In the 1960s, the Internet was created as a means for government researchers to communicate information. In the 1960s, computers were enormous and stationary, and in order to access information stored on them, one had to either travel to the computer’s location or have magnetic computer tapes transported through the mail system.
The escalation of the Cold War was another factor in the development of the Internet. As a result, the United States Defense Department required to examine how information may be distributed even after a nuclear attack. So, the ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), the network that later evolved into what we now know as the Internet, was formed. There were no standard means for computer networks to communicate with one another. Transfer Control Protocol/Internetwork Protocol (TCP/IP) was created as a new communication protocol. This allowed various types of computers on various networks to “speak” to one another. On January 1, 1983, ARPANET and the Defense Data Network switched to the TCP/IP standard, resulting in the birth of the Internet. A universal language could now connect all networks.
World Wide Web
The World Wide Web (WWW) is an internet-based service that distributes documents across the Internet using a standard set of rules known as Protocols.
It is the Internet’s most popular information retrieval service (the worldwide computer network). Hypertext or hypermedia links—i.e., electronic connections that link similar bits of information to offer a user quick access to them—provide users with access to a huge array of documents that are connected to each other over the Web.
The World Wide Web (www) is a collection of web servers that use hyperlinks to move between websites using a program called a web browser, making the Internet accessible and available to everyone, anywhere, at any time. It is a document creation, organizing, and linking system.
A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is an Internet address given to a web page (URL). A website is a collection of online pages that belong to a given URL, such as www.geeksforgeeks.com, www.google.com, and so on. As a result, the World Wide Web functions as a massive electronic book, with pages stored on many servers throughout the world.
A computer network is a collection of two or more computer systems that are linked together. A network connection can be established using either cable or wireless media. Hardware and software are used to connect computers and tools in any network. A computer network consists of various kinds of nodes. Servers, networking hardware, Personal computers, and other specialized or general-purpose hosts can all be nodes in a computer network.
On basis of physical medium, there are 2 types of networks:
(a) Wired Network: As we all know, “wired” refers to any physical medium made up of cables. Copper wire, twisted pair, or fiber optic cables are all options. A wired network employs wires to link devices to the Internet or another network, such as laptops or desktop PCs.
(b) Wireless Network: “Wireless” means without wire, media that is made up of electromagnetic waves (EM Waves) or infrared waves. Antennas or sensors will be present on all wireless devices. Cellular phones, wireless sensors, TV remotes, satellite disc receivers, and laptops with WLAN cards are all examples of wireless devices. For data or voice communication, a wireless network uses radiofrequency waves rather than wires.
Types of Networks
The industry-standard wireless local area network (WLAN) technology for linking computers and other electronic devices to one another and the Internet. Wi-Fi is a wireless variant of a wired Ethernet network that is frequently used in conjunction with it (see Ethernet).
WiFi is a type of wireless networking that uses radio frequencies to send and receive data. WiFi allows users to connect to the Internet at high speeds without the necessity of cables. WiFi stands for “wireless fidelity” and is a phrase that is often used to refer to wireless networking technologies. A wireless router is used to connect to the internet. When you connect to Wi-Fi, you’re connecting to a wireless router that connects your Wi-Fi-enabled devices to the Internet.
How does Wi-Fi Work?
The IEEE 802.11 standard defines the protocols that allow existing Wi-Fi-enabled wireless devices, such as wireless routers and access points, to communicate with one another. Different IEEE standards are supported by wireless access points.
Each standard is the result of a series of amendments that have been ratified over time. The standards operate at different frequencies, have different bandwidths, and support varied channel counts.
Bluetooth is a telecommunication industry standard that outlines how mobile devices, PCs, and other equipment can communicate wirelessly across short distances. This wireless technology allows Bluetooth-enabled devices to communicate with one another. It connects desktop and laptop computers, PDAs (such as the Palm Pilot or Handspring Visor), digital cameras, scanners, cellular phones, and printers over short distances.
Infrared used to serve the same purpose as Bluetooth, but it had a few disadvantages. If an object were to be placed between the two communication devices, for example, the communication would be disrupted. (If you’ve ever used a television remote control, you’ve probably observed this limitation.) The infrared transmission was very slow, and devices were frequently incompatible with one another.
Because Bluetooth technology is based on radio waves, items or even walls can be placed between communication devices without disrupting the connection. Bluetooth also employs a common 2.4 GHz frequency, ensuring that all Bluetooth-enabled devices are interoperable. The sole disadvantage of Bluetooth is that its range is restricted to 30 feet due to its high frequency.
Bluetooth is a computer and telecommunications industry standard that defines how devices connect with one another. Computers, computer keyboards and mice, personal digital assistants, and cellphones are all Bluetooth-enabled devices. Bluetooth consumes less energy and is less expensive to set up than Wi-Fi. Because of its lower power, it is less likely to suffer from or cause interference with other wireless devices operating in the same 2.4GHz radio band.
