain_txt:
    if char in all_letters:
        temp = dict1[char]
        cipher_txt.append(temp)
    else:
        temp =char
        cipher_txt.append(temp)
          
cipher_txt= "".join(cipher_txt)
print("Cipher Text is: ",cipher_txt)
   
      
""" 
create a dictionary to store the substitution
for the given alphabet in the cipher 
text based on the key
"""
   
      
dict2 = {}     
for i in range(len(all_letters)):
    dict2[all_letters[i]] = all_letters[(i-key)%(len(all_letters))]
       
# loop to recover plain text
decrypt_txt = []
  
for char in cipher_txt:
    if char in all_letters:
        temp = dict2[char]
        decrypt_txt.append(temp)
    else:
        temp = char
        decrypt_txt.append(temp)
          
decrypt_txt = "".join(decrypt_txt)
print("Recovered plain text :", decrypt_txt) 

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Output:

Cipher Text is:  M eq wxyhCmrk Hexe IrgvCtxmsr
Recovered plain text : I am studying Data Encryption

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My Personal Notes arrow_drop_up

Ami Munshi is an Asst Professor with MPSTME, Mumbai (NMIMS University) with the Electronics and Telecommunications specialization Focus areas on GfG Application of Python3 libs for Data/Image compression, Encryption, Data Science and Analytics applications

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