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Accounting Treatment of Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities in case of Admission of a Partner

Last Updated : 06 Jun, 2023
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The value of Assets and Liabilities undergoes a change with the passage of time due to many reasons, like regular wear and tear, appreciation in the value of assets, bankruptcy of any debtor, and so on. In a Partnership firm, when a new partner is admitted into the business, it becomes necessary to revalue the assets and reassess the liabilities of the firm to ascertain the current value. The Revaluation of Assets and Reassessment of Liabilities are done because of any change in the value of the assets and liabilities that belong to the period prior to the change in the profit-sharing ratio. Therefore, any increase or decrease in the value of the assets and liabilities shall be shared among all the partners in their old profit-sharing ratio. The Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities are recorded in a separate account named a Revaluation Account or Profit and Loss Adjustment Account.

What is Revaluation Account?

With time it becomes essential to revise the value of the assets and liabilities to ascertain the current value of these assets and liabilities because the actual value may differ from the value mentioned in the firm’s balance sheet. This act of revising the value of the assets and liabilities is called the Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities.

Nature:

The nature of the Revaluation Account is that of a Nominal Account. Any increase in the value of assets or decrease in the value of liabilities is considered a profit for the firm. The differential amount is recorded on the credit side of the revaluation account. Similarly, any decrease in the value of assets or increase in the value of liabilities is a loss for the firm, and the differential value is debited to the revaluation account.

Explanation of certain words used in revaluation:

  • Increased To/ Raised To: This means the value of the asset or liability has been increased to the adjustment amount. The value recorded in the revaluation account is the difference between the adjustment amount and the amount shown in the balance sheet, and the adjustment amount is recorded in the balance sheet.
  • Increased By/ Raised By: This means the differential amount is already given in the adjustment, which is to be recorded, as it is in the revaluation account, and is added to the value of assets and liabilities in the balance sheet.
  • Decreased To/ Written down To: This means the value of the asset or liability has been reduced to the adjustment amount. The difference between the adjustment amount and the amount shown in the balance sheet is shown on the correct side of the revaluation account, and the adjustment amount is recorded in the balance sheet.
  • Decreased By/ Written down By: This means the differential amount is already given in the adjustment, which is to be recorded, as it is in the revaluation account, and is deducted from the value of assets and liabilities in the balance sheet.
  • Valued At/ Taken At: This means the amount given in the adjustment is the value of the assets or liability. If such asset or liability is unrecorded, then the total amount of adjustment is recorded on the correct side of the revaluation account and in the balance sheet as well.

 Accounting Treatment:

Whenever the assets are revalued or liabilities are reassessed, the Partners may decide to act in either of the two ways:

Case 1: When assets and liabilities are shown at a revised value in the books of the firm:

The separate account titled the ‘Revaluation Account’ is opened to record the adjustments related to the revaluation of assets and liabilities. An increase in the value of the assets or a decrease in the liability is recorded on the credit side of the Revaluation Account, and any decrease in the asset or increase in the liability is debited. The unrecorded assets and liabilities are also taken into consideration. An unrecorded asset is recorded on the credit side, and an unrecorded liability, if any, is debited. Then the profit or loss, as the case may be, is transferred to the partner’s capital/current account in their old profit-sharing ratio. Both sides of the Revaluation Account are compared to determine the profit or loss. When the total of the credit side is more than the total of the debit side, the balance in the account is a profit, and the balance is a loss if the total of the debit is bigger than the total of the credit side.

Journal Entries:

1. Increase in the value of an asset:

Increase in the value of an asset

 

2. Decrease in the value of an asset:

Decrease in the value of an asset

 

3. Increase in the value of a liability:

Increase in the value of a liability

 

4. Decrease in the value of a liability:

Decrease in the value of a liability

 

5. Recording Unrecorded assets:

Recording Unrecorded assets

 

6. Recording unrecorded liability:

Recording Unrecorded Liability

 

7. Transferring the balance of the Revaluation Account: 

a. In case of Profit:

Transferring the balance of the Revaluation Account in case of profit

 

b. In case of Loss:

Transferring the balance of the Revaluation Account in case of loss

 

Format of Revaluation A/c:

 

Note: Revaluation A/c can either have a debit or credit balance.

