Introduction to basic Networking terminology

For a specific purpose if things are connected together, are referred as a NETWORK. A network can be of many types, like a telephone network, television network, computer network or even a people network.

Similarly, a COMPUTER NETWORK is also a kind of setup, where it connects two or more devices to share a range of services and information in the form of e-mails and messages, databases, documents, web-sites, audios and videoes, Telephone calls and video conferences etc among them.

A PROTOCOL is nothing but set of defined rules, which has to be followed by every connected devices across a network to communicate and share information among them. To facilitates End to End communication, a number of protocols worked together to form a Protocol Suites or Stacks.
Some basic Protocols are:

  • IP : Internet Protocol
  • FTP : File Transfer Protocol
  • SMTP : Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
  • HTTP : Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
  • The Network reference models were developed to allow products from different manufacturers to interoperate on a network. A network reference model serves as a blueprint, detailing standards for how protocol communication should occur.
    The most widely recognized reference models are, the Open Systems Interconnect ( OSI ) Model and Department of Defense ( DoD, also known as TCP/IP ) model.

      Network Types are often categorized by their size and functionality. According to the size, the network can be commonly categorized into Three types.

    • LANs (Local Area Networks)
    • MANs (Metropolitan Area Networks)
    • WANs (Wide Area Networks)

    An Internetwork is a general term describing multiple networks connected together. The Internet is the largest and most well-known internetwork.

      Some networks are categorized by their function, as opposed to their size. For example:

    • SAN (Storage Area Network): A SAN provides systems with high-speed, lossless access to high-capacity storage devices.
    • VPN (Virtual Private Network): A VPN allows for information to be securely sent across a public or unsecure network, such as the Internet. Common uses of a VPN are to connect branch offices or remote users to a main office.
      In a network, any connected device is called as host. A host can serve as following ways:

    • A host can acts as a Client, when he is requesting information.
    • A host can acts as a Server, when he provides information.
    • A host can also request and provide information, is called Peer.

    Refer for Set 1: Basics of Computer Networking.

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