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How to detect when an @Input() value changes in Angular?

  • Last Updated : 28 Jul, 2020

@Input() is basically a decorator to bind a property as an input. It is used to pass data i.e property binding from one component to other or we can say, from parent to child component. It is bound with the DOM element. When the DOM element value is changed, Angular automatically updates this property with the changed value. Here we will see how can we use it.

    Approach: @Input() can be used in two ways:

  • Two-way bindings with @Input()
  • One-way binding with ngOnChange() and @Input()
  • First, we will look at Two-way binding.
    Two-way binding combines input and output in a single notation using ngModel directive. The notation for two-way binding is [()].
    Here is how we will implement two-way binding. We have a component FormComponent (parent) and ChildComponent (child). When the user enters anything in the text input field of the parent component, the child component detects it.
    Implementation of Two-way binding:

    Here we are creating a parent component and adding child to it.
    form.component.html




    <div style="border: 1px solid rgb(46, 93, 194); 
                height: 25vh; 
                width: 35vw; 
                padding: 10px 10px; 
                margin: 20px;" >
        <b>Type here : </b>
           <input type="text" [(ngModel)]='text' /> 
        <child [message]='text'></child
    </div>

    In child component, we are passing a property ‘message’ which holds the value bound by the input element using ngModel. Here is the FormComponent class:



    form.component.ts




    import { Component, OnInit } from '@angular/core';
      
    @Component({
      selector: 'app-form',
      templateUrl: './form.component.html',
      styleUrls: ['./form.component.scss']
    })
    export class FormComponent implements OnInit {
      
      constructor() { }
      
      ngOnInit(): void {
      }
      public text : string;
    }

    This change will get reflected in child component. The ‘message’ will get displayed here. Here is the code for that:
    child.component.html




    <div style="border:1px solid rgb(53, 71, 131);
                width:30vw; 
                height: 12vh;
                padding: 10px 10px;
                margin:20px">
     <h4> You entered <span>{{message}}</span></h4>
       </div>

    In the ChildComponent class, we will import Input so as to detect the message from FormComponent class.

    child.component.ts




    import { Component, OnInit, Input } from '@angular/core';
      
    @Component({
      selector: 'child',
      templateUrl: './child.component.html',
      styleUrls: ['./child.component.scss']
    })
    export class ChildComponent {
      
    //message will detect the input from FormComponent.
      @Input() message:string; 
      constructor() { }
    }

    This was all about the Two-way binding. Now let’s see how to use One-way binding.

  • Implementation of One-way binding with ngOnChange() and @Input():

    Here is how we will use ngOnChange() to bind the input. The code for childComponent will be same as was the case with two-way binding. However, the FormComponent will have onChange() method getting called. Here is the code for that.
    form.component.html




    <div style="border: 1px solid rgb(46, 93, 194);
                height: 25vh; 
                width: 35vw; 
                padding: 10px 10px;
                margin: 20px;" >
      
        <b>Type here : </b>
           <input type="text" 
         [ngModel]='text' 
          (ngModelChange)='onChange($event)' />
        <child [message]='text'></child>
    </div>

    Notice the difference between this component and previous code showing Two-way binding. Here, ngModel and ngModelChange both are bound with input element. Since we are using onChange(), we do not need to use @Input() to detect the change.

    form.component.ts




    import { Component, OnInit } from '@angular/core';
      
    @Component({
      selector: 'app-form',
      templateUrl: './form.component.html',
      styleUrls: ['./form.component.scss']
    })
    export class FormComponent implements OnInit {
      
      constructor() { }
      
      ngOnInit(): void {
      }
      public text : string;
      onChange(UpdatedValue : string) :void
      {
        this.text = UpdatedValue;
      }
    }

Output:




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