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Basics of Wi-Fi

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We’ve been studying a lot about the Wired Network. Ethernet is the most common example. Wired networks differ from wireless which uses radio waves rather than transmitting electrical signals over the cables. Wi-Fi stands for Wireless Fidelity. It is a technology for wireless local area networking with devices based on IEEE 802.11 standards. Wi-Fi compatible devices can connect to the internet via WLAN network and a wireless access point abbreviated as AP. Every WLAN has an access point which is responsible for receiving and transmitting data from/to users. IEEE has defined certain specifications for wireless LAN, called IEEE 802.11 which covers physical and data link layers. Access Point(AP) is a wireless LAN base station that can connect one or many wireless devices simultaneously to internet.   The architecture of this standard has 2 kinds of services: 1. BSS (Basic Service Set) 2. ESS (Extended Service Set)   BSS is the basic building block of WLAN. It is made of wireless mobile stations and an optional central base station called Access Point. Stations can form a network without an AP and can agree to be a part of a BSS. A BSS without an AP cannot send data to other BSSs and defines a standalone network. It is called Ad-hoc network or Independent BSS(IBSS).i.e A BSS without AP is an ad-hoc network. A BSS with AP is infrastructure network. The figure below depicts an IBSS, BSS with the green coloured box depicting an AP. IMG_20161130_175606 ESS is made up of 2 or more BSSs with APs. BSSs are connected to the distribution system via their APs. The distribution system can be any IEEE LAN such as Ethernet.   ESS has 2 kinds of stations: 1. Mobile – stations inside the BSS 2. Stationary – AP stations that are part of wired LAN. IMG_20161130_175628 The topmost green box represents the distribution system and the other 2 green boxes represent the APs of 2 BSSs. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article and mail your article to See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

 Features of Wi-Fi include:

Wireless Connectivity: Wi-Fi allows devices to connect to a network without the use of physical cables, providing greater mobility and flexibility.

High Speed: Wi-Fi networks can provide high-speed internet access, allowing users to download and upload data quickly.

Easy Setup: Wi-Fi networks are easy to set up and configure, requiring minimal technical knowledge. Most modern devices come with Wi-Fi connectivity built-in.

Multiple Device Connectivity: Wi-Fi networks can support multiple devices at the same time, allowing multiple users to connect to the same network and access the internet simultaneously.

Security: Wi-Fi networks can be secured using encryption and other security measures, which protect against unauthorized access and hacking.

Range: Wi-Fi networks can cover a wide range of distances, depending on the type of router and the environment in which it is used.

Compatibility: Wi-Fi is a widely adopted technology and is compatible with a wide range of devices, including smartphones, laptops, tablets, and smart home devices.

Interference: Wi-Fi signals can be subject to interference from other wireless devices and physical barriers, such as walls and buildings, which can impact network performance.

Reliability: Wi-Fi networks can sometimes suffer from dropouts or signal loss, particularly in areas with high network congestion or interference.

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Last Updated : 25 Mar, 2023
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