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NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Social Science Chapter 5: Pastoralists in the Modern World

Last Updated : 22 Apr, 2024
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NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Social Science Chapter 5 – Pastoralists in the Modern World: Nomads are individuals who do not reside in a fixed location but instead migrate from one area to another to sustain themselves. Even in contemporary society, nomadic groups and communities can be found worldwide, lacking permanent dwellings. Among these nomadic groups, there exists a specific type known as pastoral nomads, who herd cattle and move in search of grazing grounds for their livestock. Engaging with the exercises outlined in Chapter 5 – Pastoralists in the Modern World can aid students in assessing their preparedness and comprehension of key concepts.

Accessing the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History about these exercises in their textbooks can facilitate students in resolving any uncertainties they may encounter.


NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Social Science Chapter 5: Pastoralists in the Modern World

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Social Science Chapter 5: Pastoralists in the Modern World

Chapter 5 of CBSE Class 9 History talks about people who move around with their animals and how colonialism changed their lives. These folks, called pastoralists, move because they need good places for their animals to eat. When winter comes and snow covers the grass, they move to lower places. And when winter ends, they go back to the higher areas.

Q.1 Explain why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another. What are the advantages to the environment of this continuous movement?


Nomadic tribes migrate to sustain their livelihoods, primarily through animal rearing. Access to water and fresh grazing land for their livestock is crucial for their survival. When the pasture becomes exhausted, they relocate to new areas in search of better grazing grounds.

The environmental benefits are as follows:

  • The environment has a chance to rejuvenate and restore itself, maintaining the ecological balance of the region.
  • It prevents overgrazing, which could exhaust future grazing areas.
  • Animal manure enriches the soil, facilitating the cyclical nomadic movement from one location to another.

Q.2 Discuss why the colonial Government in India brought in the following laws. In each case, explain how the law changed the lives of the pastoralists.

  1. Wasteland Rules
  2. Forest Acts
  3. Criminal Tribes Act
  4. Grazing Tax


1. Barren land regulations: The colonial administration viewed all uncultivated or barren lands as unproductive because they didn’t generate revenue or agricultural output. To cultivate these “barren” lands, Waste Land Rules were implemented across India from the mid-1800s. These lands were granted to selected individuals with various incentives to encourage settlement. Many of these lands were previously utilized by nomadic herders for grazing. Consequently, the expansion of cultivation led to a reduction in available pastures, posing a problem for herders.

2. Forest legislation: Various forest laws were enacted to exploit commercially valuable timber such as deodar or sal. Certain forest areas were designated as “Reserved” , barring access to herders. In areas labeled as “Protected,” herders retained some traditional grazing rights, albeit with severe restrictions on their movements. These laws were enacted because colonial authorities believed that grazing harmed the roots and fertility of forests. This significantly restricted the movements of herders, controlling the duration and timing of their presence in forests. Their lives became subject to permits issued by forest departments.

3. Criminal Tribes Act: Nomadic communities were viewed with suspicion and disdain by British authorities. Their constant movement in search of grazing lands made them difficult to track and control. In contrast, settled communities were perceived as peaceful and law-abiding. To exert control over nomadic and pastoralist groups, the British enacted the Criminal Tribes Act in 1871. This legislation classified communities of artisans, merchants, and herders as inherently criminal by birth. Under this act, these communities were compelled to settle in one location and were prohibited from moving without permits. Village police closely monitored their activities as a result.

4. Grazing levy: To bolster revenue, the colonial government imposed taxes on land, salt, canal water, and livestock. Pastoralists were required to pay a tax for each animal they grazed on pastures. The Grazing Tax was introduced in India in the mid-1800s. By the 1850s, the right to collect these taxes was auctioned to contractors. These contractors sought to maximize tax collection to recoup their payments to the government. To reduce their tax burden, pastoralists had to decrease the number of animals they grazed.

Q.3 Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands.


In the late 1800s, during the period known as the ‘scramble for Africa,’ European countries divided up the region into colonies without considering the feelings of the local people. In 1885, Maasailand, the homeland of the Maasai people, was split in half by a border between British Kenya and German Tanzania. This left the best grazing lands for white settlers, while the Maasai were confined to a small area in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania. Moreover, large grazing areas were transformed into game reserves, such as the Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya, and Serengeti Park in Tanzania. Pastoralists were banned from entering these reserves; they couldn’t hunt animals or graze their herds there.

Q.4 There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Write about any two examples of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders.


