Prerequisite – Differences between IPv4 and IPv6
In the current scenario, the IPv4 address is exhausted and IPv6 had come to overcome the limit.
Various organization is currently working with IPv4 technology and in one day we can’t switch directly from IPv4 to IPv6. Instead of only using IPv6, we use combination of both and transition means not replacing IPv4 but co-existing of both.
When we want to send a request from an IPv4 address to an IPv6 address, but it isn’t possible because IPv4 and IPv6 transition is not compatible. For a solution to this problem, we use some technologies. These technologies are Dual Stack Routers, Tunneling, and NAT Protocol Translation. These are explained as following below.
1. Dual-Stack Routers:
In dual-stack router, A router’s interface is attached with IPv4 and IPv6 addresses configured are used in order to transition from IPv4 to IPv6.
In this above diagram, A given server with both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses configured can communicate with all hosts of IPv4 and IPv6 via dual-stack router (DSR). The dual stack router (DSR) gives the path for all the hosts to communicate with the server without changing their IP addresses.
Tunneling is used as a medium to communicate the transit network with the different IP versions.
In this above diagram, the different IP versions such as IPv4 and IPv6 are present. The IPv4 networks can communicate with the transit or intermediate network on IPv6 with the help of the Tunnel. It’s also possible that the IPv6 network can also communicate with IPv4 networks with the help of a Tunnel.
3. NAT Protocol Translation:
With the help of the NAT Protocol Translation technique, the IPv4 and IPv6 networks can also communicate with each other which do not understand the address of different IP version.
Generally, an IP version doesn’t understand the address of different IP version, for the solution of this problem we use NAT-PT device which removes the header of first (sender) IP version address and add the second (receiver) IP version address so that the Receiver IP version address understand that the request is sent by the same IP version, and its vice-versa is also possible.
In the above diagram, an IPv4 address communicates with the IPv6 address via a NAT-PT device to communicate easily. In this situation, the IPv6 address understands that the request is sent by the same IP version (IPv6) and it responds.
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