A physical site called a data center houses a common pool of computer resources (such as hardware, software, and services like servers and internet storage). Your cloud service providers have data centers all around the world.
Cloud computing is a methodology for providing on-demand network access to a shared pool of programmable computing resources that can be quickly supplied and released with no administration effort or service provider contact.
Cloud computing is an internet-based computing model in which several network connections and computer systems are used to provide online services. Users at a distance who have access to the internet can readily access the cloud and its services, and these services and information can be shared among several computers and users if they are all linked.
Types of Clouds
The four types of access to the cloud are public, private, hybrid, and community:
(a) Public Cloud: The public cloud makes it possible for anybody to access systems and services. Because of its openness, the public cloud may be less secure. The public cloud is one in which cloud infrastructure services are made available through the internet to the public or large industrial groups. The infrastructure in this cloud model is owned by the company that delivers the cloud service, not by the consumer.
Example: Microsoft Azure, Google App Engine
(b) Private Cloud: A private cloud is one in which cloud infrastructure is set aside for a single organization’s exclusive use. Organizations, third parties, or a mixture of both own, manage and operate it. In this architecture, the cloud infrastructure is provisioned on the organization’s premises but hosted in a third-party data center. Organizations will benefit from the private cloud over public cloud since it gives them more flexibility and control over cloud resources. Example: E-bay
(c) Hybrid Cloud: Hybrid cloud, as the name implies, is a blend of different cloud models, such as public cloud, private cloud, and community cloud. This model utilizes all the models that are a component of it. As a result, it will combine scalability, economic efficiency, and data security into a single model. The complexity of creating such a storage solution is a downside of this strategy.
(d) Community Cloud: The community cloud model distributes cloud infrastructure among numerous organizations to support a specific community with shared issues. Cloud infrastructure is delivered on-premises or at a third-party data center in this manner. Participating organizations or a third party manage this.
Question 1. Why Cloud Computing was developed?
The traditional ways of providing IT infrastructure are used by both small and large IT organizations. That means that any IT firm requires a server room, which is a basic requirement of the industry. A database server, mail server, networking, firewalls, routers, modem, switches, high net speed, and maintenance engineers should all be present in the server room.
We’ll have to spend a lot of money to build such an IT infrastructure. Cloud Computing was created to address all of these issues while also lowering the cost of IT infrastructure. We have access to a shared pool of computer resources (servers, storage, programs, and so on) in the cloud. All you have to do is ask for more resources when you need them. The cloud makes provisioning resources quickly a piece of cake. When resources are no longer required, they can be released. You just pay for what you use this way. All maintenance will be handled by your cloud provider.
Question 2. Define the terms web page, website, browser & URL.
Web Page: A text file produced in any markup language, such as HTML, is referred to as a web page. Hypertext, simple text, sound, photos, videos, and links to other pages are all included on the web page (hyperlinks).
Websites: A collection of similar web pages linked together via hyperlinks.
Browsers: Browsers are computer programs that search for, access, and display various websites on the Internet. Mozilla Firefox, Chrome, and so forth.
URL: Each website’s main page has its own unique address. Uniform Resource Locator is the name given to this one-of-a-kind address.
Question 3. List the advantages of Cloud Computing.
The advantages of cloud computing are:
1. When needed, service is available 24*7.
2. In terms of data loss, security is important. (When critical data is lost, cloud computing provides excellent security.) Because the data is saved in the system, it can be quickly accessible even if your computer fails.).
3. Resource pooling
4. Services- pay- per use model
5. Shared Infrastructure
6. Cost Reduction
7. In the event of a disaster, it is highly advised that firms have an emergency backup plan in place. Businesses can use cloud storage as a backup plan by storing a second copy of crucial files. These files are kept in a remote place and can only be accessed via the internet.
Question 4. Compare Wi-Fi & internet.
Although Wi-Fi and the Internet are closely related and are frequently used interchangeably, there are significant differences between the two. The Internet is a wide area network (WAN) that uses a set of protocols to send data between networks and devices all over the world. Wi-Fi, on the other hand, is only a way to link devices without the use of cables.
If you don’t have a modem or Internet subscription from an ISP, you can have a Wi-Fi connection but no Internet access. As a result, the signal strength of a Wi-Fi network is unrelated to the Internet speed that a user may experience when connected.
Question 5. List the differences between wired & wireless networks.
|A wired network employs wires to link devices to the Internet or another network, such as laptops or desktop PCs.
|“Wireless” means without wire, media that is made up of electromagnetic waves (EM Waves) or infrared waves. Antennas or sensors will be present on all wireless devices
|Faster transmission speed
|Slow transmission speed
|Propagation delay is Low
|Propagation delay is high
|More Secure & hence Reliable
|Less Secure & hence less Reliable
|Devices must be hard-wired
|Installation is Quick
|High installation & maintenance cost
|Low installation & maintenance cost
|Hub, Switch, etc. devices are used
|Wireless routers, access points, etc. are used.
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