Skip to content
Related Articles

Related Articles

Introduction to Internet of Things (IoT) | Set 1

Improve Article
Save Article
  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 03 Jul, 2022
Improve Article
Save Article

Internet of Things (IoT) is the networking of physical objects that contain electronics embedded within their architecture in order to communicate and sense interactions amongst each other or with respect to the external environment. In the upcoming years, IoT-based technology will offer advanced levels of services and practically change the way people lead their daily lives. Advancements in medicine, power, gene therapies, agriculture, smart cities, and smart homes are just a very few of the categorical examples where IoT is strongly established. 

IoT is network of interconnected computing devices which are embedded in everyday objects, enabling them to send and receive data.

Over 9 billion ‘Things’ (physical objects) are currently connected to the Internet, as of now. In the near future, this number is expected to rise to a whopping 20 billion. 

 Main components used in IoT: 

  • Low-power embedded systems: Less battery consumption, high performance are the inverse factors that play a significant role during the design of electronic systems. 
  • Sensors : Sensors are the major part of any IoT applications. It is a physical device that measures and detect certain physical quantity and convert it into   signal which can be provide as an input to processing or control unit for analysis purpose.
  1. Different types of Sensors :
  2. Temperature Sensors
  3. Image Sensors
  4. Gyro Sensors
  5. Obstacle Sensors
  6. RF Sensor
  7. IR Sensor
  8. MQ-02/05 Gas Sensor
  9. LDR Sensor
  10. Ultrasonic Distance Sensor
  • Control Units : It is a unit of small computer on a single integrated circuit containing microprocessor or processing core, memory and programmable input/output devices/peripherals. It is responsible for major processing work of IoT devices and all logical operations are carried out here.
  • Cloud computing: Data collected through IoT devices is massive and this data has to be stored on a reliable storage server. This is where cloud computing comes into play. The data is processed and learned, giving more room for us to discover where things like electrical faults/errors are within the system. 
  • Availability of big data: We know that IoT relies heavily on sensors, especially in real-time. As these electronic devices spread throughout every field, their usage is going to trigger a massive flux of big data. 
  • Networking connection: In order to communicate, internet connectivity is a must where each physical object is represented by an IP address. However, there are only a limited number of addresses available according to the IP naming. Due to the growing number of devices, this naming system will not be feasible anymore. Therefore, researchers are looking for another alternative naming system to represent each physical object.

There are two ways of building IoT: 

  1. Form a separate internetwork including only physical objects. 
     
  2. Make the Internet ever more expansive, but this requires hard-core technologies such as rigorous cloud computing and rapid big data storage (expensive).

In the near future, IoT will become broader and more complex in terms of scope. It will change the world in terms of 
 

“anytime, anyplace, anything in connectivity.”

 
IoT Enablers:

  • RFIDs: uses radio waves in order to electronically track the tags attached to each physical object.
  • Sensors: devices that are able to detect changes in an environment (ex: motion detectors).
  • Nanotechnology: as the name suggests, these are extremely small devices with dimensions usually less than a hundred nanometers.
  • Smart networks: (ex: mesh topology). 
     

Working with IoT Devices :

  • Collect and Transmit Data : For this purpose sensors are widely used they are used as per requirements in different application areas.
  • Actuate device based on triggers produced by sensors or processing devices : If certain condition is satisfied or according to user’s requirements if certain trigger is activated then which action to performed that is shown by Actuator devices. 
  • Receive Information : From network devices user or device can take certain information also for their analysis and processing purposes.
  • Communication Assistance : Communication assistance is the phenomena of communication between 2 network or communication between 2 or more IoT devices of same or different Networks. This can be achieved by different communication protocols like : MQTT , Constrained Application Protocol, ZigBee, FTP, HTTP etc.

Working of IoT

Characteristics of IoT: 

  • Massively scalable and efficient
  • IP-based addressing will no longer be suitable in the upcoming future.
  • An abundance of physical objects is present that do not use IP, so IoT is made possible.
  • Devices typically consume less power. When not in use, they should be automatically programmed to sleep.
  • A device that is connected to another device right now may not be connected in another instant of time.
  • Intermittent connectivity – IoT devices aren’t always connected. In order to save bandwidth and battery consumption, devices will be powered off periodically when not in use. Otherwise, connections might turn unreliable and thus prove to be inefficient.
  • Desired Quality of any IoT Application :
  • Interconnectivity

It is the basic first requirement in any IoT infrastructure. Connectivity should be guaranteed from any devices on any network then only devices in a network can communicate with each other.

  • Heterogeneity

There can be diversity in IoT enabled devices like different hardware and software configuration or different network topologies or connections but they should connect and interact with each other despite of so much heterogeneity.

  • Dynamic in nature

IoT devices should dynamically adapt themselves to the changing surroundings like different situation and different prefaces.

  • Self adapting and self configuring technology

For example surveillance camera. It should be flexible to work in different weather conditions and different light situations (morning, afternoon, or night).

  • Intelligence

Just data collection is not enough in IoT, extraction of knowledge from the generated data is very important. For example, sensors generate data, but that data will only be useful if it is interpreted properly. So intelligence is one of the key characteristics in IoT. Because data interpretation is the major part in any IoT application because without data processing we can’t make any insights from data . Hence big data is also one of the most enabling technology in IoT field.

  • Scalability

The number of elements (devices) connected to IoT zone is increasing day by day. Therefore, an IoT setup should be capable of handling the expansion. It can be either expand capability in terms of processing power, Storage, etc. as vertical scaling or horizontal scaling by multiplying with easy cloning

  • Identity

Each IoT device has a unique identity (e.g., an IP address). This identity is helpful in communication, tracking and to know status of the things. If there is no identification then it will directly effect security and safety of any system because without discrimination we can’t identify with whom one network is connected or with whom we have to communicate. So there should be clear and appropriate discrimination technology available between IoT networks and devices.

  • Safety

Sensitive personal details of a user might be compromised when the devices are connected to the Internet. So data security is a major challenge. This could cause a loss to the user. Equipment in the huge IoT network may also be at risk. Therefore, equipment safety is also critical.

  • Architecture

It should be hybrid, supporting different manufacturer’s products to function in the IoT network.

As a quick note, IoT incorporates trillions of sensors, billions of smart systems, and millions of applications. 

Application Domains: IoT is currently found in four different popular domains: 

1) Manufacturing/Industrial business - 40.2%
2) Healthcare - 30.3%
3) Security - 7.7%
4) Retail - 8.3% 

Modern Applications: 

  1. Smart Grids and energy saving
  2. Smart cities
  3. Smart homes/Home automation
  4. Healthcare
  5. Earthquake detection
  6. Radiation detection/hazardous gas detection
  7. Smartphone detection
  8. Water flow monitoring
  9. Traffic monitoring
  10. Wearables
  11. Smart door lock protection system
  12. Robots and Drones
  13. Healthcare and Hospitals, Telemedicine applications
  14. Security
  15. Biochip Transponders(For animals in farms)
  16. Heart monitoring implants(Example Pacemaker, ECG real time tracking)

My Personal Notes arrow_drop_up
Related Articles

Start Your Coding Journey Now!