Introduction of Classful IP Addressing

IP address is an address having information about how to reach a specific host, especially outside the LAN. An IP address is a 32 bit unique address having an address space of 232.
Generally, there are two notations in which IP address is written, dotted decimal notation and hexadecimal notation.

Dotted Decimal Notation:


 

Hexadecimal Notation:


Some points to be noted about dotted decimal notation:



  1. The value of any segment (byte) is between 0 and 255 (both included).
  2. There are no zeroes preceding the value in any segment (054 is wrong, 54 is correct).

 

Classful Addressing
The 32 bit IP address is divided into five sub-classes. These are:

  • Class A
  • Class B
  • Class C
  • Class D
  • Class E

Each of these classes has a valid range of IP addresses. Classes D and E are reserved for multicast and experimental purposes respectively. The order of bits in the first octet determine the classes of IP address.
IPv4 address is divided into two parts:

  • Network ID
  • Host ID

The class of IP address is used to determine the bits used for network ID and host ID and the number of total networks and hosts possible in that particular class. Each ISP or network administrator assigns IP address to each device that is connected to its network.





Note: IP addresses are globally managed by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA) and regional Internet registries(RIR).

Note: While finding the total number of host IP addresses, 2 IP addresses are not counted and are therefore, decreased from the total count because the first IP address of any network is the network number and whereas the last IP address is reserved for broadcast IP.

Class A:



IP address belonging to class A are assigned to the networks that contain a large number of hosts.

  • The network ID is 8 bits long.
  • The host ID is 24 bits long.

The higher order bit of the first octet in class A is always set to 0. The remaining 7 bits in first octet are used to determine network ID. The 24 bits of host ID are used to determine the host in any network. The default subnet mask for class A is 255.x.x.x. Therefore, class A has a total of:

  • 2^7-2= 126 network ID(Here 2 address is subracted because 0.0.0.0 and 127.x.y.z are special address. )
  • 2^24 – 2 = 16,777,214 host ID

IP addresses belonging to class A ranges from 1.x.x.x – 126.x.x.x

Class B:

IP address belonging to class B are assigned to the networks that ranges from medium-sized to large-sized networks.

  • The network ID is 16 bits long.
  • The host ID is 16 bits long.

The higher order bits of the first octet of IP addresses of class B are always set to 10. The remaining 14 bits are used to determine network ID. The 16 bits of host ID is used to determine the host in any network. The default sub-net mask for class B is 255.255.x.x. Class B has a total of:

  • 2^14 = 16384 network address
  • 2^16 – 2 = 65534 host address