Builtin functions of GCC compiler

These are four important built-in functions in GCC compiler:

  1. _builtin_popcount(x): This function is used to count the number of one’s(set bits) in an integer.
    Example:

    if x = 4
    binary value of 4 is 100
    Output: No of ones is 1.
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    // C program to illustrate _builtin_popcount(x)
      
    #include <stdio.h>
    int main()
    {
        int n = 5;
          
        printf("Count of 1s in binary of %d is %d ",
               n, __builtin_popcount(n));
        return 0;
    }

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    Output:



    Count of 1s in binary of 5 is 2
    

    Note: Similarly you can use __builtin_popcountl(x) & __builtin_popcountll(x) for long and long long data types.

  2. _builtin_parity(x): This function is used to check the parity of a number. This function returns true(1) if the number has odd parity else it returns false(0) for even parity.
    Example:

    if x = 7
    7 has odd no. of 1's in its binary(111).
    Output: Parity of 7 is 1 
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    // C program to illustrate _builtin_parity(x)
      
    #include <stdio.h>
    int main()
    {
        int n = 7;
          
        printf("Parity of %d is %d ",
               n, __builtin_parity(n));
        return 0;
    }

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    Output:

    Parity of 7 is 1
    

    Note: Similarly you can use __builtin_parityl(x) & __builtin_parityll(x) for long and long long data types.

  3. __builtin_clz(x): This function is used to count the leading zeros of the integer. Note : clz = count leading zero’s
    Example: It counts number of zeros before the first occurrence of one(set bit).

    a = 16
    Binary form of 16 is 00000000 00000000 00000000 00010000
    Output: 27
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    // C program to illustrate __builtin_clz(x)
    #include <stdio.h>
    int main()
    {
        int n = 16;
          
        printf("Count of leading zeros before 1 in %d is %d",
               n, __builtin_clz(n));
        return 0;
    }

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    Output:

    Count of leading zeros before 1 in 16 is 27
    

    Note: __builtin_clz(x) This function only accept unsigned values
    Note: Similarly you can use __builtin_clzl(x) & __builtin_clzll(x) for long and long long data types.

  4. __builtin_ctz(x): This function is used to count the trailing zeros of the given integer. Note : ctz = count trailing zeros.
    Example: Count no of zeros from last to first occurrence of one(set bit).

    a = 16
    Binary form of 16 is 00000000 00000000 00000000 00010000
    Output: ctz = 4
    
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    // C program to illustrate __builtin_ctz(x)
    #include <stdio.h>
    int main()
    {
        int n = 16;
          
        printf("Count of zeros from last to first "
               "occurrence of one is %d",
               __builtin_ctz(n));
        return 0;
    }

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    Output:

    Count of zeros from last to first occurrence of one is 4
    

    Note: Similarly you can use __builtin_ctzl(x) & __builtin_ctzll(x) for long and long long data types.

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    // C program to illustrate builtin functions of
    // GCC compiler
    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <stdlib.h>
      
    int main()
    {
        int num = 4;
        int clz = 0;
        int ctz = 0;
        int pop = 0;
        int parity = 0;
      
        pop = __builtin_popcount(num);
        printf("Number of one's in %d is %d\n", num, pop);
      
        parity = __builtin_parity(num);
        printf("Parity of %d is %d\n", num, parity);
      
        clz = __builtin_clz(num);
        printf("Number of leading zero's in %d is %d\n", num, clz);
      
        // It only works for unsigned values
        clz = __builtin_clz(-num);
        printf("Number of leading zero's in %d is %d\n", -num, clz);
      
        ctz = __builtin_ctz(num);
        printf("Number of trailing zero's in %d is %d\n", num, ctz);
      
        return 0;
    }

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    Output:

    Number of one's in 4 is 1
    Parity of 4 is 1
    Number of leading zero's in 4 is 29
    Number of leading zero's in -4 is 0
    Number of trailing zero's in 4 is 2
    

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