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OSI Model Full Form in Computer Networking

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  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 06 Jun, 2022
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OSI stands for Open Systems Interconnection. The OSI model was developed by the International Organization for Standardization(ISO). It is a reference model for how applications communicate over a network. The OSI model characterizes computing functions into a universal set of rules and requirements to support interoperability between different products and software. 


The OSI model can be considered a universal language for computer networking. It is based on the concept of divide and conquers, it splits up the communication system into 7 abstract layers, and the layer is stacked upon the previous layer. 

Layers of OSI Model

OSI model has seven layers which are as follows: 

  1. The Physical Layer
  2. The Data Link Layer
  3. The Network Layer
  4. The Transport Layer
  5. The Session Layer
  6. The Presentation Layer
  7. The Application Layer

Functions of OSI model:

Functions of OSI

To learn more about layers, visit Layers of OSI Model 


  • It is the conceptual model that enables the diverse communication systems to communicate using the network.
  • It was developed by the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) in 1984.
  • It acts as an architecture for inter-computer communications.
  • It is divided into 7 layers and each layer performs a particular task.
  • Each layer is independent of the other and can perform its operations independently.


  • It is a layered model and each layer is independent. Thus, changes in one layer don’t affect the other layers.
  • It divides the complex function into smaller parts.
  • It is a generic model as it has the flexibility to adapt to many protocols.
  • It supports both connection-oriented as well as connectionless services.
  • It is more secure and adaptable than having all services bundled in a single layer.


  • It is purely a theoretical model and ignores the availability of resources and technologies. Hence, its practical implementation is somewhat restricted.
  • It is very complex. The initial implementation was cumbersome, slow, and costly.
  • The layers are interdependent, they can’t operate parallelly as they have to wait for the data/ packets from the predecessor layer.
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