India and East Africa were both under the control of European colonial powers, and they faced similar forms of exploitation.

1. Forest Laws

In both India and Africa, various forest laws significantly impacted the lives of pastoralists. In India, forests were designated as reserved or protected, barring pastoralists from accessing reserved areas. The Maasai people encountered challenges due to the continual loss of their grazing lands. The colonial government increased the number of local farmers to expand cultivation.

2. Border Closure

In Africa, Maasailand was divided by the international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika. The best land was taken over by white settlers, forcing locals into smaller areas with limited pastures. Similarly, in India, the country’s partition compelled the Raikas to seek new pastures in Haryana as they were no longer permitted to access Sindh, which had become part of Pakistan. The herders were restricted from traveling to Sindh after it became a province of Pakistan.

Pastoralism in the Modern World Summary

The NCERT Class 9 India and the Contemporary World – II Chapter 5 talks about the following topics:

1. Pastoral Nomads and Their Movements

1.1 In the Mountains

1.2 On the Plateaus, Plains and Deserts

2. Colonial Rule and Pastoral Life

2.1 How Did These Changes Affect the Lives of Pastoralists?

2.2 How Did the Pastoralists Cope with These Changes?

3. Pastoralism in Africa

3.1 Where Have the Grazing Lands Gone?

3.2 The Borders Are Closed

3.3 When Pastures Dry

Also Read:

FAQs – NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Social Science Chapter 5: Pastoralists in the Modern World

What are some of the problems that pastoralists face in the modern world class 9?

In the modern world, the life of pastoralists changed largely. Their grazing grounds shrank, their movements were regulated and the revenue they had to pay increased. Colonial powers thought all uncultivated land as unproductive.

Who were pastoral nomads Class 9?

Nomads are people who do not live at one place but move from one area to another to earn their living. In many parts of India, we can see nomadic pastoralists on the move with their herds of goats and sheep, or camels and cattle.

What are the various forms of pastoralism Class 9?

There are essentially two forms of pastoralism. They are known as nomadism and transhumance. Pastoral nomads follow a seasonal migratory pattern that can vary from year to year. The timing and destinations of migrations are determined primarily by the needs of the herd animals for water and fodder.

What is the Forest Act Class 9 history Chapter 5?

The Forest Act ensured that the total wealth of these forests could be enjoyed by the colonists alone, as no one was allowed access to these forests. Under this Act nomads were not allowed to graze their cattle in these forests. They had to get permit to graze their cattle in a few of these forests.

What are the main points of pastoralists in the modern world?

The pastoralists were the nomadic tribes. For their cattle, they required grazing land. So, when the mountains were covered in snow in the winter, they had to descend in search of milder locations where the cattle could graze on plants and greenery. They would return to the highlands once the winter had passed.

What are pastoralists in the modern world class 9 chapter 5?

Pastoralists are the indigenous people whom we address as nomads. They used to scout different areas from time to time to find pastures for their animals to graze. They have a rich history of migration from the mountain ranges to the plain land.

What are the main characteristic features of pastoralism Class 9?

Pastoralism is concerned with the raising of livestock for various purposes. pastoralists are usually nomadic people who move from one place to another in search of good pastures. Apart from grazing their cows pastoralists also practise agriculture or some petty work.

Which are the three major areas of nomadic pastoralism in the world?

Of the estimated 30 to 40 million nomadic pastoralists worldwide, most are found in central Asia and the Sahel region of North and West Africa, such as Fulani, Tuaregs, and Toubou, with some also in the Middle East, such as traditionally Bedouins, and in other parts of Africa, such as Nigeria and Somalia.

What are pastoral nomads and their movements notes?

They kept travelling from one location to another. These people abandoned the land once it became unsuitable for cultivation. In the meantime, the forest reclaimed its territory. The cattle also provided manure to the farm through their excreta.

What are the short notes for pastoralists in modern world class 9?

The pastoralists were the nomadic tribes. For their cattle, they required grazing land. So, when the mountains were covered in snow in the winter, they had to descend in search of milder locations where the cattle could graze on plants and greenery. They would return to the highlands once the winter had passed.

What is the main occupation of pastoralists?

Most of these tribes raise cattle like goats, camels, sheep, donkeys etc. They sell their milk, hides, meat, fur, wool etc to earn a living. Most of these tribes also combine other activities with the cattle herding. They practice agriculture, do odd jobs to supplement their income.

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