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Welfare Schemes for Vulnerable Sections

Last Updated : 05 Aug, 2022
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The term “vulnerable groups” refers to social groups that could be particularly affected by unfavourable circumstances, such as when adults are unable to support their households satisfactorily due to health problems like disability, illness, old age, or another characteristic, or when a group’s resource endowment is insufficient to generate enough income from any available sources. Members of certain communities in India encounter a variety of socioeconomic challenges that restrict their access to health care.

The Following Group of Individuals can be Categorised as Vulnerable:

  • Women: Due to various customs and patriarchy (male sex is considered to be superior to females in society)
  • Scheduled Castes (SC): As a result of their subjugation and poor social standing brought on by the Caste System
  • Scheduled Tribes (ST): As a result of their socioeconomic and educational disadvantage
  • Disabled People: Since of their inability, both physically and mentally, unable to do tasks as other people can
  • Religious Minorities: As a result of their inferiority and marginalisation in relation to the dominant faith.
  • Linguistic Minorities: As a result of their social isolation
  • Elderly People: For being neglected by their families and society

Welfare Schemes for Vulnerable Sections:

The Indian government periodically introduces welfare programmes for various segments of society. Any concerned citizen must be aware of these programmes since they are essential in addressing a number of socio-economic issues that plague Indian society. As disadvantaged groups face a greater danger of poverty and social isolation than the general population, these programmes are particularly crucial for them. The different welfare schemes for different Vulnerable sections of society are:

  • Welfare schemes for Women: Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme, One Stop Centre Scheme, UJJAWALA, Rehabilitation and Re-integration of Victims of Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation, SWADHAR, Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls – Sabla, Pradhan Mantri Matritva Vandana Yojana are some of the schemes. The security and empowerment of women and children have received special concern from the Indian government. These programmes provide solutions to the main issues affecting women in India and help to reduce the growing unfairness toward women.
  • Welfare schemes for Scheduled Caste: Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY), Babu Jagjivan Ram Chhatrawas Yojna, The ‘Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013, National Scheduled Castes Finance and Development Corporation (NSFDC), and Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 are some of the schemes for Scheduled Caste people in India.
  • Welfare schemes for Scheduled Tribes: Pradhan Mantri Van Dhan Yojana, Van Bandhu Kalyan Yojana, Vocational Training Centres in Tribal Areas, and Eklavya Model Residential School are some of the initiatives for Scheduled Tribes people in India.
  • Welfare schemes for Disabled People: Accessible India Campaign (Sugamya Bharath Abhiyan), Sugamya Pustakalaya, Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme, National Awards for Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities, and Unique Disability Identification (UDID) Project are for r Disabled People.
  • Welfare schemes for Religious Minorities: Nai Roshni, Maulana Azad National Fellowship (MANF) Scheme, Padho Pardesh,  Nai Udaan, Hamari Dharohar Seekho aur Kamao, Jiyo Parsi, Minority Cyber Gram, Maulana Azad Sehat scheme, and Computerization of Records of State Wakf Boards are few schemes for empowerment of religious minorities.
  • Welfare schemes for Elderly People: Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana, Varishtha Pension Bima Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana, Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS), National Policy for Older Persons, and Annapurna helps the elderly people. 

Positive Impacts of the Welfare schemes for Vulnerable Sections:

These welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of Indian society yield few positive results. These are:

  • Programs for economic security can lessen the negative consequences of poverty and increase the chances of equal opportunity for disadvantaged children, women and others.
  • Food aid, housing subsidies, and working-family tax credits are examples of government economic security programmes that boost income, support families in meeting basic requirements and keep millions of kids out of poverty.
  • Through the Rashtriya Madhyama, Sarva Siksha Abhiyan, and Samagra Siskhana Center programmes, many government-run schools’ basic facilities and infrastructure were upgraded.
  • The mid-day meal programme provides food to 10 million children every day, improving their nutritional outcomes and decreasing drop-out rates.
  • Low-income families will receive cash assistance in the form of PM-KISAN to support their household income and achieve self-sufficiency.
  • Longer-term advantages include improving academic performance and boosting the future economic potential for youngsters.
  • Health insurance programmes have been shown to increase longevity and birth outcomes.
  • When the goal was well-publicized and distinct, the government successfully combatted various diseases like polio, malaria, and HIV.
    Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana is one programme that might assist girls in achieving financial stability and independence.

Loopholes in the Welfare Schemes for Vulnerable Sections:

These welfare schemes have been facing a lot of loopholes. These are:

  • Beneficiary identification: Using SECC 2011 data, which do not accurately represent the situation on the ground. People in need are occasionally overlooked, the shortcomings in beneficiary identification brought on the inclusion and exclusion mistakes.
  • Inefficiency of executives: Ineffective monitoring, a lack of accountability, corruption, and a misalignment of incentives are all causes of inefficiency. In the course of implementing plans, numerous frauds and anomalies have surfaced. 
  • Infrastructure problems: The prospects of welfare programmes succeeding are further harmed by the lack of suitable infrastructure in a variety of sectors, including health, education, and transportation.
  • Infrastructure problems: The prospects of welfare programmes succeeding are further harmed by the lack of suitable infrastructure in a variety of sectors, including health, education, and transportation.
  • Political biases in schemes: Some plans are announced with an eye toward political advantages rather than the best interests of the country as a whole. Bankers, for instance, have condemned farm loan exemptions across states as being bad for the nation’s credit culture.
  • Lacks an integrated approach: Rather than emphasising integrated development, the majority of welfare schemes have focused more on the needs of individual beneficiaries.
  • Underutilization of funds: The funds allocated frequently stay underutilised as a result of the absence of adequate plans and implementation strategies. For instance, the School Education Department forfeited a total of Rs 1,627 crore in 2018–19 due to the non–implementation of several Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan programmes, according to the Tamil Nadu State Finance Audit Report 2019.

Way Forward:

  • Despite being developed in the centre, the policies are carried out at the state, district, and village levels. Thus, strengthening local government is necessary.
  • In order to correct the systemic faults, the policymakers should receive the necessary input before the formulation of schemes.
  • To accomplish the desired goals, it is urgent to streamline processes, reward success, cut red tape, and make the best use of technology.
  • Similar central and state plans can be combined, improving convergence and preventing leakage.
  • Gender consideration must be a part of all significant welfare programmes.
  • Using technology like AI, big data, etc., the government must make sure that no qualified beneficiary is overlooked and that those who don’t need it are eliminated.
  • Until the eligible recipients were able to benefit from the welfare programme established by the Union and State governments, India will not see growth in many areas.

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