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Introduction to basic Networking Terminology

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  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 08 Jun, 2022
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For a specific purpose if things are connected together, are referred to as a NETWORK. A network can be of many types, like a telephone network, television network, computer network, or even a people network. 

Similarly, a COMPUTER NETWORK is also a kind of setup, where it connects two or more devices to share a range of services and information in the form of e-mails and messages, databases, documents, websites, audios and videos, telephone calls, and video conferences, etc. among them. 

A PROTOCOL is nothing but a set of defined rules, which has to be followed by every connected device across a network to communicate and share information among them. To facilitates End to End communication, a number of protocols worked together to form Protocol Suites or Stacks

Some basic Protocols are: 

  • IP : Internet Protocol
  • FTP : File Transfer Protocol
  • SMTP : Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
  • HTTP : Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

The Network reference models were developed to allow products from different manufacturers to interoperate on a network. A network reference model serves as a blueprint, detailing standards for how protocol communication should occur. 

The most widely recognized reference models are the Open Systems Interconnect ( OSI ) Model and Department of Defense ( DoD, also known as TCP/IP ) model. 

  • LANs (Local Area Networks)
  • MANs (Metropolitan Area Networks)
  • WANs (Wide Area Networks)

An Internetwork is a general term describing multiple networks connected together. The Internet is the largest and most well-known internetwork. 

  • SAN (Storage Area Network): A SAN provides systems with high-speed, lossless access to high-capacity storage devices.
  • VPN (Virtual Private Network): A VPN allows for information to be securely sent across a public or unsecured network, such as the Internet. Common uses of a VPN are to connect branch offices or remote users to the main office.
  • A host can act as a Client when he is requesting information.
  • A host can act as a Server when he provides information.
  • A host can also request and provide information, which is called Peer.

Refer to Set 1: Basics of Computer Networking

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