Illustration 1.

Annie and John are partners in a firm and the ratio in which they share their profits and losses is 3:2. Their balance sheet as on 31st March 2023 is as follows:

 

Basant  is admitted on 1.4.2023 subject to the following conditions:

  • Basant is to bring in ₹15,000 as capital and ₹5,000 as premium for goodwill for 1/6th share.
  • The value of stock is reduced by 10%, while plant and machinery are appreciated by 10%.
  • Furniture is revalued at ₹9,000.
  • A provision for doubtful debts is to be created on sundry debtors at 5%, and ₹200 is to be provided for outstanding wages. 
  • Investment worth ₹1,000 (not mentioned in the balance sheet) is to be taken into account.
  • A creditor of ₹100 is not likely to claim his money and is to be written off.

Pass necessary Journal entries to show the assets and liabilities at their revised values and also, prepare Revaluation A/c.

Solution:

 

 

Illustration 2:

Veer, Riya are partners in a firm, and the ratio in which they share their profits and losses is 2:1. Their Balance sheet is as follows:

 

Amrita is admitted as a partner on 1st April 2023 on the following terms: 

  • Amrita will bring in 1,00,000 as his capital and Rs 60,000 as his share of goodwill for 1/4 share in profits.
  • Stock is found overvalued by 4,000.
  • Plant is to be appreciated to 1,20,000, and the value of buildings is to be appreciated by 10%.
  • A provision for doubtful debts is to be created at 5% of debtors.
  • Creditors were unrecorded to the extent of 1,000. 

Give necessary journal entries, and also prepare Revaluation A/C and Balance sheet.

Solution:

 

 

Case 2: When assets and liabilities are not shown at a revised value in the books of the firm:

In this situation, no separate Revaluation Account is prepared, rather the Profit/Loss arising out of the revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities are directly adjusted through the Capital/Current Account of the Partners. In the case of the Profit on Revaluation, the Capital/Current Account of the Gaining Partner is debited, and that of Sacrificing Partner is credited. Similarly, when the Loss on Revaluation is ascertained, the Adjustment is made by debiting the Capital/Current Account of the Sacrificing Partner and crediting the Capital/Current Account of the Gaining Partner.

In order to make the above Adjustment, the following Steps are to be taken:

Step 1. Calculation of Net Effect of Revaluation:

Net Effect on Revaluation

 

Step 2. Calculation of share of Gain or Sacrifice by the Partners:

Share of Sacrifice = Old Ratio − New Ratio

Share of Gain = New Ratio − Old Ratio

Step 3. Calculation of Proportional share of Net Effects of Revaluation:

Share of Gaining Partner = Share of Gain × Net Effects of Revaluation

Share of Sacrificing Partner = Share of Sacrifice × Net Effects of Revaluation

Step 4. Passing Journal Entry: 

A. In Case of Profit on Revaluation:

Journal Entry in case of Profit on Revaluation

 

B. In Case of Loss on Revaluation:

Journal Entry in case of Loss on Revaluation

 

Illustration:

Ram and Shyam are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 3:2. The Partners agreed that from 1st January 2020, they will admit Radha as a new partner, and they will share profits and losses in the ratio of 4:4:1. They also decided not to record the net effect of revaluation in the books of the firm and make the adjustments directly through Capital Account.

 

Solution: 

Step 1. Calculation of Net Effect of Revaluation:

 

Step 2. Calculation of share of Gain or Sacrifice by the Partners:

Old Ratio = 3:2

New Ratio = 4:4:1

Sacrificing/ Gaining Ratio:

Ram =  \frac{4}{9}-\frac{3}{5}=\frac{-7}{45}(Sacrifice)

Shyam = \frac{4}{9}-\frac{2}{5}=\frac{2}{45}(Gain)

Radha = \frac{1}{9}\times\frac{5}{5}=\frac{5}{45}(Gain)

Step 3. Calculation of Proportional share of Net Effects of Revaluation:

Share of Ram (Sacrifice) = \frac{7}{45}\times(13,500)=2,100

Share of Shyam (Gain) =  \frac{2}{45}\times(13,500)=600

Share of Radha  (Gain) = \frac{5}{45}\times(13,500)=1,500

Step 4. Passing Journal Entry:

 



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