# Program to find parity

**Parity:** Parity of a number refers to whether it contains an odd or even number of 1-bits. The number has “odd parity”, if it contains odd number of 1-bits and is “even parity” if it contains even number of 1-bits.

Main idea of the below solution is – Loop while n is not 0 and in loop unset one of the set bits and invert parity.

Algorithm: getParity(n) 1. Initialize parity = 0 2. Loop while n != 0 a. Invert parity parity = !parity b. Unset rightmost set bit n = n & (n-1) 3. return parityExample:Initialize: n = 13 (1101) parity = 0 n = 13 & 12 = 12 (1100) parity = 1 n = 12 & 11 = 8 (1000) parity = 0 n = 8 & 7 = 0 (0000) parity = 1

**Program:**

## C++

`// C++ program to find parity` `// of an integer` `# include<bits/stdc++.h>` `# define bool int` `using` `namespace` `std;` `// Function to get parity of number n. It returns 1` `// if n has odd parity, and returns 0 if n has even` `// parity` `bool` `getParity(unsigned ` `int` `n)` `{` ` ` `bool` `parity = 0;` ` ` `while` `(n)` ` ` `{` ` ` `parity = !parity;` ` ` `n = n & (n - 1);` ` ` `} ` ` ` `return` `parity;` `}` `/* Driver program to test getParity() */` `int` `main()` `{` ` ` `unsigned ` `int` `n = 7;` ` ` `cout<<` `"Parity of no "` `<<n<<` `" = "` `<<(getParity(n)? ` `"odd"` `: ` `"even"` `);` ` ` ` ` `getchar` `();` ` ` `return` `0;` `}` |

## C

`// C program to find parity` `// of an integer` `# include <stdio.h>` `# define bool int` `/* Function to get parity of number n. It returns 1` ` ` `if n has odd parity, and returns 0 if n has even` ` ` `parity */` `bool` `getParity(unsigned ` `int` `n)` `{` ` ` `bool` `parity = 0;` ` ` `while` `(n)` ` ` `{` ` ` `parity = !parity;` ` ` `n = n & (n - 1);` ` ` `} ` ` ` `return` `parity;` `}` `/* Driver program to test getParity() */` `int` `main()` `{` ` ` `unsigned ` `int` `n = 7;` ` ` `printf` `(` `"Parity of no %d = %s"` `, n,` ` ` `(getParity(n)? ` `"odd"` `: ` `"even"` `));` ` ` ` ` `getchar` `();` ` ` `return` `0;` `}` |

## Java

`// Java program to find parity` `// of an integer` `import` `java.util.*;` `import` `java.lang.*;` `import` `java.io.*;` `import` `java.math.BigInteger;` `class` `GFG` ` ` `{` ` ` `/* Function to get parity of number n.` ` ` `It returns 1 if n has odd parity, and` ` ` `returns 0 if n has even parity */` ` ` `static` `boolean` `getParity(` `int` `n)` ` ` `{` ` ` `boolean` `parity = ` `false` `;` ` ` `while` `(n != ` `0` `)` ` ` `{` ` ` `parity = !parity;` ` ` `n = n & (n-` `1` `);` ` ` `}` ` ` `return` `parity;` ` ` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `/* Driver program to test getParity() */` ` ` `public` `static` `void` `main (String[] args)` ` ` `{` ` ` `int` `n = ` `12` `;` ` ` `System.out.println(` `"Parity of no "` `+ n + ` `" = "` `+` ` ` `(getParity(n)? ` `"odd"` `: ` `"even"` `));` ` ` `}` `}` `/* This code is contributed by Amit khandelwal*/` |

## Python3

`# Python3 code to get parity.` `# Function to get parity of number n.` `# It returns 1 if n has odd parity,` `# and returns 0 if n has even parity` `def` `getParity( n ):` ` ` `parity ` `=` `0` ` ` `while` `n:` ` ` `parity ` `=` `~parity` ` ` `n ` `=` `n & (n ` `-` `1` `)` ` ` `return` `parity` `# Driver program to test getParity()` `n ` `=` `7` `print` `(` `"Parity of no "` `, n,` `" = "` `,` ` ` `( ` `"odd"` `if` `getParity(n) ` `else` `"even"` `))` `# This code is contributed by "Sharad_Bhardwaj".` |

## C#

`// C# program to find parity of an integer` `using` `System;` `class` `GFG {` ` ` ` ` `/* Function to get parity of number n.` ` ` `It returns 1 if n has odd parity, and` ` ` `returns 0 if n has even parity */` ` ` `static` `bool` `getParity(` `int` `n)` ` ` `{` ` ` `bool` `parity = ` `false` `;` ` ` `while` `(n != 0)` ` ` `{` ` ` `parity = !parity;` ` ` `n = n & (n-1);` ` ` `}` ` ` `return` `parity;` ` ` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `// Driver code` ` ` `public` `static` `void` `Main ()` ` ` `{` ` ` `int` `n = 7;` ` ` `Console.Write(` `"Parity of no "` `+ n` ` ` `+ ` `" = "` `+ (getParity(n)?` ` ` `"odd"` `: ` `"even"` `));` ` ` `}` `}` `// This code is contributed by nitin mittal.` |

## PHP

`<?php` `// PHP program to find the parity` `// of an unsigned integer` `// Function to get parity of` `// number n. It returns 1` `// if n has odd parity, and` `// returns 0 if n has even` `// parity` `function` `getParity( ` `$n` `)` `{` ` ` `$parity` `= 0;` ` ` `while` `(` `$n` `)` ` ` `{` ` ` `$parity` `= !` `$parity` `;` ` ` `$n` `= ` `$n` `& (` `$n` `- 1);` ` ` `}` ` ` `return` `$parity` `;` `}` ` ` `// Driver Code` ` ` `$n` `= 7;` ` ` `echo` `"Parity of no "` `,` `$n` `,` `" = "` `,` ` ` `getParity(` `$n` `)? ` `"odd"` `: ` `"even"` `;` ` ` `// This code is contributed by anuj_67.` `?>` |

## Javascript

`<script>` `// Javascript program to find parity` `// of an integer` `// Function to get parity of number n.` `// It returns 1 if n has odd parity, and` `// returns 0 if n has even parity` `function` `getParity(n)` `{` ` ` `var` `parity = ` `false` `;` ` ` `while` `(n != 0)` ` ` `{` ` ` `parity = !parity;` ` ` `n = n & (n - 1);` ` ` `}` ` ` `return` `parity;` `}` ` ` `// Driver code` `var` `n = 7;` `document.write(` `"Parity of no "` `+ n + ` `" = "` `+` ` ` `(getParity(n) ? ` `"odd"` `: ` `"even"` `));` ` ` `// This code is contributed by Kirti` `</script>` |

**Output:**

Parity of no 7 = odd

Above solution can be optimized by using lookup table. Please refer to Bit Twiddle Hacks[1st reference] for details.**Time Complexity: **The time taken by above algorithm is proportional to the number of bits set. Worst case complexity is O(Log n).**Uses: **Parity is used in error detection and cryptography. **Compute the parity of a number using XOR and table look-up****References:**

http://graphics.stanford.edu/~seander/bithacks.html#ParityNaive – last checked on 30 May 2009.

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